A female soybean cyst nematode, stained with a bright pink stain, has set up her feeding site within the soybean root. Her body will fill with eggs and become a bright white cyst visible on the soybean root. Photo: OSU Extension.
Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a small roundworm that parasitizes soybean roots, stealing vital nutrients from the plant. Even if you are not seeing above-ground symptoms, SCN is likely still reducing your yield. To make matters worse, certain SCN populations are now becoming “resistant to the resistance.” In other words, a portion of the nematodes now have the capability of feeding and reproducing on soybean varieties previously thought to be resistant. The main reason for this, is that more than 95% of all SCN-resistant varieties for the past two decades included resistance gene(s) from the same breeding line, Plant Introduction (PI) 88788. Just like herbicide-resistant weeds, relying on the same SCN resistance source for the past 20 years has led to SCN populations adapting to, and overpowering the resistance. Continue reading →
The 2019 production year has presented many challenges. Ohio State University Extension wants to be responsive to needs of the agricultural community. At short survey aimed at farmers to identify both short- and long-term outreach and research needs of Ohio crop and livestock/forage producers based on the 2019 farm crisis year has been developed. Questions relate to crop production, livestock forage needs, emergency forage success, economic and human stress concerns. Since challenges and concerns varied across the state, this survey is designed to assess needs on a county, regional and statewide basis. The study will be used to determine Extension programming and future research needs.
The Certified Crop Adviser (CCA) Exam Training program, sponsored and delivered by the OSU Agronomic Crops Team, will be offered at the Shelby County Ag Building, 810-820 Fair Rd, Sidney, Ohio 45365 on January 8th and 9th beginning at 9:00 a.m. on the 8th and adjourn by 5:00 p.m. on the 9th. This is an intensive two-day workshop somewhat directed toward the local exam – to be used as a reminder on what best to study in preparation for the CCA exams. Exams will be given in 2020 on February 7th and August 7th. Register for the exams at least six weeks before the exam date: https://www.certifiedcropadviser.org/exams. The exams are not given during the preparation class.Continue reading →
In general, 2019 was a difficult year for weed control with the large number of acres that were planted late or not at all leading to higher weed populations and extensive weed seed production in some fields. Below are reminders for fall weed control that will set the stage for successful spring 2020 weed control given the drastic increase in weed seedbank populations from 2019.
Fall herbicide applications
Seeds of many winter annual weeds for example horseweed (marestail) lack dormancy and can germinate immediately after dropping from the plant this fall. Given the above average horseweed populations across the state, this will lead to an immediate increase in fall emerging weeds. During optimal years, fall burndown herbicide applications should be made by mid-October before the first hard freeze and daytime air temperatures are at least 50 degrees Fahrenheit. Actively growing weeds are the key to consistent control.
Due to spring conditions, many corn and soybean harvests are late this year. Herbicides can be applied at daytime temperatures ranging from 40-60 F, but weeds may be killed slower at these cooler temperatures. For example at cooler temperatures absorption and translocation of herbicides such as glyphosate and 2,4-D are lower compared with applications at warmer temperatures therefore these applications take longer to kill the plant. When temperatures are below 40 F for a prolonged period after herbicide application, weed control will be reduced. If a hard freeze has occurred, evaluate the condition of the weeds in your field prior to herbicide application. Frost may cause leaf damage (water-soaked leaves that turn black and die) and reduced herbicide absorption. Some winter annual weeds may tolerate a frost and herbicide applications can be made after active weed growth has resumed (appearance of new green leaves), usually after multiple days with nighttime temperatures above 35°F followed by 50 F or above daytime temperatures.
Results from Michigan State University Extension weed scientist Christy Sprague’s research in no-till soybeans found that fall applications of 2,4-D, dicamba, or Sharpen will control fall emerged horseweed and are cost-effective. Tank-mixtures with glyphosate are needed to control other winter annual and perennial weeds outside of horseweed (many populations throughout the state are resistant to glyphosate). For detailed information on controlling horseweed season long see the fact sheet “Herbicide-resistant horseweed (marestail) in Michigan: keys to management in no-till soybean” by Sprague.
The Current Agricultural Use Valuation (CAUV) program allows farmland devoted exclusively to commercial agriculture to be taxed based on their value in agriculture, rather than the full market value, resulting in a substantially lower tax bill for the farmer.
The formula for CAUV values incorporates agricultural factors (soil types, yields, prices, and non-land costs for corn, soybeans, and wheat) to calculate the capitalized net returns to farming land based on the previous 5 to 10 years. CAUV underwent large-scale changes to its calculation in 2017 that was targeted to reduce the property tax burden of farmland.
A new report, Ohio CAUV Values Projected to Decline Through 2020, shows the projection of CAUV values though 2020. According to the study authors, OSU agricultural economists Robert Dinterman and Ani Katchova forecast a decrease in the assessed value of agricultural land to an average CAUV value of approximately $600 in 2020.
By Peggy Kirk Hall and Ellen Essman OSU Extension Ag Law
Ohio’s newly created hemp program is one step further toward getting off the ground. On October 9, the Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) released its anxiously awaited proposal of the rules that will regulate hemp production in Ohio. ODA seeks public comments on the proposed regulations until October 30, 2019.
There are two parts to the rules package: one rule for hemp cultivation and another for hemp processing. Here’s an overview of the components of each rule:
1. Hemp cultivation
The first rule addresses the “cultivation” of hemp, which means “to plant, water, grow, fertilize, till or havest a plant or crop.” Cultivating also includes “possessing or storing a plant or crop on a premises whre the plant was cultivated until transported to the first point of sale.” The proposal lays out the following regulatory process for those who wish to cultivate hemp in Ohio. Continue reading →
Our drop in temperatures throughout Ohio will no doubt convince fall home invading insects that it’s time to seek winter quarters. These unwelcomed guests typically include Boxelder Bugs (Boisea trivittatus); Western Conifer Seed Bugs (Leptoglossus occidentalis); Magnolia Seed Bugs (Leptoglossus fulvicornis); Multicolored Asian Lady Beetles (Harmonia axyridis); and the most notorious of all, Brown Marmorated Stink Bugs (Halyomorpha halys).
These home invaders have several things in common. First, their populations may vary considerably even across relatively short distances. Some homes may be inundated while those located just a few miles away remain free of insect marauders.
Even more challenging, late-season outdoor populations are not always a reliable predictor of indoor excursions. Just because you didn’t see them in September doesn’t mean you won’t see them sitting next to you on your sofa in November.
A Series of Unfortunate Events
The second thing these home invaders have in common is their “cold-blooded” physiology meaning the speed of their metabolism is mostly governed by ambient temperature; the higher the temperature, the faster their metabolism, and the faster they “burn” fat. Yes, insects have fat, but it’s confined by their hard exoskeletons so they don’t suffer ever-expanding waistlines.
These insects feed voraciously in late summer to accumulate fat. They then seek sheltered locations in the fall where cool temperatures slow their metabolism during the winter so they will not exhaust their stored fat reserves. This survival strategy keeps them alive since there is nothing for them to eat throughout the winter.
Each fall Ohio State University Extension conducts a survey of the different types of weeds present in soybean fields, as well as, the level of infestation. Weed Science State Specialist Dr. Mark Loux leads this study and uses the information gained to help develop future weed management programs. This study is conducted in each county where there is an Ag and Natural Resources Educator. The educator selects a route 80-100 miles long through the county and takes notes on one soybean field in each mile.
With all of the challenges that Ohio farmers have faced this year it was sometimes easy for helpful information to get lost in the shuffle. There was rampant speculation about potential government intervention and expanding safety net coverage as farmers faced multiple hardships related to the weather, as well as, the ongoing trade dispute. Details of a new round of Market Facilitation Program (MFP) payments were leaked in late May and some clarity was provided in early June. On July 25th there was an official announcement regarding payment rates and eligibility requirements. This program as well as potential disaster payments have dominated the news cycle over the summer and overshadowed many details regarding the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 that was signed last December. The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 is commonly referred to as the Farm Bill and there are several programs within it. Grain producers are most likely to be interested in the Agricultural Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs. Each of these programs are administered through the Farm Service Agency (FSA), but it is important to remember that they have different eligibility requirements and enrollment deadlines.
After another hot week (until late this week), a cool down to normal temperatures is expected starting either Oct. 3 or 4 that will last through Oct. 15. Temperatures are expected to return to above normal (but no where near current levels) from Oct. 15-31.
Rainfall will be above normal in northern Ohio this week. The week of Oct. 7 will be normal or below normal but confidence is next week’s rainfall pattern is low to moderate. Above normal rainfall is in the outlook for the second half of October which could slow harvest after Oct. 15.
The hot and drier pattern for a good part of September was caused in part by tropical activity. The remnants of Dorian created a big low pressure system not far from Greenland while a typhoon called Lingling in the western Pacific created a big low pressure near Alaska. This resulted in a hot and dry dome of high pressure over the Southeast U.S. and wet weather in the western corn and soybean belt.
This pattern appears ready to breakdown later this week.
We are moving into frost and freeze season and overall it still looks like a delayed frost and freeze season. Most see their first freeze by Oct. 10-20. Currently, it still looks like a normal to later than normal first freeze.
The November outlook still indicates a warmer than normal month with precipitation not far from normal (but with a lot of uncertainty). We will keep you posted on this.
Finally, the two week rainfall outlook from OHRFC can be found here:
It shows the wettest areas being the western two-thirds of the corn and soybean belt. Rainfall for the next two weeks in Ohio will be 1-2+ inches in northern Ohio but generally 0.10-0.50 inches in southern Ohio. Normal is about 1.5 inches for two weeks.