State of Obesity 2021

by Theresa Ferrari, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development

Today, Trust for America’s Health released The State of Obesity: Better Policies for a Healthier America, its 18th annual report on the nation’s obesity crisis. The report provides an annual snapshot of rates of overweight and obesity for U.S. adults by age, race/ethnicity, and state of residence. They found that 16 states have adult obesity rates at 35% or higher, up from 12 states in 2019. Unfortunately, with a rate of 35.5%, Ohio is one of those 16 states (see map).

Map of U.S. Adult Obesity Rates, from The State of Obesity 2021, Trust for America’s Health

Obesity means that an individual’s body fat and body-fat distribution exceed the level considered healthy and traditionally has been measured by body mass index (BMI). Obesity is defined as a BMI of 30 or higher. The U.S. adult obesity rate has been increasing for decades. As recently as 2012, no state had an adult obesity rate above 35%. It passed 40% for the first time in 2017–2018, now standing at 42.4% overall.

Not surprisingly, the report also noted that social and economic factors linked to obesity were exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. During the pandemic people’s eating habits shifted, levels of food insecurity worsened, physical activity declined, and stress and anxiety increased. These conditions added to the decades long pattern of obesity in America.

Although the report looks at adult obesity, rising obesity rates are also a problem among children and adolescents. Nearly 1 in 5 (19.3%) of U.S. children ages 2 to 19 have obesity. This rate has more than tripled since the mid-1970s. Black and Latino youth have substantially higher rates of obesity than do their White peers.

Obesity has consequences. In adults, obesity is associated with a range of diseases, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, sleep apnea, and many types of cancers, and now higher rates of complications and serious illness from COVID-19.

The prevalence of obesity increases with age, and researchers and practitioners are alarmed by the increased prevalence of chronic diseases among children and adolescents. For example, the incidence of type 2 diabetes in young people has increased significantly.

Establishing good habits early in life is important, because childhood obesity is strongly correlated with risk of adult obesity and poor health. In other words, children who are obese are on a pathway to poor health as adults. The evidence that links lifestyle behaviors (such as food and beverage consumption and physical activity levels) to risks for chronic conditions in adulthood is mounting. By contributing to overweight and obesity, these conditions increase the risk for heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes later in life.

Although important, efforts to change individual behaviors  are not enough to make a difference when a problem is this widespread. As suggested by its title, the report offers many policy level recommendations, including funding for obesity prevention programs, availability of healthy school meals, regulation of advertising of unhealthy food and beverages to children, and expanded access to walking and biking trails. In addition to adopting healthy lifestyle behaviors (such as improving diet, increasing physical activity, and decreasing sedentary time), individuals can also take action and advocate for policy changes that support health in their communities.

References

American Heart Association. (2020). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2020 update. Circulation, 141, e139–e596. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000757

Bauer, U. E., Briss, P. A., Goodman, R. A., & Bowman, B. A. (2014). Prevention of chronic disease in the 21st century: Elimination of the leading preventable causes of premature death and disability in the USA. The Lancet, 384(9937), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60648-6

Burmeister, M. A., Delgado, E., Fincher, T. K., & Virga, K.G. (2021, August 12). Growing pains: The type-2 diabetes epidemic in youth. U.S. Pharmacist. https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/growing-pains-the-type-2-diabetes-epidemic-in-youth

Jenssen, B. P., Kelly, M. K., Powell, M., Bouchelle, Z., Mayne, S. L., & Fiks, A. G. (2021). COVID-19 and changes in child obesity. Pediatrics, 147(5), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-050123

Kwok, S., Adam, S., Ho, J. H., Iqbal, Z., Turkington, P., Razvi, S., Le Roux, C. W., Soran, H., & Syed, A. A. (2020). Obesity: A critical risk factor in the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Obesity, 10(6), Article e12403. https://doi.org/10.1111/cob.12403

Mayer-Davis, E. J., Lawrence, J. M., Dabelea, D., Divers, J., Isom, S., Dolan, L., Imperatore, G., Linder, B., Marcovina, S., Pettitt, D. J., Pihoker, C., & Sayday, S. (2017). Incidence trends of Type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youths, 2002–2012. The New England Journal of Medicine, 376, 1419–1429. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1610187

Pool, L. R., Krefman, A. E., Labarthe, D. R., Greenland, P. Juonala, M., Kahonen, M., Lehtimaki, T., Day, R. S. Bazzano, L. A., Van Horn, L., Liu, L., Frenandez-Alonso, C., Webber, L. S., Pahkala, J. Laitinen, T. T., Raitakari. O. T., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., & Allen, N. B. (2021). The timing and sequence of cardiovascular health decline. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.04.010

Smith, D., K., McMullan, S. M., & Martin, M. J. (2021). Getting hypertension under control in the youngest patients. The Journal of Family Practice, 70(5), 220–228. https://doi.org/10.12788/jfp.0201

Trust for America’s Health. (2021). The state of obesity: Better policies for a healthier America. https://www.tfah.org/report-details/state-of-obesity-2021/

Sizing Up Your Plate with MyPlate

by Theresa Ferrari, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development

Happy birthday, MyPlate! MyPlate is 10 years old this year. It’s a good reminder to think about how we can use MyPlate concepts. How does your plate stack up to MyPlate?

Plate divided in sectionsWhat is MyPlate? MyPlate is a nutritional food guide that was developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to help people become more aware of what they eat and to assist them in making better food choices. The MyPlate icon shows the five food groups: Fruits, Vegetables, Grains, Protein Foods, and Dairy. It features a simple picture of a plate, which offers a visual cue that is easy to relate to, with sections of a plate representing how much of each food group people should consume relative to the other groups.

The 2020–2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans emphasizes the importance of an overall healthy eating pattern with all five groups as key building blocks. Each food group includes a variety of foods that are similar in nutritional makeup, and each group plays an important role in an overall healthy eating pattern.

Current intakes show that from an early age, dietary patterns are not aligned with the Dietary Guidelines.

  • Average intakes for 5- to 8-year-olds are generally within the range of recommended intakes for protein, fruits, and grains (although this is achieved with refined grains, not whole grains), but below in vegetables and dairy.
  • Diet quality declines for the 9- to 13-year-old and 14- to 18-year-old age groups. Grains are within the recommended range, again with whole grains below recommended amounts. Protein foods are at the lower limit of the recommended intake (with older teen girls dropping below). Fruit intake drops, and vegetables and dairy remain low.
  • The difference between recommended food group amounts and current intakes is greater for adolescents ages 14 through 18 than for any other age group across the lifespan. As a result, adolescents are at greater risk of dietary inadequacy than are other age groups.
  • Vegetable intake is especially low and increasing vegetable consumption tends to be particularly difficult. In addition, most diets exceed the recommended limits for added sugars, saturated fat, and sodium.

A recent study found that diets of children in the U.S. have improved modestly but remain poor for most. This improvement in diet quality is promising. However, another report found that more than a third of U.S. children and adolescents consumed fast food. Other researchers have examined sugar-sweetened beverages and junk foods. The results of these studies are cause for concern because fast food,  sugar-sweetened beverages, and junk foods have been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality. These dietary patterns contribute to overweight and obesity, as well as increasing the risk for chronic diseases later in life.

MyPlate Talking Pointsseveral fresh vegetables

  • Fruits – Make half your plate fruits and vegetables: Focus on whole fruits.
  • Vegetables – Make half your plate fruits and vegetables: Vary your veggies.
  • Grains – Make half your grains whole grains.
  • Protein – Vary your protein routine. Choose protein foods like beans, fish, lean meats, and nuts.
  • Dairy – Move to low-fat or fat-free milk or yogurt. Drink fat free or low-fat milk or water instead of sugary drinks.

MyPlate is not perfect–for one thing, the size of the plate matters. The specific amounts of food needed in each group vary by age, gender, and activity level; the Dietary Guidelines provides more detailed information on this topic. Some foods contain ingredients from multiple groups, making them difficult to classify.

The MyPlate icon focuses on incorporating healthful foods; however, all foods in a group are not the same. Foods vary in their nutrient density, that is, the amount of key nutrients they provide relative to the energy (calories) they provide. The key is choosing a variety of foods and beverages from each food group. Nutrients to encourage include protein, fiber, and a range of vitamins and minerals, while those to limit are saturated fat, added sugars, and sodium. That includes cakes, cookies, ice cream, candies, sweetened drinks, and fatty meats like sausages, bacon, and hot dogs. Use these foods as occasional treats but not everyday foods (think of them as “sometimes foods”). Although they do not identify the nutrient density as such, the nutrition facts label can help in identifying specific nutrient content.

Today’s Takeaway: Developing healthy eating habits can go a long way to ensure a better lifestyle now and in the future. MyPlate provides a guide for making healthful choices.

References

Drewnowski, A. (2009). Defining nutrient density: Development and validation of the Nutrient rick Foods Index. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 28(4) 421S–426S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2009.10718106

Fryar, C. D., Carroll, M. D., Ahluwalia, N., & Ogden, C. L. (2020). Fast food intake among children and adolescents in the United States, 2015–2018 (NCHS Data Brief No. 375). https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db375.htm

Gold, A., Larson, M., Tucker, J., & Strang, M. (2017). Classroom nutrition education combined with fruit and vegetable taste testing improves children’s dietary intake. Journal of School Health, 87(2), 106–113.  https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12478

Leung, C. W., DiMatteo, S. G., Gosliner, W. A., & Ritchie, L. D. (2018). Sugar-sweetened beverage and water intake in relation to diet quality in U.S. children. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 54(3), 394–402. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.11.005

Liu, J., Rehm, C. D., Onopa, J., & Mozaffarian, D. (2020). Trends in diet quality among youth in the United States, 1999-2016. Journal of the American Medical Association, 323(12), 1161–1174. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.0878

Liu, J., Lee, Y., Micha, R., Li, Y., & Mozaffarian, D. (2021). Trends in junk food consumption among US children and adults, 2001-2018. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, nqab129. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab129

Snelling, A. M., Newman, C., Ellsworth, D., Kalicki, M. Guthrie, J., Mancino. L., Malloy, E., Van Dyke, H., George, S., & Nash, K. (2017). Using a taste test intervention to promote vegetable consumption. Health Behavior and Policy Review, 4(1), 67–75. https://doi.org/10.14485/HBPR.4.1.8

U.S. Department of Agriculture. MyPlate. https://www.myplate.gov/

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Service. (2020). Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2020–2025 (9th ed.). https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/

Scavenger Hunts

by Theresa Ferrari, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development

Getting outside is good for your health! If you’re looking for some fun this summer, how about doing a scavenger hunt. A scavenger hunt is a game that starts with a prepared list of specific objects for participants to gather or locate. Scavenger hunts are more than just a way to keep busy, they are a way to build critical thinking skills and have fun at the same time. Scavenger hunts with players working in groups has the added benefit of fostering social connections and teamwork. They lend themselves to a variety of situations for many reasons.

  • They don’t require many supplies, which makes them affordable and easy to implement.
  • They can be as simple or elaborate as you want.
  • They can be played as individuals or with teams.
  • They can be customized to a variety of age groups.
  • They are adaptable to small or large groups.
  • They can be played in various ways.

Adults or teens can plan the scavenger hunt or turn the task over to younger children to create it (given some parameters and guidance). For example, camp counselors could plan a scavenger hunt for a Cloverbud day camp.

To create a scavenger hunt, you’ll need to decide on the elements such as the type and theme. Make sure to define if anything is off limits. Then follow these basic steps.

  1. Make a list of items for participants to find or things to do. A Google search will also turn up printable scavenger hunt sheets, such as this one.
  2. Define the search area (backyard, neighborhood, park, etc.)
  3. Decide on a time limit for completion.
  4. Decide how you will complete the game: Is it finding the most items? Or is the goal for everyone to find the items and share what they found? Are you going to do something with the items once your find them?

Scavenger Hunt Ideas

group of children

Scavenger hunts are a great way for kids of all ages to have fun and be active

  • Items that are a particular color or shape
  • Items that involve the senses: something smooth, something soft, 3 things you can hear, etc.
  • Items to correspond to letters of the alphabet
  • Items in nature: leaf, flower, feather, rock, twig, acorn, pine cone, bird’s nest, animal tracks, etc.
  • Items in a neighborhood: traffic light, street sign, mailbox, flag, fire hydrant, fence, etc.
  • Local landmarks or points of interest in the community (park, water, building)
  • Players doing certain activities (making a silly face, climbing on a rock, standing on one foot, etc.)

Mix and match to add some challenge: a red door, a blue flower, a white car.

Scavenger Hunt Variations

  • In a photo scavenger hunt, instead of collecting objects, players take a photo of the items they find, the places they have to locate, or the activity they have to perform. It would require participants to have a camera or smartphone to complete.
  • A virtual scavenger hunt is a great way to connect with friends and family in different locations. The hunt occurs in various locations, but the items you search for are the same. Participants complete the scavenger hunt and then connect with other players over a video conferencing platform.
  • Being outside is a way to get in some physical activity. Being out in nature has other positive benefits. Direct exposure to nature and the outdoors has been found to have a restorative and calming effect. It shifts focus and provides an escape. Check out this site for some ideas for a nature scavenger hunt.
  • If fitness is your focus, direct participants to go to various locations and add in a physical activity to do at each location: 10 jumping jacks, walking lunges, push ups, etc.
  • There’s an app for that! Scavenger hunts have gone digital! You can create one using the Goosechase. This free app lets you create and organize your own scavenger hunt, or you can use the bank of 100+ tested games.

Whatever format you decide on, have fun doing it! Happy hunting!

References

Beighle, A., &  Darst, P. W. (2004). Fitness scavenger hunts for middle school students. Strategies, 17(6), 13–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/08924562.2004.11000369

Gruno, J., & Gribbons, S. L. (2020). Incorporating nature-based physical activity in physical and health education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 91(3), 26–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2019.1705210

Cultivate Mental Health Through Gardening

by Theresa Ferrari, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development

With warmer weather upon us and more daylight every day, my thoughts have turned to spending more time outdoors. Last year I spent more time at home because of the pandemic, and during this time I rekindled my interest in gardening. I was not alone, as there was a surge in interest as evidenced by increased sales of plants and garden-related items. This renewed interest in gardening is expected to grow.

zucchini plant growing

Zucchini growing in my garden last year

Gardening is probably one of the most common ways of interacting with nature. The hands-on aspect of gardening is very appealing. After spending an hour in the garden I can see the results of my work right away. I find there is something satisfying about picking flowers or eating something that I grew, perhaps only minutes after I picked it. I even potted my herbs and moved them indoors for the winter, so I could spice up my wintertime meals. The fruits of your gardening labors may be more than the vegetables or flowers that you grow. It turns out that gardening can also be a great way to cultivate mental health.

Gardening and Mental Health

Although research on young people’s mental health and gardening is limited, within the larger area of studying nature-related activities, researchers have found that gardening has a significant positive impact on several aspects of health. They found a number of health benefits, including reductions in depression and anxiety symptoms and stress, and increased positive emotions, quality of life, sense of community, and physical activity levels. Some benefits can appear right away, but it is unclear how long they persist. It is reasonable to assume the gardening activity needs to be continued to sustain them.

Possible Pathways to Health: How are these benefits possible?

Gardening can be a boon to psychological, physical, and social health. What are the possible pathways for how these benefits can be achieved?

  • Direct exposure to nature and the outdoors by spending time outside has been found to have a restorative and calming effect. It shifts focus, provides an escape, and may facilitate reflection.
  • Beyond the more obvious physical benefits from gardening, it can indirectly have a psychological health benefit. The mechanism for how this works for psychological health isn’t clear, but it could be that increased physical activity is the “driver” of improved mood, as such a connection with physical activity has been demonstrated in other studies.
  • The food produced in gardens provides healthy eating options, which can directly contribute to physical health. People may be more willing to try something that they grew themselves.
  • Gardening is a purposeful activity with a tangible product. A harvest of colorful flowers or tasty vegetables provides a sense of achievement and feelings of success. Mastering new knowledge and skills (that is, things like knowing what and when to plant and the practical tasks of tending plants) can lead to a feeling of accomplishment, which can be a mechanism for mental well-being.

    man and boy in garden

    Make gardening a family activity

  • Social connections may develop by participating in gardening activities as a family or with another group such as a 4-H club. Community gardening allows people to find others with common interests and interact with others in a shared experience.

Young people may be exposed to gardening through a school or after-school community-based program, often accompanied by additional lessons, with the goal of influencing fruit and vegetable consumption. However, it may be more difficult to translate this interest into a home garden. On the other hand, an interest in gardening may grow from family connections.

Ideas for Getting Started or Expanding Your Garden

  • Start with a container garden and branch out from there.
  • Get your family involved.
  • Volunteer to help a family member or neighbor with their garden.
  • Research school-based or community gardens in your area. If one is not available in your area, what would it take to start one? Check out our post on how to create an action plan if starting such a project is something you want to take on. For some inspiration, read about a school garden outreach program started by OSU medical students.

It’s important to recognize that taking on a garden involves responsibility–you will have to tend to it on a regular basis, such as keeping it watered and weeded. The weather or insects may present setbacks. Will you still be interested in caring for your garden after the novelty wears off or you encounter problems? Recognize that having a garden may involve some expenses for seeds, plants, and equipment if not already on hand. If you need help getting started, your local OSU Extension office and Master Gardener Volunteer programs can offer gardening advice.

Time to dig in and harvest the benefits of gardening!

garden vegetables

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References

Evans, A., Ranjit, N., Rutledge, R., Medina, J., Jennings, R., Smiley, A., Stigler, M., & Hoelscher, D. (2012). Exposure to multiple components of a garden-based intervention for middle school students increases fruit and vegetable consumption. Health Promotion Practice, 13(5), 608–616. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839910390357

Masterton, W., Carver, H., Parkes, T., & Park, K. (2020). Greenspace interventions for mental health in clinical and non-clinical populations: What works, for whom, and in what circumstances? Health and Place, 64, 102338. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102338

Ober Allen, J., Alaimo, K., Elam, D., & Perry, E. (2008). Growing vegetables and values: Benefits of neighborhood-based community gardens for youth development and nutrition. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 3(4), 418–439. https://doi.org/10.1080/19320240802529169

Shao, Y., Elsadek, M., & Liu, B. (2020). Horticultural activity: Its contribution to stress recovery and wellbeing for children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 1229. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041229

Skelton, K. R., Lowe, C., Zaltz, D. A., & Benjamin-Neelon, S. E. (2020). Garden-based interventions and early childhood health: An umbrella review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17, 121. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-01023-5

Soga, M., Gaston, K. J., & Yamaura, Y. (2017). Gardening is beneficial for health: A meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine Reports, 5, 92–99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.11.007

Van Den Berg, A. E., & Custers, M. H. G. (2011). Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress. Journal of Health Psychology, 16(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105310365577

Where’s the Sodium? And Why Does It Matter?

by Theresa Ferrari, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development

Sodium, generally in the form of salt, is a mineral that is regularly added to foods for flavoring and preservation. It is a necessary mineral for the human body, so you do need some sodium (a very small amount) in your diet. Your nervous and cardiovascular systems cannot operate properly without it. However, the average American gets too much sodium. Too much sodium increases a person’s risk for high blood pressure, which can lead to heart disease and stroke. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S.

High blood pressure and stroke may seem a long way off for teens. However, many young people are already consuming large amounts of sodium. According to the American Heart Association, children with high-sodium diets are almost 40% more likely to have elevated blood pressure than those with lower-sodium diets. About 1 in 7 youth aged 12 to 19 years old had high blood pressure  (hypertension) or raised blood pressure. Youth with high blood pressure are more likely to have high blood pressure when they are adults. Raised blood pressure is a major cause of heart disease. Therefore, eating a diet lower in sodium can help lower blood pressure, and thus may prevent heart disease later in life.

Some sodium is necessary because it has many important jobs — sending nerve signals throughout the body, tightening and relaxing muscles, and maintaining proper fluid balance. The kidneys regulate the body’s sodium level by getting rid of any excess. But if there’s too much sodium in the blood, the kidneys can’t keep up. Excess sodium in the blood pulls out water from the cells; as this fluid increases, so does the volume of blood. That means more work for the heart just to do its everyday job of pumping blood, which increases pressure in the blood vessels. Over time, this extra work takes it toll, and a person’s chances of suffering from heart disease goes up.

How much is enough? The 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend Americans ages 14 years old and older eat no more than 2,300 milligrams (mg) of sodium a day. For comparison, 2,300 mg is the amount in about a teaspoon of salt. Lower consumption — no more than 1,500 mg per day, about two-thirds of a teaspoon of salt — is recommended for younger children, middle-aged and older adults, African Americans, and people with high blood pressure. With most Americans getting much more than they need — 3,400 mg of sodium per day, on average – it easy to see that there is room for improvement in the American diet.

Sodium by the Numbers

1,500 mg Recommended limit for young children, middle-aged and older adults, African Americans, and people with high blood pressure
2,300 mg Recommended limit for Americans ages 14 years old and older
3,400 mg What most Americans get in their diet

Sources of Sodium

Most of the sodium in our diet comes from salt. The words “salt” and “sodium” are often used interchangeably, but they don’t mean the same thing. The chemical name for salt is sodium chloride; salt is 40% sodium and 60% chloride; therefore 1 teaspoon of salt is equivalent to 2,300 mg of sodium.

Salt is the source of about 90% of sodium in the diet. But most salt doesn’t come from adding salt during cooking or at the table — it comes from processed foods and restaurant meals.

 

According to national data about Americans’ eating habits, these foods are the leading contributors to the sodium young people eat:

  • pizza
  • breads and rolls
  • processed meats (such as bacon, sausage, cold cuts, and hot dogs)
  • savory snacks (such as chips and pretzels)
  • sandwiches (including burgers)
  • chicken patties, nuggets, and tenders
  • pasta mixed dishes (like spaghetti with sauce)
  • Mexican dishes (like burritos and tacos)
  • cheese

High-Sodium Foods Commonly Consumed by Children

Did any of these foods surprise you? Sometimes it’s easy to tell when foods taste salty. But other higher sodium foods are deceptive, such as bread, because they don’t taste salty. Then there’s my snack of salted mixed nuts: they taste salty, but with 120 mg per 1/4 cup serving, they have just 5% of the daily value for sodium. These examples mean that you have to pay special attention to sodium content when shopping and eating out.

The sodium content can be found on the Nutrition Facts label. You can find the percentage of daily value (% DV) on the label, or by dividing the amount of sodium in a serving by 2,300 mg. As a general guide:

General Guide for Low- and High-Sodium Foods

Sodium Scavenger Hunt

Do you know the amount of sodium in  your diet? Time to go on a scavenger hunt in your cupboards and refrigerator to locate sources of sodium. Collect at least five or six different foods, and try to get different types of foods. If you want to include a food that doesn’t have a food label (such as fresh fruit or vegetables), you can find expanded nutrient profiles in FoodData Central of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Download the Sodium Scavenger Hunt, and then use the information from the labels to complete this activity.

Here is an example:

Food Item

Serving Size

Sodium Content     (per serving)

Sodium Level

%DV

Sodium Swap
Carrots, fresh 3 oz 65 mg 3% Low sodium food – no swap needed
Tuscan-Style chicken & white bean soup

1 container (15.5 oz)

1,420 mg

62%

Lower-sodium soup

Homemade soup using no-salt added beans

What conclusions can you draw from your table? Were you able to come up with sodium swaps?

Today’s Takeaway:  Sodium is a necessary nutrient, but most Americans consume more than is recommended. Now that you know the dietary recommendation for sodium, look for our follow-up post on more sodium swaps and ways to reduce sodium in your diet.

Subscribe: Don’t miss out on our health living posts. You can subscribe by clicking on the “Subscribe” button in the lower right corner of your screen. You can also check out all the other Grab and Go Resources.

Adapted from:

American Heart Association. (2018). Sodium and kids. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-eating/eat-smart/sodium/sodium-and-kids

Frank, A. P., & Clegg, D. J. (2016). Dietary guidelines for Americans—Eat less salt (JAMA Patient Page). Journal of the American Medical Association, 316(7), 782. https://doi.org10.1001/jama2016.0970

Harvard Health Publishing. (2009). Sodium, salt, and you. Harvard Medical School. https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/sodium-salt-and-you

Harvard Health Publishing. (2014). How to stay in the sodium safe zone. Harvard Medical School. https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/how-to-stay-in-the-sodium-safe-zone

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Sodium in your diet. https://www.fda.gov/food/nutrition-education-resources-materials/sodium-your-diet

Additional References

American Heart Association. (2016). Why so many African-Americans have high blood pressure. https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/why-high-blood-pressure-is-a-silent-killer/high-blood-pressure-and-african-americans

Arbuto, N. J., Zoilkovska, A., Hooper, L., Elliott, P., Cappuccio, F. P., & Meerpohl, J. J. (2013). Effect of lower sodium intake on health: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 346, f1326. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f1326

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). Leading causes of death. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm

Hardy, S. T., & Urbina, E. M. (2021). Blood pressure in childhood and adolescence. American Journal of Hypertension, 34(3), 242–249. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/phab004

Jackson, S. L., Zhang, Z., Wiltz, J. L., Loustalot, F., Ritchey, M. D., Goodman, A. B., & Yang, Q.  (2018). Hypertension among youths — United States, 2001–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67, 758–762. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6727a2

Leyvraz, M., Chatelan, A., da Costa, B. R., Taffé, P., Paradis, G., Bovet, P., Bochud, M., & Chiolero, A. (2018). Sodium intake and blood pressure in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental and observational studies. International Journal of Epidemiology, 47(6), 1786–1810. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy121

Kit, B. K., Kuklina, E., Carroll, M. D., Ostchega, Y., Freedman, D. S., & Ogden, C. L. (2015). Prevalence of and trends in dyslipidemia and blood pressure among US children and adolescents, 1999-2012. JAMA Pediatrics, 169(3), 272–279. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2014.3216

Rios-Leyvraz, M., Bovert, P., & Chiolero, A. (2020). Estimating the effect of a reduction of sodium intake in childhood on cardiovascular diseases in later life. Journal of Human Hypertension, 34, 335–337. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-01800137-z

U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2020).  Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020–2025 (9th ed.). https://www.dietaryguidelines.gov/resources/2020-2025-dietary-guidelines-online-materials

 

Happy National Public Health Week!

4-H clover emblemWhat Does Public Health Mean to You?

by Aubry Fowler, 4-H Educator, Fairfield County

For me, health is one of the most important ‘H’s we have in the 4-H Pledge. It is about pledging our health to better living so that we can make the best better. I actually studied public health in college, so it is truly one of my favorite topics to share with 4-H members and families, and I enjoy creating events to promote its purpose.

I imagine for many people public health was just a phrase they may have heard in passing. Then, the COVID-19 pandemic changed that for many people, and public health became a buzz-worthy phrase. Outside of the pandemic, what does it mean in our daily lives? Public health affects everyone in a variety of ways from where we live (environmental health), to how we engage with friends online (social health), to what we eat (nutrition), and everything in between. When you take a step back and realize how broad public health can be, you realize how important it truly is for all of us.

The American Public Health Association (APHA) has worked to devote a time to raise awareness about public health and its impact on our lives, which is why this organization promotes National Public Health Week. This year, it is celebrated from April 5-11, 2021, with many events conducted online. To quote APHA, “We may be physically distant from each other, but now it’s more important than ever to come together. That is why our 2021 theme is ‘Building Bridges to Better Health.’ Making communities safe and healthy is public health’s top priority.”  I would encourage you to check out their website: http://www.nphw.org/ to learn about events, resources and find ways to get involved this year.

Another great way to learn more about public health may be as simple as subscribing to the Ohio 4-H Healthy Living Journal so that you can receive updates about blog posts, get ideas for future meetings or events, or learn something new. While researching the National Public Health Week activities, I was excited to learn about their Daily Themes and Fact Sheets. There is a page devoted to specific public health topics that you can ‘grab and go’ to learn more about or share with others. Some of the topics this year include advancing racial equity, strengthening community, taking care of our mental health and wellness, and building COVID-19 resilience.

I know many of us are in the full swing of our 4-H year from selecting projects, working with livestock, or finalizing enrollments, but I hope you take some time to do something to connect, create, and take action to improve our public health. Find some time to share a new health tip you learned with a friend, invite your family to take a walk outside, or practice mindfulness for a minute. The Ohio 4-H Healthy Living team is working intensely to provide research-based information that is easy to share with our 4-H community. If you haven’t have not taken a minute to look at the Grab & Go Resource page – I invite you to do that now and select a lesson you could share with your club at a meeting or event.

4-H Healthy Living Resources

The fourth H in 4-H represents Health. When reciting the 4-H pledge, members pledge their health to better living. Health as the 4th H can mean many things, including:

  • Taking a health-related project
  • Learning more about health through reading and hands-on learning
  • Adopting healthy behaviors
  • Encouraging one’s family and friends to do things to be healthier
  • Teaching others about a health-related topic
  • Making changes in the food served at club meetings and county events to reflect health recommendations
  • Learning about health-related careers
  • Talking to community leaders about health issues
  • Creating a plan to address a health-related issue in the community

Health is very important to the overall 4-H program. Whether members take a health project or not, we want involvement in 4-H to include educational experiences focused on health.

Ohio 4-H has some new healthy living resources, brought to you by the Ohio 4-H Healthy Living Design Team. These resources can help club officers and 4-H professionals add a dose of the 4th H to their meetings.

Ohio 4-H Healthy Living Officer Resource Guide

Healthy Living officers have the opportunity to lead activities that will be both fun and educational for their 4-H club. The Healthy Living Officer Resource Guide is a new 20-page resource designed to accompany the Healthy Living Officer’s Record Book. Both can be found on the Ohio 4-H Officer Resources page. The resource guide includes background information on the healthy living area, tips for planning your part in club meetings, evaluating sources of information, and a list of current healthy living projects. The remaining sections are organized by the core topics covered in the national 4-H Healthy Living mission area:

  • nutrition
  • physical activity
  • mental, emotional, and social health
  • safety and injury prevention
  • prevention of tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use

Each section includes a brief description, sample activities, and sources of additional resources to learn more about the topic. You’ll find ideas for icebreakers, roll call, displays, presentation, guest speakers, and community service projects.

Healthy Living Grab and Go Resources Page

We’ve created activities that go along with many of our blog posts, and now they are organized on the Grab and Go Resources page. On the grab and go page you’ll find lesson plans that you can download and use at your next meeting. You can use one activity, or combine several related activities to create the plan for an entire meeting. The lessons are grouped together by topics that correspond with the Healthy Officer Resource Book: nutrition; physical activity; and mental, emotional, and social health.

Additional topics include:

  • The newest section is Mindful Moments, which are short, 5-minute activities that can be used at the start of any meeting.
  • COVID-19 activities address situations brought on by the pandemic.
  • Creative Well-Being activities are fun activities that exercise creativity in different ways.

As we write new blog posts, we will continue to add resources to the grab and go page, so check back often. Click the “subscribe” button to receive an email notification about new blog content.

And don’t forget that we have Ohio 4-H Mental Health Month resources on our 4-H Healthy Living webpage.

Taking Action for Health: Create an Action Plan

by Theresa Ferrari, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development

You have probably heard about the importance of setting personal health goals. Creating an action plan takes goal setting to the next level by focusing on a group-, organizational-, or community-level goal.

Action planning is a process that can be simplified into three related parts, represented in the image below.

  1. Identify
  2. Create
  3. Evaluate

I used the gear shapes to represent that these three parts are connected. As well, an action plan is a living document. The arrows represent that the process is not a straight line from Point A to Point B. At any time, you may have to return to an earlier step, for example, if you hit a barrier or if something doesn’t go the way you originally planned it.

Action Planning Process – Identify-Create-Evaluate

An important aspect of making a plan is to write it down. That way, you are able to refer back to it and can monitor how it’s going.

The Identify—Create—Evaluate process is outlined below. Each part has additional questions to think through as you create the plan.

Identify an Issue

There is no shortage of health issues needing attention in our communities. We are all living through the worst public health crisis in a century. Closer to home, you may have a personal connection – something you or a family member are dealing with. Perhaps it is something that has affected your local school, community, or state.

  1. Identify the issue or situation you want to address.
    • What is the problem?
  2. Identify and find the information you need.
    • Start with the facts.
  3. Identify others to be involved.
    • Who might share your concern about this issue?
    • Why should someone else care?

Here are some things to think about:

  • Are other people aware this is an issue? If not, what might convince them that it is important?
  • Who is affected? How many people are affected?
  • What can happen if we don’t do something about this issue or situation?
  • Are some people opposed to addressing this issue? Why? What might convince them otherwise?

Where can you get information?

  • Local and state health department
  • Health professionals in the community, such as school nurse
  • Community agency
  • Universities
  • Government agencies, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Nonprofit and professional organizations, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s County Health Ranking and Roadmaps
  • Internet search (be sure to consult reputable sources of information)

Create a Plan

  1. What will you do?
    • Who do you want to reach?
    • What do you want them to do?
    • How will things be accomplished?
    • What steps are involved?
  2. Where will you do it?
  3. When will it happen? What is your timeline?
  4. Who will do it?
  5. Who or what will help you? That is, what resources do you need to carry out the plan?
  6. What are the challenges you might encounter (and how can you overcome them)?

Dream big, but be realistic about what you can accomplish with the resources you have.

Take action! Put the plan into action and keep going.

Monitor your progress so you know if you are on track or if you have to make changes.

Be flexible; as the plan unfolds, be flexible enough to change course if you encounter a barrier or are presented with a new opportunity, and revise your plan as needed.

Evaluate

It’s important to know if you met your goal.

  1. Results
    • What did you do?
    • What does success look like?
    • How can you measure it?
  2. Share
    • How and with whom will you share the results of what you did?

Today’s Take-Away: Working through these questions will help you to create an action plan. You can download the Creating an Action Plan Handout here. The beauty of this process is that it can be repeated over an over, not just with Healthy Living action plans, but on any topic. Actively involving youth in addressing health issues can build skills and effect community change.

 

Using the Nutrition Facts Label

 

Theresa Ferrari, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development

National Nutrition Month® is an annual campaign created by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. In March, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics focuses attention on healthful eating through National Nutrition Month®. This year’s theme, Personalize Your Plate, promotes creating nutritious meals to meet individuals’ cultural and personal food preferences.

Making informed food choices and developing healthful eating habits is a year-round endeavor. The Nutrition Facts Label is a tool that can help you make good choices. The nutrition facts label appears not only on packaged foods, but on many fruits and vegetables in the produce section of the grocery store.

Sample Nutrition Facts Label

Size Up Servings

Pay attention to the serving size and the number of serving you eat or drink to discover the total number of calories and nutrients you are consuming.

  • Keep in mind that packages can–and often do–contain more than one serving. When you don’t know the serving size, it’s easy to consume more calories and nutrients than you intended.

 Consider the Calories

Calories from food provide the energy your body needs to function and grow. When you are active, you “burn” calories. To keep your body healthy, balance the number of calories you eat and drink with the number of calories your body uses.

When checking a food’s calories, remember this guide:

  • 100 calories per serving of an individual food is considered a moderate amount of calories.
  • 400 calories or more per serving of an individual food is considered high in calories.

 Choose Nutrients Wisely

The Daily Values are reference amounts of nutrients to consume or not to exceed each day for adults and children 4 years of age and older. % Daily Value (%DV) is the percentage of the Daily Value for each nutrient in a serving of the food. It shows how much a nutrient in a serving of the food contributes to a total daily diet. Use %DV to see if a serving of the food is high or low in an individual nutrient and to compare food products. The nutrients featured on the label were chosen because they tend to be low in Americans’ diets.

  • 5% DV or less of a nutrient per serving is considered low.
  • 20% DV or more of a nutrient per serving is considered high.
  • Nutrients to get more of: dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, iron, and potassium.
  • Nutrients to get less of: saturated fat, trans fat, sodium, and added sugars.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration oversees food and beverage labeling. Food labeling is required for most prepared foods, such as breads, cereals, canned and frozen foods, snacks, desserts, and drinks. Nutrition labeling for raw produce (fruits and vegetables) and fish is voluntary. You can find an interactive Nutrition Facts label here.

Now that you’ve increased your label IQ, here are a few tips to capitalize on that knowledge.

Measure out single serving of snacks. Read the Nutrition Facts label on your favorite snacks and measure out single servings according to the serving size listed on the label. Keep them in resealable plastic bags or containers so you can quickly grab-and-go!

Do a label audit. Read the label on food packages in your cupboards and refrigerator. Then decide if you need to swap out items for more healthful choices, and read labels in the grocery store. Add items to your family’s shopping list that are higher in nutrients to get more of and lower in nutrients to get less of.

 Swap out one item. Check out the differences in calories and nutrients between various menu choices. Compare foods that are prepared different ways, like grilled chicken vs. fried chicken, baked potatoes vs. French fries, and compare small vs. large portions. And remember, a “super-sized” item can mean doubling (or tripling) the calories and nutrients because the serving size is larger.

You can find expanded nutrient profiles in FoodData Central of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Today’s Take-Away: Choosing healthful food and beverages is one way to take care of your physical health. The Nutrition Facts Label is a tool you can use to make healthful choices. You can download a description of the label FDA-ReadtheLabel-Infographic-English.

Adapted from:

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. (2021). National Nutrition Month ® campaign toolkit. https://www.eatright.org/food/resources/national-nutrition-month/toolkit

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018). Nutrition facts: Read the label: Cool tips for kids. https://www.fda.gov/food/new-nutrition-facts-label/read-label-youth-outreach-materials

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2018). Nutrition facts: Read the label leader’s guide. https://www.fda.gov/food/new-nutrition-facts-label/read-label-youth-outreach-materials

Five Keys to Virtual Connection

by Tyler Kessler, 4-H Educator, Adventure Central

Our entire world is connecting virtually now more than ever, and it is safe to say that virtual platforms like Zoom and Google Meet are here to stay. This move from in-person school classrooms and offices to online video-call sessions has left many people asking if we are truly able to experience meaningful personal connections during this time of isolation and heavy ‘Zooming.’ A report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, one of many produced by various sources over the last year, supports that the loss of in-person connections is linked to increases in mental health struggles and feelings of hopelessness, particularly among young people.

Clearly, we need to be more intentional about connecting with others now more than ever before, and the good news is that we can use our online platforms to do just that! With a little creativity and intentional thinking, we can absolutely use technology in new ways to meaningfully connect with our own emotions and with our friends, teachers, and co-workers! Making time for fun activities, laughter, and getting to know one another before trying to learn can have a huge effect on how we feel and what we are able to remember. Not to mention that virtual and in-person activities that involve joy and laughter lead to the release of dopamine in our brains, which helps fight anxiety and depression!

Below are five keys for virtual connection that can help to jump-start your virtual connectivity during online sessions. Read through each and think about how you can use one or more keys to bring connections back to your virtual spaces with friends, family, and co-workers:

computer screen with list

  1. Connection before content – Fun, social-emotional interactions using games, and even GIFs found using your cell phone, at the opening and closing of virtual meetings can bring better connection with content through connections with peers and meeting hosts.
  2. Use time to make space – The world of virtual connection deprives us of much needed transition time. Coffee breaks with co-workers, walks with friends between school classes, and daily commutes typically provide our brains time to transition between tasks. As we travel quickly and efficiently from Zoom-to-Zoom, it is more important than ever to add time to assess our feelings so that we can create space for mindful transitions and connectivity.
  3. Hands-on learning is minds-on learning – We know STEM activities provide excellent opportunities for ‘hands-on, minds-on’ learning. Additionally, STEM-related concepts often parallel social emotional teaching. It is time to use out-of-the-box programming to form connections that reach across topic areas.
  4. Keep activities simple and adaptable – Have you ever heard the phrase, “Less is more?” Screens can make it harder for us to focus for long periods of time, and big learning can often come from simple activities. Do not be afraid to choose a 10-minute activity to teach that new lesson!
  5. Safe spaces create connection – Common video meeting platforms allow participants to mute their voices, turn off their cameras, and simply use ‘chat box’ features to communicate. These features can make it feel like connection cannot be powerful in the virtual environment, but they also provide users a unique way to make aspects of connecting with others feel less ‘risky,’ particularly for young people. We know that feeling safe is crucial for genuine trust and connection, and activities that utilize chat box features can create safe spaces for sharing that are not available in person.

This battle against social isolation is a difficult one, but do not forget that you can create healthy connections everywhere you are! Make a phone call to the person you have not talked with in a while. Send a text to a close friend or relative, reminding them about a special shared memory you have. Whether you are on a Zoom call for school or work, or you are sitting in your room at home with your cell phone in hand, remembering you are never alone and making the simple choice to connect with others are the most important keys for virtual connection. So, what are you waiting for? Get connected!

Each key has a downloadable activity that reinforces a connection concept. Check out these and other Grab & Go resources you can use during your Zoom or other virtual sessions!