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Summer Pond and Pool Safety

Nothing sounds better when it is 90 plus degrees outside than a quick dip in the backyard pond. Ponds (and pools) are common on farms and residential properties throughout Putnam County. In our excitement to enjoy the water, we can often forget some basic safety rules that apply to both. It is best to be prepared for a possible emergency situation, as time is of the essence in water rescue. The following safety tips are intended to minimize accidents and keep everyone safe in and around the water this summer.

If a pond is used for swimming, you will want to collect a water sample each spring to determine water quality. A certified lab will look for the presence of E. coli bacteria that could potentially cause human illness. Call the extension office for a list of water testing labs.

It is a good idea to restrict entrance to your property and the pond by posting signs that say No Trespassing and/or Keep Out. Young children will not be able to read these signs, so fencing and gates might need to be installed (when feasible), especially if the presence of young children is a concern. Check local codes for any fencing and/or depth restrictions.

While not all ponds are intended for swimming and recreation, every pond and pool should have a safety or rescue post near the edge of the water. A rescue post should be maintained year-round and contain the following items:

  • A life ring or buoy that is secured to a nylon rope. The rope should span the width of the pond or pool. Hang the buoy and rope on the post.
  • A 10 to 14’ aluminum or PVC pole mounted to the rescue post. This lightweight pole can be used to reach someone who is floundering in the water.
  • An air horn or similar device to alert others of an emergency.
  • A sign with emergency contact information and pond rules.
  • Other items, such as life preservers, as needed.

This safety equipment can also be used to rescue someone who has fallen through thin ice on the pond in the winter months.

Provide swimming instruction for all children and never allow anyone to swim alone. Adults and anyone supervising swimmers should have CPR and water rescue training.

Identify the depth of the water at various locations in the pond and indicate dangerous areas. Ropes and float lines can be used to mark the transition from shallow to deep areas in both ponds and pools.

 

Ponds can also pose significant hazards from field runoff of pesticides and fertilizers as well as physical debris. Evaluate pond edges for rough surfaces and remove any physical hazards that could injure someone, such as broken glass, ragged rocks, etc. In some cases, entrance areas and steep edges may need to be gently sloped to allow easier exit from the water. Ponds with significant vegetation, sediment or debris may need to be dredged to restore its quality.

Landowners should also ensure that their pond is covered with liability insurance. While Ohio law provides significant liability protection for farm ponds, artificial conditions that are not normally expected in a pond (such as a diving board or floating dock) can create liability issues. Contact your insurance agent for coverage related to your pond.

For additional information, please contact the Putnam County Extension office at 419-523-6294, by email at scheckelhoff.11@osu.edu, or stop in at 1206 East Second Street in Ottawa. We will also have a display next week at the Putnam County Fair in the Merchant’s building, so plan to stop and see us! You can also find us on Facebook by searching for OSU Extension Putnam County.

 

 

Bringing Home Bed Bugs

June often marks the beginning of travel to and from summer camps, sporting events, dormitories and apartments, hotel rooms, and numerous other destinations both near and far. With increased travel comes an increased risk of encountering and inadvertently introducing bed bugs in your home.

Bed bugs are a problem throughout Ohio, the US, and worldwide – a problem we all may encounter at some time in our lives. Bed bugs are small insects that hitchhike on clothing, luggage, and other items that have come into contact with an infested location. These unwanted “house guests” can enter our homes on travel gear, luggage, clothing, shoes or other personal items. Acquiring or purchasing used bedding, mattresses, and upholstered furniture can also introduce bed bugs into the home.

Bed bugs are commonly found in areas where people sleep or rest such as beds, couches, or recliners. Adult bed bugs are brown to reddish-brown, oval-shaped, flattened, and about 3/16 to 1/5” long. They move very quickly but do not have wings and cannot fly.

Bed bugs are nocturnal insects that feed mostly at night while their host sleeps. Their bite is painless but may result in small, swollen welts that may itch. Rows of three or more welts on exposed skin are characteristic signs of bed bug feeding.  Fortunately, bed bugs do not carry nor transmit disease, but some people may have an allergic reaction to the bites.

When staying away from home, check beds, mattresses, box springs, and baseboards for dark, rusty spots that are bed bug feces, eggs, or shed skins. Adult bed bugs often hide in crevices any may be difficult to find. If you spot any of these, request another room or move locations if possible. Remember to keep clothing, suitcases and other items off beds and on luggage stands, even if a room appears to be clean.

Here are some tips for preventing bed bugs from entering your home:

  • Carefully inspect all items that will be brought into your home after traveling.
  • Clothing should be removed from luggage and washed in hot water (hot water kills bed bugs). Similar precautions should be taken when family members move back home from an apartment, dormitory, hospital stay, or summer camp.
  • Use caution when placing backpacks, bags, purses, and coats on floors or upholstered items.

If you suspect that your home has been infested with bed bugs, confirm their identification by bringing insects to the the local OSU Extension office. Please make sure insects are in a sealed container.

Prevention and good sanitation in the home are the best defenses for all types of insect concerns including bed bugs. Bed bugs are difficult to eliminate once established in a dwelling. Over the counter baits, insect fogs, insect bombs, and do-it-yourself remedies do not work. Eradication often requires a professional exterminator, several insecticide applications, extensive cleaning and sanitation, along with a healthy dose of perseverance and patience.

For additional information on bed bugs, visit the Ohio State University bed bug website maintained by Dr. Susan Jones, OSU bed bug entomologist, at http://u.osu.edu/bedbugs/. Household pest id cards (image) can be obtained from the Putnam County Extension office at 419-523-6294, by email at scheckelhoff.11@osu.edu, or stop in at 1206 East Second Street in Ottawa. You can also find us on Facebook by searching for OSU Extension Putnam County.

 

 

Weathering the Wheat Crop

Putnam County has received roughly 8 inches of rainfall since the beginning of April, nearly 2.5 inches more than normal for this time of year. The timing and abundance of rainfall caused delayed fieldwork, considerable ponding in fields and some replanting. With more rain in the forecast for the week ahead, many are wondering if Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), more commonly known as head scab, will be a concern for the local wheat crop.

Head scab is a fungal disease that reduces yield and quality of grain. The fungus infects flowering wheat heads and can produce vomitoxin, a mycotoxin that contaminates the grain and reduces its marketability. The majority of wheat in our area has flowered or will continue to flower over the next few weeks.

Dr. Pierce Paul, OSU’s specialist in cereal crop diseases, weighed in on the potential for wheat in NW Ohio to develop head scab over the coming weeks and provided the following recommendations. The FHB forecasting system (http://www.wheatscab.psu.edu/) predicts the risk of scab by using the average relative humidity during the 15 days immediately before flowering. If 11-13 days during that 15-day window are cool and dry, then the overall risk will be low, even if it is wet and humid the remaining days. The risk for scab is low in northern Ohio for fields flowering at this time because conditions were relatively cool and dry last week, which likely reduced the risk of the scab fungus infecting wheat spikes. However, farmers should monitor the weather and forecasting system over the next week. Fields flowering at the end of this week through May 30 may be at risk for scab.

Other late-season foliar diseases on wheat have increased over the last week, including strip rust and Septoria. Scout flowering fields to see if your variety is susceptible to stripe rust, Septoria, or even Stagonospora. These disease develop under the cool, wet conditions we have experienced over the last two weeks. Strip rust is localized and restricted to a few varieties but could spread and affect grain yield and test weight in those varieties.

Dr. Paul recommends Prosaro and Caramba fungicides for excellent head scab, rust and Septoria control. Strobilurin fungicides should not be used when the risk for head scab is high because they have been linked to higher vomitoxin levels in the grain. Farmers should also take note of the pre-harvest intervals on any late-season fungicide application. The pre-harvest interval is 30 days for both of these products, so applications need to be made at least 30 days before you begin cutting wheat. It is likely too late to treat fields that are well into grain-fill.

Additional resources on head scab, wheat rust, and guidelines on how to use and interpret the scab forecasting system can be found at http://ohioline.osu.edu. To keep up with the many issues and developments related to agronomic crops across Ohio, subscribe to the OSU Crop Observation and Recommendation Network (C.O.R.N.) newsletter published weekly during the growing season. Go to https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter and enter your email to subscribe, or contact the extension office and we can subscribe you as well. For more information, contact the Putnam County Extension office at 419-523-6294, by email at scheckelhoff.11@osu.edu, or stop in at 1206 East Second Street in Ottawa. You can also find us on Facebook by searching for OSU Extension Putnam County.

 

 

Keeping up with Agronomic Crops

If you have driven around Putnam County this past week, you have likely noticed some significant changes in the fields.  Corn that was planted nearly three weeks ago can finally be seen poking out of the ground. Have you ever wondered why corn emerges shortly after planting in some years while in other years it may take up to 3 or 4 weeks to emerge? This difference in timing is due to differences in  temperature from year to year following planting. Corn seeds generally need to accumulate 100-120 growing degree day units (GGD) of heat before they will germinate. This number depends upon the variety of corn grown and can vary from 90 to 150 GDD.

Science has shown that corn will grow when the temperature is between 50 and 86°F and little growth occurs when temperatures are above or below this range. By knowing the outdoor daily low and high temperature, we can calculate GDD for that day. Adding or accumulating GDD over time provides information that is useful in predicting crop growth and development, as well as insect and disease activity.

So how does one calculate GDD? Farmers and gardeners alike can calculate the daily GDD by taking the average daily air temperature (high temperature + low temperature)/2 and subtracting the base temperature of 50°F for corn. When the daily low temperature is more than 50°F, and the high temperature is 86°F or less, then use the actual temperatures to calculate GDD. However, if the low temperature is less than 50°F, then 50°F will be used as the low temperature. Likewise, if the high temperature is above 86°F, then 86°F will be used as the high temperature.

Using two examples from this past week: On May 12, the high and low temperatures were 63°F/46°F. Because 46°F is lower than corn’s base temperature of 50°F, we use 50°F in the calculation. GDD for May 12 = (63-50)/2 = 3.5 GDD. On May 13, the high and low temperatures were 71°F/43°F. The GDD for May 13 were (71-50)/2=10.5 GDD. Over these two days, corn accumulated 14 GDD. By using this calculation, we can estimate when corn varieties will reach various stages of development, including tasseling and maturity.

To keep up with the many issues and developments related to agronomic crops across Ohio, subscribe to the OSU Crop Observation and Recommendation Network (C.O.R.N.) newsletter published weekly during the growing season. Go to https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter and enter your email to subscribe, or contact the extension office and we can subscribe you as well. For more information, contact the Putnam County Extenstion office at 419-523-6294, by email at scheckelhoff.11@osu.edu, or stop in at 1206 East Second Street in Ottawa. You can also find us on Facebook by searching for OSU Extension Putnam County.

 

Tick Tock…It’s Time for Tick Season!

I was genuinely surprised and slightly alarmed to see that the spider my daughter found in our house on Monday morning was not a spider at all, but rather a tick. It was in fact a female American dog tick. We most likely picked up this gal while walking through tall grass and weeds along a field edge last evening. Luckily, she must have only attached to my clothing and fallen off after coming indoors.

Why should we be concerned about ticks in Ohio? The American dog tick, the blacklegged tick, and the Lone star tick are commonly found in Ohio – and each can carry harmful bacteria that cause disease. Humans and animals can become ill if bitten by an infected tick. Infected ticks can transmit tick-borne diseases like Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease, among others.

The American dog tick is the most commonly found tick in Ohio from mid-April through July. American dog ticks like grassy areas along roads and paths, especially near woods and shrubby areas. The adult tick positions itself on grasses and weeds waiting to latch onto the fur or clothing of humans, dogs, groundhogs, raccoons, or other large mammals passing by. The tick will attach to its host and feed. In humans, this is often on the scalp or along the hairline. When attached for at least a day, the adult American dog tick can transmit Rocky Mountain spotted fever. In Ohio, however, it is estimated that less than 2% of American dog ticks carry the bacteria that causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and few people are infected each year.

Follow these practical tips to help keep you, your loved ones and your pets tick-free this summer. First, avoid tick-infested wooded and grassy areas when possible. If you will be outdoors in areas where ticks are likely to occur, make sure to:

  • Dress appropriately by wearing light-colored clothing including tall socks, long pants and long-sleeved shirts. Make sure to tuck your pants into your socks and your shirt into your pants. Light-colored clothing allows you to readily see insects crawling on your clothing.
  • Treat clothing, boots, and camping gear with permethrin according to manufacturer instructions. Products containing permethrin should not be applied directly to your skin.
  • Use insect repellent products that contain at least 25% DEET on exposed skin. Repellants wear off over time and will need to be reapplied according to the product instructions. Adults should apply repellants to children.
  • Use anti-tick products on dogs, keep dogs close to home and prevent them from freely roaming in grassy and wooded areas.
  • Frequently check your body and pets for ticks and immediately remove them when found. To remove an attached tick, use a pair of tweezers to grasp the tick as close to the skin as possible and firmly pull upward. Place the tick in a plastic bag or other container for correct identification. Thoroughly wash the bite site with soap and water.

If you have been bitten by a tick, it is important to correctly identify the type of tick and monitor the location of the bite over the next several weeks. If the bite area becomes swollen or develops a rash, consult your physician immediately.

There are numerous online resources for for tick identification and information, including www.tickencounter.org. The American dog, blacklegged, and Lone star ticks have a hard plate on their back that enable identification between the different types, as well as between males and females. You can bring the tick to the Putnam County Extension office for identification or to the local health department. OSU Extension also has handy, pocket-sized tick id cards that individuals can take and use to identify ticks when outdoors or at home. To obtain a tick id card, or for more information, contact the Putnam County Extenstion office at 419-523-6294, by email at scheckelhoff.11@osu.edu, or stop in at 1206 East Second Street in Ottawa. You can now find us on Facebook by searching for OSU Extension Putnam County.

Keep Farm Safety a Priority

Last week, third grader’s across Putnam County were treated to a fun-filled day learning about safety and preventing hazards around the home and on the farm. This Farm Safety Day event at the Gerding Farm has been a tradition in Putnam County for nearly 20 years. While the kids certainly learned a lot at Farm Safety Day, it is also a great reminder for adults across the county to revisit safety measures, especially now that field work and planting have begun.

More and more farm equipment will be on Putnam county roads in the days and weeks ahead.  Encouraging safety on the road during planting season can reduce potential risks and accidents.

As we enter the planting season, be aware of farm equipment, particularly as we are often running late to work, kids’ sporting events and other activities. Likewise, farmers must also be aware that they share the road with the general public. The following recommendations for motorists and farmers encourage safety on our local roads and are adapted from suggestions made by Ed Lentz, ANR Educator for Hancock County Extension.

  • Farmers should place a “slow-moving vehicle” emblem on all equipment so motorists can easily see you on the road. Amber flashers and turn signals are also recommended at all times.
  • Motorists need to be alert for slower moving farm equipment on the roads and avoid activities that may distract them.
  • Farm machinery operators may not be able to see motorists because the equipment can partially block their view. If you can’t see the operator, the operator can’t see you. Keep a safe distance behind machinery to ensure you are in the operator’s view.
  • Motorists need to be careful when passing farm equipment. Large tillage equipment and planters are often folded and may veer in any direction suddenly.
  • Motorists need to be aware that farm equipment that is half on the road and half on the shoulder may suddenly move completely onto the road. Extra-wide equipment may take up more than one lane to avoid hitting mailboxes and road signs.

Additional recommendations for farm equipment include:

  • Headlights and taillights are required until 30 minutes after sunrise, and 30 minutes before sunset and required during day hours in inclement weather, such as fog and rain.
  • Ideally, towed implements should have reflectors, lights, and a slow-moving vehicle emblem. Law requires these items when the implement blocks the lighting/marking configuration on the tractor.
  • Safety cables or chains should be used in any towing situation.
  • Lock tractor brakes together.
  • Wear seat belts while operating tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS).
  • Ohio law states that only one wagon/implement may be towed behind any vehicle with two exceptions:
    1.) Towing with a tractor: more than one wagon/implement may be towed. While no maximum is indicated, common sense and safety should play a role. 2.) Towing with a pickup or straight truck: a truck designed by the manufacturer to carry a load of not less than one-half ton and not more than two tons may tow two wagons/implements.
  • Use an escort vehicle when possible.

Hooray for Tax Day!

I always look forward to Tax Day. Not for the obvious reason that I’m relieved my taxes are done but for the less obvious reason that this day generally marks the return of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird to our area! This is the only hummingbird that breeds in Ohio. It spends the winter months in Central America before making the trek back to Ohio (and much of the Eastern US) to mate, build a nest and raise its young before it departs again in late summer to head south for the winter.

This year, the Ruby-throated Hummingbird was spotted as early as April 8 in our area and, as of this week, arrived in lower Maine. The spring migration of the Ruby-throated Hummingbird is reported by fellow citizens observing their activity on www.hummingbirds.net. Local bird watchers may want to take note of this resource and submit their observations early next year.

Would you like to attract more hummingbirds to your yard? Hummingbirds are naturally attracted to orange and red flowers that are tubular in shape. The base of each flower holds a sugar-rich nectar that provides the necessary energy for their fast-paced movements. Hummingbirds beat their wings over 50 times per second, allowing them to dart and hover around the garden with ease. Garden plants like columbine, lobelia, penstemon, petunia, salvia, canna, and many others are among hummingbird favorites. Plant a few of these to attract these birds to your garden.

Another way to attract hummingbirds is to place feeders in your yard. Hummingbird feeders are designed to mimic the tubular flowers found in nature. These feeders are often red in color and filled with a sugar solution. Many prepackaged solutions have added red coloring, but that is not necessary to attract the hummingbirds. You can even make your own hummingbird nectar at home by dissolving ¼ to 1/3 cup sugar in 1 cup water. Place the solution in the feeder. Monitor the solution carefully and change it every 2 to 3 days or more frequently if it becomes cloudy, especially during hot weather. Bacteria and fungi can grow rapidly in the sugar water, so be sure to wash the feeder thoroughly when replacing the sugar solution.

If you are interested in learning more about the Ruby-throated Hummingbird or other birds, check out Cornell University’s site All About Birds (www.allaboutbirds.org). In the very near future, Putnam County will also have a learning pollinator garden at the Quarry Farm in Pandora. The Putnam County Master Gardeners have designed and will begin installing the garden in early May. The garden will feature native Ohio plants that attract hummingbirds as well as a number of other pollinators including native bees and butterflies.