Global Timber Model information, updates and insights

The Global Timber Model is a dynamic optimization model of the global forest sector.  It optimizes over land use, forest area, forest management, timber harvests, carbon stocks, and other important indicators of forest ecosystem services.  It has been widely used to assess climate change and carbon sequestration policies related to forests. Papers using GTM are listed below. For copies of these papers please contact Brent Sohngen (

Favero, A., Baker, J., Sohngen, B. and Daigneault, A., 2023. Economic factors influence net carbon emissions of forest bioenergy expansion. Communications Earth & Environment4(1), p.41. (

Favero, A., Daigneault, A., Sohngen, B. and Baker, J., 2023. A system‐wide assessment of forest biomass production, markets, and carbon. GCB Bioenergy15(2), pp.154-165. (

Favero, A., Sohngen, B. and Hamilton, W.P., 2022. Climate change and timber in Latin America: Will the forestry sector flourish under climate change? Forest Policy and Economics. 135: 102657. (

Favero, A., Daigneault, A., Sohngen, B. and Baker, J., 2023. A system‐wide assessment of forest biomass production, markets, and carbon. GCB – Bioenergy. 15(2): 154-165 (

Favero, A., Baker, J., Sohngen, B. and Daigneault, A., 2023. Economic factors influence net carbon emissions of forest bioenergy expansion. Communications Earth & Environment4(1), p.41. (

Daigneault, A., Baker, J.S., Guo, J., Lauri, P., Favero, A., Forsell, N., Johnston, C., Ohrel, S.B. and Sohngen, B., 2022. How the future of the global forest sink depends on timber demand, forest management, and carbon policies. Global Environmental Change76, p.102582.

Roe, S., C. Streck, R. Beach, J. Busch, M.Chapman, V. Daioglou, A. Deppermann, J. Doelman, J. Emmet‐Booth, J. Engelmann, J., O. Fricko, C. Frischmann, J. Funk, G. Grassi, B. Griscom, P. Havlik, S. Hanssen, F. Humpenoder, D. Landholm, G. Lomax, J. Lehmann, L. Mesnildrey, GJ Nabuurs, A. Popp, C. Rivard, J. Sanderman, B. Sohngen, P. Smith, E. Stehfest, D. Woolf, D. Lawrence.  2021. Land‐based measures to mitigate climate change: Potential and feasibility by country. Global Change Biology. 27(23): 6025-6058. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.15873

Favero, A., Mendelsohn, R.O., Sohngen, B. and Stocker, B., 2021. Assessing the long-term interactions of climate change and timber markets on forest land and carbon storage. Environmental Research Letters. 16(1), p.014051

Austin, K.G., Baker, J.S., Sohngen, B.L., Wade, CM, Daigneault, A. Ohrel, SB, Ragnauth, S, and Bean, A. 2020. The economic costs of planting, preserving, and managing the world’s forests to mitigate climate change. Nature Communications 11, 5946

Sohngen, B., 2020. Climate Change and Forests. Annual Review of Resource Economics. 12: 23-43.

Daigneault, A.J., Sohngen, B.L. and Sedjo, R., 2020. Carbon and market effects of US forest taxation policy. Ecological Economics. 178, p.106803.

Favero, A., Daigneault, A. and Sohngen, B., 2020. Forests: Carbon sequestration, biomass energy, or both? Science Advances, 6(13). p.eaay6792.

Baker, J.S., Forsell, N., Latta, G., Sohngen, B., Daigneault, A. 2019. State of the Art Methods to Project Forest Carbon Stocks. Journal of Forest Economics. 34(1-2): 1-5.

Mendelsohn, R. and Sohngen, B., 2019. The Net Carbon Emissions from Historic Land Use and Land Use Change. Journal of Forest Economics. 34(3-4): 263-283.

Sohngen, B., Salem, M.E., Baker, J.S., Shell, M.J. and Kim, S.J., 2019. The Influence of Parametric Uncertainty on Projections of Forest Land Use, Carbon, and Markets. Journal of Forest Economics. 34(1-2): 129-158.

Baker, J.S., Wade, C.M., Sohngen, B.L., Ohrel, S. and Fawcett, A.A. 2019. Potential complementarity between forest carbon sequestration incentives and biomass energy expansion. Energy Policy. 126: 391-401.

Favero, A., Sohngen, B., Huang, Y. and Jin, Y., 2018. Global cost estimates of forest climate mitigation with albedo: a new integrative policy approach. Environmental Research Letters. 13(12): 125002.

Tian, X, B Sohngen, J Baker, S Ohrel, and A Fawcett. 2018. Will US Forests Continue to Be a Carbon Sink?  Land Economics. 94(1): 97-113.

Favero, A, R Mendelsohn, and B Sohngen. 2018. Can the Global Forest Sector Survive 11° C Warming? Agricultural and Resource Economics Review. 47(2): 388-413.

Kim, SJ, J Baker, B Sohngen, M Shell. 2018.  Cumulative global forest carbon implications of regional bioenergy expansion policies.  Resource and Energy Economics.  53:198-219.

Favero, A., Mendelsohn, R. and Sohngen, B., 2017. Using forests for climate mitigation: sequester carbon or produce woody biomass?. Climatic Change. 144(2): 195-206.

Sedjo R and B. Sohngen. 2016. Impacts of a Tax Reform on the U.S. Timber Sector. Advances in Forestry Letter. 5:24-32.  doi: 10.14355/afl.2016.05.003

Sohngen, B and X Tian.  2016.  Global Climate Change and forests.  Forest Policy and Economics. 72:18-26.  doi:10.1016/j.forpol.2016.06.011

Tian, X, B Sohngen, JB Kim, S Ohrel, and J. Cole.  2016. Global climate change impacts on forests and markets.  Environmental Research Letters.  11(2016): 035011.  doi: 0.1088/1748-9326/11/3/035011

Sedjo, R. A., Sohngen, B., & Riddle, A. (2015). Land Use Change, Carbon, And Bioenergy Reconsidered. Climate Change Economics, Vol. 6, Num. 1.   DOI: 10.1142/S2010007815500025

Sedjo, RA, B Sohngen, and A Riddle. 2013. Wood Bioenergy and Land Use: A Challenge to the Searchinger Hypothesis. Industrial Biotechnology. 9(6): 319-327.

Pearson, T. R., S Brown, B Sohngen, J Henman, and S. Ohrel. 2013. Transaction costs for carbon sequestration projects in the tropical forest sector. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. May: 1-14. DOI: 10.1007/s11027-013-9469-8

Sedjo RA and B Sohngen. 2013.  Wood as a Major Feedstock for Biofuel Production in the United States: Impacts on Forests and International Trade.  Journal of Sustainable Forestry.  32 (1-2): 195-211. DOI:10.1080/10549811.2011.652049

Rose, SK, AA Golub, and B Sohngen. 2013.  Total Factor and Relative Agricultural Productivity and Deforestation.  American Journal of Agricultural Economics.  95.2 (2013): 426-434. DOI: 10.1093/ajae/aas113

Sedjo, R and B Sohngen. 2012. Carbon Sequestration in Forests and Soils.  Annual Review of Resource Economics. Vol. 4: 127-144.  DOI: 10.1146/annurev-resource-083110-115941.

Daigneault, A, B Sohngen, and R Sedjo. 2012.  Economic Approach to Assess the Forest Carbon Implications of Biomass Energy.  Environmental Science and Technology.  46 (11): 5664–5671.  DOI: 10.1021/es2030142

Golub, AA, BB Henderson, TW Hertel, PJ Gerber, SK  Rose, and B Sohngen. 2012.  Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  110(52): 20894-20899. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1108772109.

Rose, S. and B. Sohngen. 2011.  “Global Forest Carbon Sequestration and Climate Policy Design”   Journal of Environment and Development Economics. 16(4): 429-454.

Sun, B. and B. Sohngen. 2009.  “Set-Asides for Carbon Sequestration: Implications for Permanence and Leakage.   Climatic Change.  96:409–419 (DOI 10.1007/s10584-009-9628-9)

Golub, A., T. Hertel, H-L Lee, S. Rose, and B. Sohngen. 2009. “The opportunity cost of land use and the global potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture and forestry.”  Resource and Energy Economics. 31: 299–319 (DOI 10.1016/j.reseneeco.2009.04.007)

Kindermann, G., M. Obersteiner, B. Sohngen J. Sathaye, K. Andrasko, E. Rametsteiner, B. Schlamadinger, S. Wunder, R. Beach. 2008.  “Global cost estimates of reducing carbon emissions through avoided deforestation.”  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.  105(30): 10302–10307.

Sohngen, B., R. Beach, and K. Andrasko.  2008.  “Avoided Deforestation as a Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Tool: Economic Issues.”  Journal of Environmental Quality 37(July-August 2008): 1368-1375.

Daigneault, A., B. Sohngen, and R. Sedjo.  2008.  ” Exchange Rates and the Competitiveness of the United States Timber Sector in a Global Economy.”  Forest Policy and Economics.  10(3): 108-116.

Tavoni, M., B Sohngen, and V. Bosetti.  2007.  ” Forestry and the carbon market response to stabilize climate.”  Energy Policy. 35(11): 5346-5353.

Sohngen, B and R. Sedjo.  2006.  “Carbon Sequestration in Global Forests Under Different Carbon Price Regimes.”  Energy Journal, 27:109-126.

Sohngen, B. and R. Sedjo.  2005. “Impacts of Climate Change on Forest Product Markets: Implications for North American Producers.” Forestry Chronicle 81(5): 669-674

Sedjo, R.A. and B. Sohngen.  2004.  “What are the Impacts of Global Warming on U.S. Forests, Regions, and the U.S. Timber Industry?  Penn State Environmental Law Review.  12(1): 95-116.

Sohngen, B. and S. Brown.  2004.  “Measuring Leakage from Carbon Projects in Open Economies: A Stop Timber Harvesting Project as a Case Study.” Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 34: 829-839

Sohngen, B. and R. Mendelsohn.  2003.  “An Optimal Control Model of Forest Carbon Sequestration”  American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 85(2): 448-457.

Sohngen, B., R. Mendelsohn, and R. Sedjo. 2001.  ” A Global Model of Climate Change Impacts on Timber Markets.” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics.  26(2): 326-343.

Sohngen, B and R. Alig. 2000  “Mitigation, Adaptation, and Climate Change: Results from Recent Research on the U.S. Forest Sector.  Environmental Science and Policy.  3:235-248.

Sohngen, B. and R. Sedjo. 2000. “Potential Carbon Flux from Timber Harvests and Management in the context of a Global Timber Market.” Climatic Change.  44: 151-172.

Sohngen, B., R. Mendelsohn, R. Sedjo. 1999. “Forest Management, Conservation, and Global Timber Markets” American Journal of Agricultural Economics. 81(1): 1-13.