Combine Set-up Field Day

By Amanda Douridas

After the difficult harvest last year, and the prevalence of volunteer corn in soybean fields this year, there is a need to re-visit proper combine setup to minimize loss during good years or bad. Join us on September 16, 1-3:30 pm as experts discuss proper setup for corn and we look at this applied in the field. Dr. Elizabeth Hawkins will discuss yield monitor calibration through the season. Jason Hartschuh will walk over a combine and share set-up tips. We will also discuss care and cleaning which could save a lot of headaches this fall due to shortages in replacement parts and equipment. Lastly, a harvest demonstration will show yield loss with different setups and how to calculate it. Location is the corner of Clark and Herr Roads north of Urbana. Bring a lawn chair if you do not want to stand for the duration. In the event of a cancellation due to weather, please register to provide your contact information: http://go.osu.edu/CombineSetup.

Event Calendar for location map

Unusual Armyworm Outbreaks are Taking Many by Surprise

By Kelley Tilmon, Mark Sulc, Andy Michel, James Morris – OSU Extension

We have received an unusual number of reports about fall armyworm outbreaks particularly in forage including alfalfa and sorghum sudangrass, and in turf.  Certain hard-hit fields have been all but stripped bare (Figure 1).  Armyworm is not typically a problem in Ohio in late summer, so we encourage farmers to be aware of feeding damage in their fields.  Armyworms are much easier to kill when they are smaller, and feeding accelerates rapidly as they grow, so early detection is important.  Look for egg masses glued not only to vegetation but to structures like fence posts.  Egg masses have a fluffy-looking cover (Figure 2).  When the cover is peeled back, eggs are pearly and tan when new, and turn darker as they approach egg-hatch. Continue reading

Western Ohio Cropland Values and Cash Rents 2020-21

By: Barry Ward-OSU Extension

Ohio cropland varies significantly in its production capabilities and, consequently, cropland values and cash rents vary widely throughout the state. Generally, western Ohio cropland values and cash rents differ from much of southern and eastern Ohio cropland values and cash rents. The primary factors affecting these values and rents are land productivity and potential crop return, and the variability of those crop returns. Soils, fertility and drainage/irrigation capabilities are primary factors that most influence land productivity, crop return and variability of those crop returns.

Other factors impacting land values and cash rents may include field size and shape, field accessibility, market access, local market prices, field perimeter characteristics and potential for wildlife damage, buildings and grain storage, previous tillage system and crops, tolerant/resistant weed populations, USDA Program Yields, population density, and competition for the cropland in a region. Factors specific to cash rental rates may include services provided by the operator and specific conditions of the lease. Continue reading

Allen County Crop Scouting Update – Late July

Clint Schroeder – OSU Extension

As both corn and soybeans have entered the reproductive phase of the crop cycle it is an important time to be scouting for disease and insect issues. One of the most important parts of integrated pest management (IPM) is crop scouting. When done properly it can help farmers obtain higher yields and increased profit per acre. When heading to the field don’t forget your copy of the Corn, Soybean, Wheat, and Forages Field Guide to help determine identification and threshold levels for each disease or pest. The field guide can be purchased at the extension office if you do not already have a copy.

Corn

OSU Extension conducts weekly monitoring of Western Bean Cutworm (WBC) pheromone traps throughout the state and published the data in the weekly in the C.O.R.N. Newsletter. Those results can be found here. Trap numbers have remained low for Allen County, but there has been an uptick in surrounding counties. Now is the time to scout for egg masses on the upper leaves. Select 20 consecutive plants in 5 locations of the field. If over 5% of those plants have egg masses an insecticide application is warranted. Continue reading

Get your Waterhemp Populations Screened for Herbicide Resistance

By Mark Loux OSU Extension

We have been screening a random sample of waterhemp populations for herbicide resistance over the past two years.  Herbicides used in the screen include mesotrione, atrazine, 2,4-D, fomesafen, and metolachlor.  Results of our research show that it’s possible for Ohio waterhemp populations to have some level of resistance to one, several, or all of these herbicides.  Glyphosate is not included because we assume almost all populations are already resistant to this.  We are also part of a regional project that has been screening for dicamba and glufosinate resistance with populations that we supply, although none has been identified to date.  Our sample size has been small so far, so at this point we are looking to expand our screening to include waterhemp populations submitted by anyone in Ohio looking for more information about their response to herbicides.  It’s preferable to have seed from waterhemp plants that have survived POST herbicide treatments, or where it appears that preemergence herbicides were fairly ineffective, if possible.  But we will screen any populations provided within the constraints of time and greenhouse space.  For a quick reminder about how to tell when seed from waterhemp is mature, check out this video.  When seed is mature, you can cut off seedheads and place in an open paper bag until ready to get them to us.  Or just shake heads into some type of container to collect seed.  Send us an email and we will figure out the best way to get seed to us, or if you need more information.  loux.1@osu.edu

Also – a reminder that while we would like to have seed from surviving waterhemp plants, the most effective method of preventing future problems with this weed is to not let any go to seed.  Not only because plants that survive may have resistance, but because they produce gobs of seed that will result in misery the following year.  Removal of these plants should have high priority right now.  However, where it’s apparent that this is not going to happen for whatever reason, make a note of the infested fields, and check on them starting in a couple weeks for seed.  This should help us to get a better handle on how resistance in waterhemp is evolving.

2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Test

Click here to download an excel copy of the 2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Test. Disease information will be added as it becomes available.

The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Test is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality, and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES

Each entry was evaluated at five test sites using four replications per site in a randomized complete block design. Plots consisted of 7 rows, 7.5 inches apart and 25 feet long. Participating companies specified the seeding rate used for each of their varieties. Test sites were planted within twenty-one days after the fly-free date based on soil conditions. Approximately 30 pounds of nitrogen/acre was applied at planting followed by the addition of 80-100 pounds/acre in early spring. Herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides were applied as needed. The following data were collected:

Yield is reported in bushels/acre at 13.5 percent moisture.

Test Weight is reported in lb/bushel averaged across all locations.

Seed Size is thousands of harvested seeds per pound (Ex: 15.5 = 15,500 seeds/lb).

Lodging is the percent of plants that lean more than 45 degrees from vertical.

Plant Height is the distance in inches from the soil surface to the top of the heads.

Heading Date was the average calendar day of the year on which 50 percent of the heads were completely emerged. Average of Wood and Pickaway locations. (Example: Day 135 = May 15)

Powdery mildew (PM) Varieties were evaluated for Powdery mildew at Wooster at the heading (Feekes growth stage 10.5) growth stage. Varieties were classified as Susceptible, Moderately Susceptible, Moderately Resistant, and Resistant.

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) Varieties were evaluated in an inoculated disease screening nursery at Wooster. FHB was rated as the percentage of spikelets showing diseased symptoms. Varieties were classified as Susceptible, Moderately Susceptible, Moderately Resistant, and Resistant.

Leaf Blotch (SLB) and Glume Blotch (SGB) Varieties were evaluated for Stagonospora leaf and glume blotch in an inoculated, mist-irrigated disease screening nursery at Wooster. Both SLB and SGB severity were rated at about Feekes growth stage 11.3 as the average percent flag leaf and spike area diseased, respectively. Varieties were classified as Susceptible, Moderately Susceptible, Moderately Resistant, and Resistant.

Flour Yield is the percent flour yield from milled whole grain.

Flour Softness is the percent of fine-granular milled flour. Values higher than approximately 50 indicate kernel textures that are appropriate for soft wheat. Generally, high values are more desirable.

 

 CULTURAL PRACTICES BY TEST SITE

1 2 3 4 5
County Wood Madison Wayne Darke Pickaway
Previous Crop Soybean Soybean Soybean Soybean Soybean
Soil Type Hoytville Crosby Canfield Crosby Miamian
Tillage Min-Till No-Till Min-Till Min-Till Min-Till
Fly-Free Date Sept. 23 Sept. 30 Sept. 26 Sept. 29 Oct. 1
Plant Date Sept. 25 Sept. 27 Oct. 3 Sept. 26 Oct. 9
Soil pH 6.6 6.7 6.0 6.5 5.7
Soil P (ppm) 47 25 51 91 37
Soil K (ppm) 214 143 238 220 127
Fertilizer (N, P, K) 120-78-78 177-78-0-43S 119-46-120 120-2-78-30S 118-66-60-10S
Herbicides Quelex Roundup, Sharpen (Pre-Plant); Harmony Extra SG, Brox 2EC (Spring) Sharpen (Pre-Plant); Harmony Extra SG (Spring) Harmony Extra SG, Brox 2EC Quelex
Fungicide Prosaro Tilt (Feekes 6); Miravis Ace Prosaro Miravis Ace Miravis Ace
Insecticide None None Lamcap II None Lamcap II
Harvest Date July 5 July 6 July 6 July 6 June 29

 

GROWING CONDITIONS

In fall 2020, wheat was planted at all five locations within 8 days of the fly-free date. Wheat entered dormancy in good to excellent condition. Cool temperatures and adequate moisture lead to a long grain fill period and high-yielding conditions. Harvest conditions were favorable and harvest dates average. Overall, grain test weight averaged 58.1 lb/bu (compared to an average test weight of 58.8 lb/bu in 2020). Grain yield averaged between 85.1 and 115.0 bu/acre among the five locations

RESULTS

Results of the 2021 wheat performance test are presented in Tables 1-3. Entries in the data tables are arranged by seed source. A least significant difference (LSD) value can be used to determine if the performance of two varieties was statistically different. The yields of two varieties are expected to be significantly different 90 percent of the time if their yields differ by more than the reported LSD value. Flour yield and softness tests were performed by USDA-ARS Soft Wheat Quality Laboratory, at OARDC in Wooster, OH, Dr. Byung-Kee Baik, Director.

Test results for the 79 winter wheat varieties evaluated in 2021 are presented in Table 1. Tables 2 and 3 contain multi-year variety performance data. Depending on variety and test site, yields varied between 74.7 and 128.2 bushels per acre and test weight ranged from 55.1 to 60.3 pounds per bushel. Yield differences between test sites were due primarily to the soil drainage, weather during the grain fill period & harvest, and disease level. Variety selection should be based on disease resistance, average yield across test sites and years (Tables 2 & 3), winter hardiness, test weight and standability.

 

Inclusion of varieties in the Ohio Wheat Performance Test does not constitute an endorsement of any variety by The Ohio State University, Ohio Agriculture Research and Development Center, or Ohio State University Extension.

Authors: M.W. Hankinson, J.S. McCormick, A.B. Geyer, C.H. Sneller, L.E. Lindsey, P. Paul, Dept. of Plant Pathology, D.G. Lohnes

Acknowledgments: We thank our farmer cooperators for their contributions to the 2021 wheat variety testing program. We are grateful for the assistance provided by Ken Scaife, OARDC Field Operations, Wooster and Matt Davis, OARDC Northwest Branch Research Station. We thank CFAES Marketing and Communications for their assistance in preparing the test results for publication. Special thanks to Rich Minyo, OARDC Wooster, for his assistance and expertise in conducting the 2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Test.

Keeping Beef Quality in Mind

By Garth Ruff – OSU Extension Beef Specialist

Now that we are back to a semblance of somewhat normal, questions regarding Beef Quality Assurance (BQA) have been aplenty. While BQA has been a long-standing program, it was brought to the limelight in 2018 with Tyson’s announcement that would only source fed cattle from cattle feeders certified in BQA. With a certification being valid for a period of three years, those producers certified in our initial statewide push in 2018-2019 are due to be recertified in 2021 and into the spring of 2022.

While the principles of BQA have remained steady over the years, it is my goal as an educator to help the program evolve and move forward past the “basics” of injection locations, routes of administration, and flight zones. Although those topics are certainly still relevant today, I view BQA as an opportunity to educate about management practices that can be used to maintain and improve beef quality and farm profitability.

While the primary audience for BQA remains cattle feeders marketing fed cattle, we have had a tremendous response to the program here in Ohio, and we hope that momentum continues into this recertification cycle.

Maintaining market access and added value for cattle raised by BQA certified producers has been significant in the past few years. On the fed cattle side, we know what happens when one of the major packers is out of the market for a period of time. Producer participation in the program has kept Tyson at Ohio markets and buying Ohio cattle. Depending on the week and who you ask, that is a value of $5-15/cwt.

Evidence of added value has also been seen in the feeder cattle market. In 2019, Colorado State analyzed market data from the Western Video Markets and determined that BQA certified cattle sold with a premium of $2.71/cwt on average compared to cattle where BQA certification was not documented.

Results of the study revealed a premium of $16.80/head for cattle that had BQA listed in the lot description compared to no mention and holding other factors constant. This value was determined by applying the $2.71/cwt premium found in CSU’s statistical analysis to the average weight of cattle in the study data.

At OSU Extension, our offices are open, and we are currently scheduling in-person BQA trainings. Reach out to your local OSU Extension office to find a training near you or log into our Event Calendar for a listing.

Aside from BQA, another reason to keep beef quality at the forefront is the increased demand for local beef products. While demand for local beef had been growing prior to COVID-19, the pandemic accelerated that demand to a point that many, (or any) of us had never seen.

The real question is: how much of that added demand for local beef is here to stay? That answer varies from processor to processor that I have spoken to, however they all believe that those customers who had a positive eating experience will be back to purchase local beef.

That should excite those producers who are set up for the direct marketing of quality beef. That said, the pandemic also brought to light, that there are several first-time direct marketers that need some guidance in producing that high quality product if they want to remain in that direct-to-consumer lane of beef production. This brings us back to genetics, nutrition, and cattle management topics such as BQA.

Once we have a live calf on the ground, maximizing profit potential of that calf and eating quality of the end product are goals to aim for. Now that Extension programs are happening across the state, I hope to be able to visit some of your farms and have conversations on how to accomplish those goals.

Farm Office Live is Back!

“Farm Office Live” returns virtually this summer as an opportunity for you to get the latest outlook and updates on ag law, farm management, farm business analysis, and other related issues from faculty and educators with the College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences at The Ohio State University.  Attend “Farm Office Live” online on July 23, 2021, at 10 AM (EST).  To register, please visit https://go.osu.edu/farmofficelive 

Double Crop Forages to Maximize Summer Forage Potential

By Jason Hartschuh

Many producers use summer annual forages for grazing and stored forage to either fill the summer slump or keep livestock feed through the winter. With wheat harvest finalized across most of the state and straw baling completed for many now our attention turns to creating a second or third profit center off those wheat acres.

Wheat acres provide an excellent opportunity for double cropping with forages that when harvested at the proper growth stage can either make high quality late gestation early lactation forage, grazing opportunities, or gut fill to mix lower the quality of other forages or concentrates.

Many species of summer annuals can be utilized for forage. Some of them such as radish and turnip can be easily grazed but do not make good stored forage as Baleage or dry hay. For dry hay we have found the best two species to be teff and oats. Most other species can be harvested as silage or Baleage. Be cautious making dry hay that for plant stem is truly dry.

The nutritional value of summer annual forages we sampled ranged from $200-$260 per ton. While it may not be possible to sell these forages for their nutritional value, this is what it would cost to replace these forages in the ration with other forms of protein, energy, and fiber. Figure 1 shows the tons harvested per acre of forages planted on July 2nd and harvested either 63 or 91 days after planting versus a July 29th planting date with a harvest 63 to 84 days after planting. While nutrition content of the crop is important to filling the needs of livestock, the driving factor behind return per acre is the tons produced. While some of these summer annuals can be harvested multiple times over the summer, we compared a single cutting at about 60 or 90 days after planting. Not surprisingly across most species the early July planting had increased yields but the ability to utilize these crops into a late summer planting was surprising. All crops in Figure 1 were managed the same being planted in with a drill in 7.5 inch rows with 50 pounds of nitrogen applied. Early July planted corn yielded almost 7 tons of dry matter compared to late July planted corn only yielding about 2.5 tons. The reduction in yield was also found in sorghum more than other crops. Sorghum 90-day yield dropped from 4 tons per acre to about 2 tons with the later planting date. Both crops could have been grown until just before the first frost increasing tonnage. The balancing act between quality and tonnage is found just before these crops switch from vegetative growth to reproductive.

When these crops are planted late in the growing season, end of July, they will not complete grain fill making it better to harvest them just before seed heads or tassels emerge. While the trial in Figure 1 shows an advantage to corn just a year later under much drier growing conditions Figure 2 show corn as the second to lowest yield species with a mid-July planting date. When double cropping is delayed until early August we have found that Oats has the greatest yield potential with planting dates as late as September 15 yielding over 2 tons of dry matter.

Teff provides advantages that it could be made as dry hay much easier than other forages. It proved to have some challenges though needing tedded twice to dry completely in humid Ohio conditions. It also declined in quality rapidly with crude protein falling from 12% to 6.5% within a week as the plant flowered. Soybeans provided higher levels of crude protein than grass at 90 days after harvest having about 17% crude protein. Forage type soybeans are available which provide higher tonnage than conventional soybeans. Soybean silage/baleage should be made when the beans reach late R6 growth stage. At this point, lower leaves are just starting to turn yellow and seed pods are fully developed. Harvesting later leads to higher oil content which often causes fermentation issues. Oats is the most common double crop forage in our area. Usually we do not recommend planting oats until late July, but some year the early planted oats yields as well as the late planted oat. Oats is a daylength sensitive crop. When planted in early August it is triggered to grow larger leaves instead of working hard to produce seed. Earlier planted oats had lower energy and protein content. Oat Crown Rust was also a critical challenge with oats planted in July and occasionally into early August. By 90 days after planting, rust covered over 50% of Oats leaves. Utilizing a fungicide labeled for Oat Crown Rust did not increase tonnage but did improve digestible NDF, increasing energy values, and dollar value of the forage. Studies using corn silage have also found that rust causes fermentation issues with a higher final silage pH when rust is present versus not present. In 2021 we will continue to double crop with trials in 2 location across the state and a double cropping with summer annuals field day on August 28th in Licking county. Detailed trial reports with for quality analysis are available as part of eFields at: https://digitalag.osu.edu/efields.

Manure Science Review Coming August 10th

By Glen Arnold- OSU Extension

The annual Manure Science Review will be held on Tuesday, August 10 from 10:00am to 3:00pm at MVP Dairy near Celina, Ohio. Attendees will see and hear about this state-of-the-art dairy’s 80-cow rotary milking parlor, manure handling and management for the 4,400-cow herd, and regenerative farming practices. Speakers will provide updates on the effectiveness of saturated buffers in reducing runoff in Grand Lake Saint Marys as well as issues of legacy phosphorus runoff and the KDS/Quick wash system for manure nutrient recovery. Field demonstrations will include solid and liquid applicators, the Cadman Side-dress System, Oxbo Equipment, in-season manure side-dress demos, and more.

Continuing education credits have been approved for Certified Crop Advisors, Certified Livestock Managers and Indiana State Chemist certifications. Registration costs are $25 per person until August 1st and $30 per person after that date. For program and registration details, click on the link at ocamm.osu.edu or contact Mary Wicks (wicks.14@osu.edu; 330.202.3533).