Bioplastics

Center for Applied Plant Sciences (CAPS)

BAIT: The Bioplastic Alternatives Interdisciplinary Team

Plastic production has outgrown most other man-made materials, with packaging, agriculture, and construction accounting for ~ 60% of its use. More than 90% of the plastics are petroleum-based and non-biodegradable, and >80% end up in landfills, raising environmental concerns. Dependence on crude oil makes the plastic industry unsustainable and plastic markets vulnerable to oil price volatility. Therefore, BAIT (The Bioplastic Alternatives Interdisciplinary Team) seeks to create a new family of bio-based and biodegradable products by value-added use of agricultural and food processing waste streams, as alternatives to petroleum-based plastics prevalent in packaging, agricultural, and construction industries. The team includes a broad breadth of interdisciplinary faculty across Food Science, Horticulture and Crop Science, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chemistry, Architecture, Material Science, and Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering.

Team Members

Yael Vodovotz (CFAES) Lead PI

Osvaldo Campanella (CFAES) Co-PI

Emmanouil Chatzakis (CFAES) Co-PI

Katrina Cornish (CFAES) Co-PI

Justin Diles (COE) Co-PI

Nan Hu (COE) Co-PI

Kurt Koelling (COE) Co-PI

David Nagib (ASC) Co-PI

Xiaoying Zhao (left) and Dr. Yael Vodovotz (Center) prepare to present to an audience including CAPS director Jay Hollick (Right) at the 2019 CAPS Fall retreat.

Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Stuides (CAPPS)

The Center for Advanced Processing and Packaging Studies (CAPPS) is an National Science Foundation IUCRC Founded Center designed to foster partnerships between industry and universities for the mutual benefit of both parties and the advancement of food processing and packaging research.

This program model is designed to ensure all research undertaken by university sites is applicable and relevant to industry. The cooperative is designed to leverage industry funds for university research. In exchange for funding, industry members direct research at the sites and have access to university expertise and facilities.

CAPPS is The Ohio State University’s partnership with North Carolina State University and University of California-Davis, and is the only center in the food science/food engineering discipline. OSU is now the managing site for this multi-university center.

Expertise in food chemistry, biochemistry, nutrition, microbiology and engineering are among the research strengths available through CAPPS. Current programs focus on emerging technologies such as ohmic heating, high pressure processing, ozone processing, continuous microwave heating, and aseptic processing of particulates. The Center uses an interdisciplinary approach to solve problems for industry.

Funded Projects:

Spring  2019

  • Dr. Katrina Cornish (OSU) Bio-based waterborne adhesive from guayule natural rubber with bio-epoxide as a curing agent for flexible packaging applications

Fall 2018

  • Dr. Yael Vodovotz (OSU) NR containing water based laminating adhesive

Spring 2018

  • Dr. Yael Vodovotz (OSU) Development and assessment of bio-based films from PHA and natural rubber for food packaging applications

Spring 2017

  • Dr. Yael Vodovotz (OSU) Development and assessment of food trays from blend of PHBV (with 2% HV) and natural rubber intended for microwave packaging applications

Fall 2016

  • Dr. Yael Vodovotz (OSU) Assessment of PHA or PHBV high molecular weigh natural rubber food trays
  • Dr. Yael Vodovotz (OSU) Effect of microwave heating on water dynamics in a gluten sucrose model system

Fall 2015

  • Dr. Yael Vodovotz (OSU) Effect of microwave heating on water dynamics in a wheat starch/sucrose model system

Investigators

Post Doctoral Research Associate: Xiaoying Zhao

Xiaoying’s area of interest is the development of bio-based composites for food packaging applications. We tailor the properties of the PHBV bioplastic by incorporating natural rubber to make it more flexible and processable. We utilize thermal, mechanical, and rheological analysis to fully characterize the PHBV/natural rubber composite and subsequently assess the stability of the trays made from the composites with high and low acid food under freezing and microwaving. This research would serve for future commercialization of the PHBV/natural rubber food trays and provide helpful information for future research on the development of bioplastics for microwave packaging applications.

Publications

  1. Modi, S., Koelling, K., Vodovotz, Y. Thermal and rheological properties of PHB synthesized with various hydroxyvalerate content for potential use in food packaging, 67th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Plastics Engineers 2009, ANTEC 2009, 2009.
  2. Modi, S., Koelling, K., Vodovotz, Y. Material characterization of novel bioplastics for food packaging. Society of Plastics Engineers, 10.1002/spepro.000065, 2009.
  3. Modi, S., Koelling, K., Vodovotz, Y. Assessment of PHB with varying hydroxyvalerate content for potential packaging applications, European Polymer Journal 47(2):179-186, 2011.
  4. Modi, S., Koelling, K., Vodovotz, Y. Miscibility of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) with high molecular weight poly (lactic acid) blends determined by thermal analysis, Journal of Applied Polymer Science 124(4): 3074-3081, 2012.
  5. Modi, S., Koelling, K., Vodovotz, Y. Assessing the mechanical, phase inversion, and rheological properties of poly-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-(R)-3-hydroxyvalerate](PHBV) blended with poly-(l-lactic acid)(PLA), European Polymer Journal 49(11):3681-3690, 2013.
  6. Modi, S.; Cornish, K.; Koelling, K; Vodovotz, Y. Fabrication and improved performance evaluation of Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) with Natural rubber for engineered composites. SPE ANTEC: 330-333, 2014.
  7. Cornish, K., Koelling, K. and Vodovotz, Y. 2016. Fabrication and improved performance of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) for packaging by addition of high molecular weight natural rubber. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 133(37): 3681-3690, 2016
  8. Modi, S., Cornish, K., Koelling, K. and Vodovotz. Y. Mechanical and rheological properties of PHBC bioplastic composites engineered with invasive, plant fibers. Transactions of the ASABE. 59(6):1883-1891, 2016.
  9. Modi, S., Cornish, K., Koelling, K. and Vodovotz, Y. Thermal and morphological analysis of novel composites made with fibers from invasive wet-lands plants and poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate. Transactions of the ASABE. 59(5):1451-1458, 2016.
  10. Zhao, X., Venoor, V., Koelling, K., Cornish, K., Vodovotz, Y., Bio-based blends from poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and natural rubber for packaging applications, Journal of Applied Polymer Science DOI: 10.1002/app.47334 (14 pages), 2018.
  11.  Zhao, X., Ji, K., Koelling, K., Cornish, K., Vodovotz, Y. Optimal Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Natural Rubber-Toughened PHBV Bioplastics Intended for Food Packaging Applications. Food Packaging and Shelf Life (submitted 2018 December).
  12. Zhao, X., Cornish, K., Vodovotz, Y. Synergistic mechanisms underlie the peroxide and coagent improvement of natural rubber toughened poly (3-hydroxybuty-rate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) mechanical performance. Polymers (submitted 2019 Jan).

Reviews and Abstracts

  1. S. Modi, K. Koelling, and Y. Vodovotz, 2008. Thermal and Rheological Characterization of PHB Synthesized with Various Valerate Content. Ohio State Institute of Material Research Symposium.
  2.  S. Modi, K. Koelling, and Y. Vodovotz, 2009. Thermal and Rheological Characterization of PHB Synthesized with Various Valerate Content for Potential Food Packaging Applications. Society of Plastic Engineers Annual Conference. (Oral Presentation)
  3.  S. Modi, K. Koelling, and Y. Vodovotz, 2009. Characterization of PHB Synthesized with Various Valerate Content for Potential Food Packaging Applications. Institute of Food Technologist student poster contest. (Poster)
  4.  S. Modi, K. Koelling. Y. Vodovotz, 2010 Thermal and rheological properties of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and poly-(Lactic Acid) blends for food packaging applications. Oral presentation Society of Plastic Engineers- Plastics Environmental Division (GPEC).
  5. S. Modi, K. Koelling. Y. Vodovotz, 2010. Thermal and rheological Properties of Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and poly-(Lactic Acid) blends for food packaging applications. Oral presentation at 38th North American Thermal Analysis Society (NATAS) Thermal and Bio-plastics division.
  6. S. Modi, K. Koelling, and Y. Vodovotz, 2011. Thermal and Rheological Properties of Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Poly (Lactic Acid) blends for Food Packaging Applications. Ohio Innovation Summit: Returning to Ohio’s Material Roots.
  7. X. Zhao, V. Venoor, K. Cornish, Y. Vodovotz. Bio-based composites for food packaging. Edward F. Hayes Graduate Research Forum, February, 2017.
  8.  X. Zhao, V. Venoor, K. Cornish, Y. Vodovotz. Bio-based composites for food packaging. OSU Material Week Conference. April, 2017.
  9. X. Zhao, V. Venoor, K. Cornish, Y. Vodovotz. Bio-based composites for food packaging. Fall 192nd Technical Meeting of the Rubber Division, ACS. May, 2017.
  10.  X. Zhao, K. Cornish, Y. Vodovotz. The application of natural rubber to toughen bioplastic through reactive extrusion with synergic use of peroxide and coagent. May, 2019.

Papers in Proceedings

  1. Vodovotz, Y., Cornish, K., Zhao, X. and Modi, S.J. Fabrication and improved performance of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) for packaging by addition of high molecular weight natural rubber. Proceedings of the International Elastomer Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, October 10-13, 2016.

Presentations

  1. May, 2014, Biopolymers and Polymers session in OSU Materials Week, Columbus, OH. Yael Vodovotz, Characterization of Novel Bioplastic Elastomer Blends of Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Hevea Natural Rubber
  2. June 22-24, 2009, 67th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Plastics Engineers (ANTEC), Chicago, IL. Sunny Modi, Kurt Koelling, Yael Vodovotz, Thermal and Rheological Properties of PHB Synthesized with Various Hydroxyvalerate Content for Potential Use in Food Packaging Applications.
  3. May 16-20, 2010, Proceedings of Society of Plastic Engineers-Antec conference Orlando, FL. Sunny Modi, Kurt Koelling, Yael Vodovotz, Thermal and Rheological Properties of Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Poly (Lactic Acid) blends for Food Packaging Applications.
  4. June 6-9, 2009, Institute of Food Technologist Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA. Sunny Modi, Kurt Koelling, Yael Vodovotz, Characterization of PHB Synthesized with Various Valerate Content for Potential Food Packaging Applications-Poster Presentation.
  5. Mar. 8-10, 2010, Society of Plastic Engineers-Plastics Environmental Division (GPEC), Orlando, FL. Sunny Modi, Kurt Koelling, Yael Vodovotz, Thermal and Rheological Properties of Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Poly (Lactic Acid) blends for Food Packaging Applications-Poster Presentation.
  6. Aug. 15-18, 2010, North American Thermal Analysis Society (NATAS) Thermal and Bio-plastics Division, Philadelphia, PA. Sunny Modi, Kurt Koelling, Yael Vodovotz. Thermal and Rheological Properties of Poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and Poly (Lactic Acid) blends for Food Packaging Applications.
  7. Sept. 2016, AAIC International Conference, Rochester, NY. Varun Venoor, Xiaoying Zhao, Katrina Cornish, Yael Vodovotz, Bio-Based composites for food packaging.
  8. Oct. 3, 2017, CAPPS Fall Meeting, Columbus, OH. Xiaoying Zhao, Varun Venoor, Katrina Cornish, Yael Vodovotz, Assessment of PHA or PHBV high molecular weight natural rubber food trays-final report.
  9. May 9-12, 2017, OSU Materials Week, Columbus, OH. Xianjie (Tony) Ren and Katrina Cornish, Reinforcement of guayule natural rubber with silica and egg shells.
  10. May 9-12, 2017, OSU Materials Week, Columbus, OH. Xiaoying Zhao, Varun Venoor, Yael Vodovotz, Katrina Cornish, Bio-based composites for food packaging- Poster Presentation
  11. Oct. 9, 2017, 192nd Technical Meeting of the ACS Rubber Division: International Elastomer Conference, Cleveland, OH. Xiaoying Zhao, Varun Venoor, Yael Vodovotz, Katrina Cornish, Peroxide induced dynamically vulcanized PHBV/natural rubber blends for food packaging applications,
  12. Apr. 20, 2017, CFAES Research Conference, Columbus, OH. Xianjie Ren and Katrina Cornish, Reinforcement of guayule natural rubber with silica and egg shells.
  13. Apr. 2017, OARDC conference-OSU, Columbus, OH. Varun Venoor, Xiaoying Zhao, Katrina Cornish, Yael Vodovotz, Bio-Based thermoplastic vulcanizates for food packaging application.
  14. Mar. 3, 2017, Edward F. Hayes Graduate Research Forum, Columbus, OH. Xiaoying Zhao, Varun Venoor, Katrina Cornish, Yael Vodovotz, Bio-based Composites for Food Packaging-Poster Presentation.
  15. Sept. 23-26, 2018, 30th annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops, London, ON, Canada. Xianjie (Tony) Ren and Katrina Cornish, Sustainable guayule natural rubber composites filled with egg shells as an alternative to precipitated silica.
  16. Oct. 9-11, 2018, 194th Technical Meeting of the ACS Rubber Division: International Elastomer Conference, Louisville, KY. Xianjie Ren and Katrina Cornish, Effect of eggshell, carbon black and precipitated silica on the durability of guayule rubber composites.
  17. Oct. 9-11, 2018, 194th Technical Meeting of the ACS Rubber Division: International Elastomer Conference, Louisville, KY. Xianjie (Tony) Ren, Alfred Soboyejo, Katrina Cornish, Sustainable guayule natural rubber composites filled with egg shells as an alternative to precipitated silica.
  18. Oct.10, 2018, CAPPS Fall Meeting, Raleigh, NC. Xiaoying Zhao, Katrina Cornish, Yael Vodovotz, Development and assessment of food trays from blend of PHBV (with 2% HV) and natural rubber intended for microwave packaging applications-final report.
  19. May 2, 2018, CAPPS Spring Meeting, Davis, CA. Xiaoying Zhao, Katrina Cornish, Yael Vodovotz, Development and assessment of food trays from blend of PHBV (with 2% HV) and natural rubber intended for microwave packaging applications-progress report.

 

Researcher: Sam Storts

Sam’s area of study is similar to that of Xiaoying’s as he works with her in designing experiments to observe the possible optimization techniques available in making bioplastics out of PHBV. The focus of Sam’s work is on the development of bio-based plastic films with the hopes of producing a biodegradable film made of environmentally beneficial materials. The brittleness issue associated with films made from PHBV is being addressed in the same way as Xiaoying’s plastic trays: with the incorporation of natural rubber. Incorporating PLA gave the films a more structurally sound material with more visually appealing characteristics. The production of the films was the first step in the process. Experiments determining the tensile properties as well as safeguarding measures are to be performed to ensure a safe and viable alternative to the currently used petroleum resins.

In addition to the study of the biofilms, Sam has worked on the production of bio-based waterborne adhesive from guayule natural rubber with bio-epoxide as a curing agent for flexible packaging applications. These experiments involved an inter-disciplinary effort through chemical comprehension paired with extensive polymer knowledge. Utilization of guayule is beneficial in eliminating the allergen’s associated with most natural rubber latex.