2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Test

Click here to download an excel copy of the 2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Test. Disease information will be added as it becomes available.

The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Test is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality, and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES

Each entry was evaluated at five test sites using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 25 feet long. Participating companies specified the seeding rate used for each of their varieties. Test sites were planted within twenty-one days after the fly-free date based on soil conditions. Approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen/acre was applied at planting followed by the addition of 80-100 pounds/acre in early spring. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides were applied as needed. The following data were collected:

Yield is reported in bushels/acre at 13.5 percent moisture.

Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.

Seed Size is thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds/lb).

Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical.

Plant Height is the distance in inches from the soil surface to the top of the heads.

Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. Average of Wood and Pickaway locations. (Example: Day 135 = May 15)

Powdery mildew (PM) Varieties were evaluated for Powdery mildew at Wooster at the heading (Feekes growth stage 10.5) growth stage. Varieties were classified as Susceptible, Moderately Susceptible, Moderately Resistant, and Resistant.

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) Varieties were evaluated in an inoculated disease screening nursery at Wooster. FHB was rated as the percentage of spikelets showing diseased symptoms. Varieties were classified as Susceptible, Moderately Susceptible, Moderately Resistant, and Resistant.

Leaf Blotch (SLB) and Glume Blotch (SGB) Varieties were evaluated for Stagonospora leaf and glume blotch in an inoculated, mist-irrigated disease screening nursery at Wooster. Both SLB and SGB severity were rated at about Feekes growth stage 11.3 as the average percent flag leaf and spike area diseased, respectively. Varieties were classified as Susceptible, Moderately Susceptible, Moderately Resistant, and Resistant.

Flour Yield is the percent flour yield from milled whole grain.

Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.

 

 CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST SITE

1 2 3 4 5
County Wood Madison Wayne Darke Pickaway
Previous Crop Soybean Soybean Soybean Soybean Soybean
Soil Type Hoytville Crosby Canfield Crosby Miamian
Tillage Min-Till No-Till Min-Till Min-Till Min-Till
Fly-Free Date Sept. 23 Sept. 30 Sept. 26 Sept. 29 Oct. 1
Plant Date Sept. 25 Sept. 27 Oct. 3 Sept. 26 Oct. 9
Soil pH 6.6 6.7 6.0 6.5 5.7
Soil P (ppm) 47 25 51 91 37
Soil K (ppm) 214 143 238 220 127
Fertilizer (N, P, K) 120-78-78 177-78-0-43S 119-46-120 120-2-78-30S 118-66-60-10S
Herbicides Quelex Roundup, Sharpen (Pre-Plant); Harmony Extra SG, Brox 2EC (Spring) Sharpen (Pre-Plant); Harmony Extra SG (Spring) Harmony Extra SG, Brox 2EC Quelex
Fungicide Prosaro Tilt (Feekes 6); Miravis Ace Prosaro Miravis Ace Miravis Ace
Insecticide None None Lamcap II None Lamcap II
Harvest Date July 5 July 6 July 6 July 6 June 29

 

GROWING CONDITIONS

In fall 2020, wheat was planted at all five locations within 8 days of the fly-free date. Wheat entered dormancy in good to excellent condition. Cool temperatures and adequate moisture lead to a long grain fill period and high-yielding conditions. Harvest conditions were favorable and harvest dates average. Overall, grain test weight averaged 58.1 lb/bu (compared to an average test weight of 58.8 lb/bu in 2020). Grain yield averaged between 85.1 and 115.0 bu/acre among the five locations

RESULTS

Results of the 2021 wheat performance test are presented in Tables 1-3. Entries in the data tables are arranged by seed source. A least significant difference (LSD) value can be used to determine if the performance of two varieties was statistically different. The yields of two varieties are expected to be significantly different 90 percent of the time if their yields differ by more than the reported LSD value. Flour yield and softness tests were performed by USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH, Dr. Byung-Kee Baik, Director.

Test results for the 79 winter wheat varieties evaluated in 2021 are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year variety performance data. Depending on variety and test site, yields varied between 74.7 and 128.2 bushels per acre and test weight ranged from 55.1 to 60.3 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test sites were due primarily to the soil drainage, weather during the grain fill period & harvest, and disease level. Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years (Tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test weight and standability.

 

Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Test does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.

Authors: M.W. Hankinson, J.S. McCormick, A.B. Geyer, C.H. Sneller, L.E. Lindsey, P. Paul, Dept. of Plant Pathology, D.G. Lohnes

Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2021 wheat variety testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Ken Scaife, OARDC Field Operations, Wooster and Matt Davis, OARDC Northwest Branch Research Station. We thank CFAES Marketing and Communications for their assistance in preparing the test results for publication. Special thanks to Rich Minyo, OARDC Wooster, for his assistance and expertise in conducting the 2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Test.

Closing Time: Optimal Wheat Seeding Window Nears Completion

By Clint Schroeder OSU Extension

There are several reasons that producers might be taking a second look at bringing wheat back into their rotation or increasing acres in the fall of 2020. Between conservation program incentives and recent grain market action there is reason to believe that this crop could once again be financially competitive in Northwest Ohio. Here are a few key factors to keep in mind as we near the end of the ideal fall seeding period.

1.) Select high-yielding varieties with high test weight, good straw strength, and adequate disease resistance. Do not jeopardize your investment by planting anything but the best yielding varieties that also have resistance to the important diseases in your area. Depending on your area of the state, you may need good resistance to powdery mildew, Stagonospora leaf blotch, and/or leaf rust. Avoid varieties with susceptibility to Fusarium head scab. Plant seed that has been properly cleaned to remove shriveled kernels and treated with a fungicide seed treatment to control seed-borne diseases. The 2020 Ohio Wheat Performance Test results can be found at: http://oardc.osu.edu/wheattrials/

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2020 Ohio Wheat Performance Test

By: Laura Lindsey and Matthew Hankinson, OSU Extension

Yield results for the 2020 Ohio Wheat Performance Test are online at: https://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/wheattrials/default.asp?year=2020

The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Test is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality, and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.

In fall 2019, wheat was planted at four out of the five locations within 10 days of the fly-free date. Due to poor soil conditions, wheat was planted in Wood County 21 days after the fly-free date; however, wheat grain yield averaged 99.5 bu/acre at that location. Wheat entered dormancy in good to excellent condition. Early season wheat growth and development were slower than previous years due to cool temperatures and above average precipitation. Harvest conditions were favorable and harvest dates average. Results from Union County were not included in this report due to extreme field variability caused by high rainfall. Overall, grain test weight averaged 58.8 lb/bu (compared to an average test weight of 55.0 lb/bu in 2019). Across the Wood, Wayne, Darke, and Pickaway locations, grain yield averaged 93.8 bu/acre.

Considerations for 2019 Wheat Planting

By:  Andy Michel, Laura Lindsey, and Pierce Paul, Ohio State University

growing wheatWith the autumn rapidly approaching, wheat planting is likely to begin soon. Planting after the Hessian fly free date remains the best chance to avoid issues with insects and diseases, as well as helping ensure good agronomic quality.  Some benefits of the fly free date:

Hessian Fly: Adults of the Hessian fly lay eggs in emerging wheat. These eggs then hatch into small larvae that feed before spending the winter as a flaxseed. The early autumn feeding will stress the young wheat plant right before the winter, resulting in stunted and wilted plants.  Very little egg laying occurs after the fly free date, which helps to limit infestation. Wheat varieties with resistance against the Hessian are available, in addition to seed treatments, which can help limit damage.

Aphids: Two main aphids infest wheat in Ohio: the English grain aphid and the bird cherry-oat aphid.  These aphids rarely cause economic injury on wheat from feeding. However, they can transmit several viruses that can severely impact wheat including Barley Yellow Dwarf virus.  These aphids do not only feed on wheat, but several other grasses that serve as natural sources of viruses.  If wheat is planted too early, and emerges before the aphids overwinter or stop feeding, they can be early transmitters of viruses.  Although seed treatments could help kill the aphids, they may survive long enough to transmit the virus to the plant.  Any transmission in the autumn would likely serve as a local source in the following spring.

Other foliar diseases: Although not directly related to the Hessian Fly, planting after the fly free date also helps to reduce the early establishment of leaf diseases like Stagonospora leaf blotch and powdery mildew. Planting date is indirectly linked to spore production by fungi that cause these diseases and infection of young plants. The earlier you plant, the more spores are available, and the more suitable (warmer) conditions are for infection. Fall infections often leads to more damage and greater yield loss in the spring, especially of susceptible varieties are planted and not protected with a fungicide at Feeks 8 (flag leaf emergence). As conditions become cooler after the fly free date, pathogens that cause leaf diseases become last active, and as such, are less likely to infect plants.

Fusarium Head Blight (Scab) of Wheat: Things to Consider When Harvesting

BY: DARCY TELENKO (Purdue University Extension)

Wheat harvest has begun in Southern Indiana. Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab is one of the most important diseases of wheat and most challenging to prevent. In addition, FHB infection can cause the production of a mycotoxin called deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin). The environmental conditions have been extremely conducive to FHB development and it is not surprising that I have started to receive reports about issues with FHB and DON contamination. Our research sites in both West Lafayette and Vincennes have high levels of FHB develop in our non-treated susceptible variety checks and initial DON testing was at 7 ppm.

Fusarium head blight management is difficult and requires an integrated approach. This includes selection of varieties with moderate resistance and timely fungicide application at flowering. We are now past implementing either of these management options, but these are important to remember for next year. In addition, it will be important to assess your fields this season to determine if you have FHB. FHB can cause direct yield loss creating seeds that are shriveled and have a rough, sunken appearance to complete head loss (which I have already seen in multiple fields around the state). FHB infection can also reduce seed quality and feeding value of the grain due to the risk of mycotoxin (DON/vomitoxin) production in infected seed.

The question now is “I have scab in my field what do I need do?” Here’s a short list.

  1. Document the issues in each field, so you have records for making decisions on future disease management. FHB is easy to see when the head is still green – it will be much more difficult to rate as the heads reach maturity. See images of FHB in the head both at green and more mature stages. You might be able to see the pink salmon sporulation and/or purple-black fruiting bodies on mature heads (Figure 1).  In addition, it is good to note during the season what management tools were attempted – spray date and growth stage of crop, was there variability in the growth stages, weather conditions after fungicide applications. These all can play a role in effective disease management.
    Figure 1. Wheat spikes showing bleached florets affected by scab. Salmon to pink sporulation may be visible and can help confirm once the spikes have reached maturity (pink arrows). Dark purplish-black fruiting bodies can also occur mature wheat heads (black arrows),

    Figure 1. Wheat spikes showing bleached florets affected by scab. Salmon to pink sporulation may be visible and can help confirm once the spikes have reached maturity (pink arrows). Dark purplish-black fruiting bodies can also occur mature wheat heads (black arrows).

  2. Harvest fields with lowest disease first; adjust combine settings to blow out the smaller, shriveled kernels and chaff; and separate loads from healthy and disease fields. Mycotoxin contamination is usually the highest in the more heavily disease kernels and if they can be removed that would help reduced mycotoxin level.
  3. Test for DON levels in both kernel and straw before feeding to livestock. Scabby kernels do not always indicate high DON and vice versa. It is important to test and know what your DON numbers are in your grain, even if you don’t see a high level of disease. Straw can also contain DON. DO NOT use straw for bedding or feed from fields with high level of scab.
  4. Understand your elevators inspection and dockage procedures (each one can have a different practice). Levels of DON greater than 2 ppm may lead to price discounts.
  5. It is not recommended to store grain from field with high levels of scab – accumulation of DON and other mycotoxins can continue in stored grain. Suspect grain, if stored, should be dried to 5% moisture as soon as possible after harvest and kept separate from the good quality grain.
  6. Planting seed from fields that had moderate to heavy scab is not advisable. The infected seed will have low germination and poor vigor resulting in a thin stand. If going to use this seed, it should be cleaned thoroughly to remove the scabby seeds, and a fungicide seed treatment would be advised to protect germination and reduce seedling blight.

 

The next question “Why was is it so bad? I followed the guidelines applied my fungicide at flowering but we still have poor control.”

Here’s a few of my observations:

  1. Highly favorable environmental conditions for Fusarium head blight (FHB)/scab occurred all spring.
  2. Many wheat varieties have moderate resistance that help can reduce the risk of sever disease, and fungicides can help suppress the development, but this may only provide about 50% suppression. Therefore, even with the best management programs in place the extremely favorable conditions for FHB have led to high levels of infection this season.
  3. There was extremely variable growth in individual fields this year – plants ranged from boot to full flower when trying to make a decision on fungicide timing. In addition, fungicides may only provide partial suppression of FHB and timing is a significant issue for obtaining moderate levels of control.
  4. Frequent rains not only complicated planting, but any and every other trip across the field. Rain events closely following fungicide application may have diluted or washed off applications further reducing expected efficacy.

Additional references:

US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative https://scabusa.org/

Cowger, C., and Arellano, C. 2013. Fusarium graminearum infection and deoxynivalenol concentrations during development of wheat spikes. Phytopathology 103:460-471. https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PHYTO-03-12-0054-R

De Wolf, E. 2019. Fusarium head blight. https://www.bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/MF3458.pdf

Salgado, J. D., Wallhead, M., Madden, L. V., and Paul, P. A. 2011. Grain harvesting strategies to minimize grain quality losses due to Fusarium head blight in wheat. Plant Dis. 95:1448-1457. https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-04-11-0309

Wise, K. et al. 2015. Diseases of Wheat: Fusarium Head Blight (Head Scab) https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/BP/BP-33-W.pdf