Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in Ohio’s Wild Deer Herd

Are you a hunter, landowner, or wildlife enthusiast? If so, please join the Ohio State University Extension and the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife for an evening workshop about chronic wasting disease (CWD) in Ohio’s wild deer herd.

Each workshop will cover:

  • What is Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)?
  • Navigating Disease Surveillance Area Regulations
  • Carcass Handling Restrictions & Best Management Practices
  • Where and How to Test my Deer for CWD?
  • How does CWD impact Deer Management?

Chronic Wasting Disease in Ohio’s Wild Deer Herd: What You Need to Know

  • August 8 – Hardin County
  • August 12 – Union County
  • August 29 – Wyandot County
  • September 5 – Crawford County
  • September 10 – Allen County
  • September 12 – Marion County

All workshops are 6:30 – 8:30 pm. See the attached flyer for locations. 

There is no fee to attend these workshops. Due to space limitations, REGISTRATION is REQUIRED.

Visit to register.

Contact Name: Marne Titchenell

Contact Email:

Wheat Harvest and Double Crop Considerations for 2024

Originally Published in the C.O.R.N. Newsletter

Authors: Laura Lindsey, Osler Ortez

Winter wheat maturation is about 10-14 days ahead of normal with harvest beginning late last week in southern Ohio. Last year, winter wheat yield was extremely high with a state average of 90 bu./acre (USDA NASS, 2024). During the previous five years, the state average wheat yield ranged from 56 to 85 bu./acre (average of 73 bu./acre). Last year, we attributed high yields to low rainfall (and consequently low disease) and cool temperatures, leading to a long grain-fill period. This year, we’ve experienced warmer temperatures, greater disease, and shorter grain-fill periods. Between March 1 and June 16, 2024, there were 1,000, 1,135, and 912 growing degree days at the Northwest Agricultural Research Station, Western Agricultural Research Station, and Wooster Campus, respectively (Table 1). During the same time period last year, there were 738, 816, and 617 growing degree days at the Northwest Agricultural Research Station, Western Agricultural Research Station, and Wooster Campus, respectively.

Table 1. Monthly growing degree day accumulation in 2023 and 2024 (CFAES Weather System,

Northwest Agricultural Research Station (Wood County)












June 1-16






Western Agricultural Research Station (Clark County)










June 1-16






Wooster Campus (Wayne County)










June 1-16






This year, wheat yield will likely be lower than last year. However, earlier wheat harvest opens opportunities for a second crop following wheat. In Ohio, double-crop soybeans are the most common crop after wheat harvest, but other crops, such as sunflower, may be planted. The two primary requirements for successful double cropping are: 1) There must be time for the production of a second crop, and 2) There must be adequate water to produce two crops, whether from stored soil moisture, rainfall, or irrigation. The first requirement will likely be met, with earlier wheat harvest and a predicted later first freeze date, but continued dry weather in areas of the state may be problematic. However, several management practices will help maximize double crop yield potential.

Double crop soybean management considerations.

  1. Soybean relative maturity. Relative maturity (RM) has little effect on yield when soybeans are planted during the first three weeks of May. However, the effect of RM can be larger for late plantings. When planting soybean late, the latest maturing variety that will reach physiological maturity before the first killing frost is recommended. This is to allow the soybean plants to grow vegetatively as long as possible to produce nodes where pods can form before vegetative growth is slowed due to flowering and pod formation.

Table 2. Recommended relative maturity (RM) ranges for soybean varieties planted in June and July in northern, central, and southern Ohio.


Planting Date

Suitable RM

Northern Ohio

June 1-15


June 15-30


July 1-10


Central Ohio

June 1-15


June 15-30


July 1-10


Southern Ohio

June 1-15


June 15-30


July 1-10


  1. Row spacing. Double-crop soybeans should be produced in narrow rows- 7.5 or 15-inch row spacing. The later soybeans are planted, the greater the yield increase due to narrow rows. Soybeans grown in narrow rows produce more grain because they capture more sunlight energy, which drives photosynthesis.
  1. Seeding rate. Soybean plant population at harvest for mid-to-late June plantings should be between 130,000-150,000 plants/acre. The harvest population for early July plantings should be greater than 180,000 plants/acre. Harvest population is a function of seeding rate, quality of the planter operation, and seed germination percentage and depends on such things as soil moisture condition, seed-soil contact, and disease pressure.

Double-crop sunflower management considerations.

In addition to double cropping with soybean, other alternatives may become feasible within the crop system. In 2022-2023, field experiments were established to study sunflowers’ viability as a double crop after wheat or barley harvest in Ohio (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Double crop agronomic sunflowers planted at 30-inch row spacing after wheat harvest during 2022-2023 field projects in Ohio.

The study had three commercial high oleic sunflower varieties: “ultra-early” maturity (N4H161 CL), “early” maturity (N4H302 E), and “mid-early” maturity (CP 455 E). These varieties were studied across three seeding rates: 17,000 seeds per Acre, 22,000 seeds per Acre, and 27,000 seeds per Acre. Preliminary results showed sunflower yields ranging between 1,012 lbs./Ac and 2,740 lbs./Ac (Table 3). The average yields per site were in the 1,400 to 1,900 lbs./Ac range, with the two highest yield sites being comparable to the average U.S. sunflower seed yields in the past two years.

Table 3. Study locations, previous crop, planting dates, harvest dates, and double crop sunflower yields in pounds per Acre (lbs./Ac) at 10% moisture.



Planting Date

Harvest Date


Average Yield


Wood County




1,296 lbs/Ac

1,867 lbs/Ac

2,599 lbs/Ac

Clark County




1,012 lbs/Ac

1,967 lbs/Ac

2,740 lbs/Ac

Wayne County




1,003 lbs/Ac

1,464 Lbs/Ac

1,897 Lbs/Ac

From the preliminary results on the sunflower work, crop production challenges have included weather, equipment availability, bird damage, plant lodging, and variable/low stand counts which have possibly limiting crop yields. This project is in progress and will be planted again in 2024, more results are forthcoming. Future considerations for sunflowers should include consistency of results across sites/years, variety selection, seeding rate, germination, fertility, bird control, seed/oil quality, and marketing options as major priorities.


United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) 2024. Quick Stats. Available at:

Crop Observation and Recommendation Network

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.


Laura LindseyOsler Ortez

Beef with a Business Mindset

– Haley Shoemaker, OSU Extension AGNR Educator, Columbiana and Mahoning Counties (originally published in the Ohio Farmer on-line ; sourced from the Ohio Beef Cattle Letter)

These days dropping a cull or feeder calf off at the local auction can feel a little bit like Christmas in July – prices are solid, and markets are strong, largely due to a decline in cattle inventory following years of drought and

Find out where your ‘benchmarks’ fit among your peers.

production challenges.  And while as cattle producers we’re naturally inclined to keep the “when will these prices end” thought in the back of our mind, we also sometimes find ourselves getting comfortable with the idea of $135/cwt for culls or upwards of $300/cwt for calves.

Periods of high prices, such as those the industry is experiencing now, have been known to make the good farm business manager look great, and the mediocre farm manager look good.  Anyone who’s been in business for any amount of time knows that these trends have a way of evening themselves out, but the factor that remains is that a well-managed farm business will stand the test of time, and volatile markets.  One of the tools utilized by beef herd managers across the U.S. is called FINPACK, a financial analysis software service offered in Ohio through the Farm Business Analysis and Benchmarking Team.  Each year, farm analysis teams throughout the country collect data from a variety of enterprises, ranging from beef, dairy, and crops to specialty products and small ruminants.  The data collected from balance sheets, income statements, and enterprise analyses not only provide invaluable information to the producer and their operation, but also compile the national database, known as “FINBIN”, managed by the University of Minnesota.

Taking a look at FINBIN’s five-year financial report for beef cow-calf enterprises, a couple trends stick out – net return, an indicator of the farm’s profitability, has only recently climbed into the positive during 2023 at an average of $125.31 per cow, preceded by four years ranging between ($41.50) and ($113.13) per cow.  2023’s rise in net return was accompanied by increased direct and overhead expenses, totaling $1,019.85 per head on average, indicating that even with elevated feed and operating costs, managers who took a calculated approach to business decisions “made the most” so to speak, of a favorable marketing landscape.  Those producers who managed their way into the top 20% of beef herds included in the 2023 database saw an average net return of $564.09 per cow, and an average of $812.14 per cow in direct and overhead expenses.  This represents a nearly $438 break separating the “average” and “top” herds, which can be the difference between a profit or loss during a year of weaker markets.

So, how do you know where your farm falls?  Is your business average, slightly above, or excelling – and how does your operation measure financial success?  If “I don’t know” was the answer to any of those questions, completing a farm business analysis may be a logical next step.  Beginning a financial analysis can be an eye-opening experience for a farm business.  In addition to gaining perspective on how a farm compares to similar operations throughout the state, producers also learn how to keep more targeted and detailed records, allowing for historical data and trends to be identified over years of participation in the program.  These trends provide insight into the operations’ reaction to business decisions and market variability, and can help producers clearly decipher financial strengths, areas of potential concern, and opportunities for improvement.

Producers throughout Ohio have the option of completing either a whole farm analysis, or whole farm with enterprise analysis.  Both provide individualized reports that take into account beginning and ending balance sheets and income statements, however those who complete an enterprise analysis will also receive summaries breaking down costs of production per unit (per head, cwt, acre, etc.).  All data is handled with care to preserve confidentiality.  Additionally, personalized benchmark reports serve as a useful tool in visualizing an operations percentile ranking among peers, which has often been stated as one of the most beneficial outputs of completing a farm business analysis.

Getting started is as simple as reaching out to your county Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator, or to Clint Schroeder, Program Manager, at 567-242-6693 or via email at  It’s tempting during times of favorable prices to shift resources and attention to putting out the next most demanding fire, but recent history has proven that consistent, diligent management is what prepares a farm for years where financial efficiency matters most.  In the long run, you can’t manage what you don’t measure – don’t let your financial success fall into that category.


Beef Cow-Calf – Average Per Cow Sorted by Year:

Beef Cow-Calf – 2023 High 20% of Farms:

Growing Degree Day (GDD) Summary, May 2024

Authors: Amy Stone
Published on:

The Plant Phenology and Growing Degree Day (GDD) posts and impacts have been a Buckeye Yard and Garden onLine (BYGL) staple for years. GDD will continue to be an important part of the blog written to assist green industry professionals, Extension professionals, Extension volunteers, and people with a passion for plants and pests too.

Readers will continue to see those updates in the BYGL on a monthly basis, but there is no better way to track GDD and ultimately the plant blooms and insect activity on your own. Be sure to save this website ( ) as a favorite, and set those calendar reminders now to check the website regularly.

Here is a Growing Degree Day Refresher if GDD is new, or you need a little review!

GDD are a measurement of the growth and development of plants and insects during the growing season. Development does not occur at this time unless the temperature is above a minimum threshold value (base temperature). The base temperature varies for different organisms. It is determined through research and experimentation. The actual temperature experienced by an organism is influenced by several factors. These factors affect growth and development. For instance, depending on the weather, an organism’s temperature may be a few degrees more or less than that recorded. An organism may spend its time in the shade or under direct sunlight. The fertility and nutrient content of the soil directly affect the growth rate of plants and thereby indirectly influence insect growth rates. The presence of weeds and precipitation may indirectly influence development. Due to these factors and some other scientific considerations, a base temperature of 50 degrees Fahrenheit is considered acceptable for all plants and insects. (Source: OSU Plant Phenology Website)

The one thing that we do know is that the sequence of events – both plant and pest development – consistently occurs in the same order no matter the weather.

At the end of each month this calendar year, there will be a GDD Summary Alert Posted to BYGL. While today’s post has some areas seeing zeros – it is the start of the calendar year – we will have to see if that is true. As you can see below, 21 Ohio locations (City, County, and Zip Code) have been chosen across the state and will continue to be used for the monthly updates.

GGD Chart, ending May 31, 2024
Ohio City (County) Zip Code    GDD Unit Accumulation 
Bryan (Williams) 43506 819
Toledo (Lucas) 43615 811
Sandusky (Erie) 44870 784
Elyria (Lorain) 44035 731
Cleveland (Cuyahoga) 44120 717
Burton (Geauga) 44021 704
Jefferson (Ashtabula) 44047 690
Van Wert (Van Wert) 45891 797
Findlay (Hancock) 45840 767
Medina (Medina) 44256 694
Mt. Gilead (Morrow) 43338 755
Mt. Vernon (Knox) 43050 868
Steubenville (Jefferson) 43952 846
Dayton (Montgomery) 45417 966
Springfield (Clark) 45505 966
Columbus (Franklin) 43210 944
Lancaster (Fairfield) 43130 983
Marietta (Washington) 45750 983
Cincinnati (Hamilton) 45223 990
Hillsboro (Highland) 45133 996
Ironton (Lawrence) 45638 988

Not seeing your city or zip code? No worries! You can always check out the website, type in your Ohio zip code, and ground truth what you are seeing with what the calendar says should be occurring.

Additionally, once you are at the website, you can click on summary and it will provide you the yearly GDDs and the 20 year average. To illustrate that, I have done this with the zip code at my office (43615) in Toledo, Ohio using May 31 as the common date.


Date: May 31



GDD Unit Accumulation


2024 811
2023 579
2022 667
2021 604
2020 455
2019 504
2018 646
2017 656
2016 565
2015 612
2014 541
2013 623
2012 870
2011 520
2010 741
2009 619
2008 476
2007 681
2006 561
2005 411
2004 637

Ohio Department of Agriculture Announces Free Farm Pesticide Disposal Collection Events

REYNOLDSBURG, Ohio (May X, 2024) – The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) will sponsor three collection events for farmers wishing to dispose of unwanted pesticides. This year, the collections are happening in

Auglaize, Holmes, and Clinton counties on the following days and locations:

  • August 14, 9 a.m.–3 p.m.: Auglaize County, Auglaize County Fairgrounds, 1001 Fairview Drive, Wapakoneta, Ohio 45895
  • August 15, 9 a.m.–3 p.m.: Holmes County, Farmers Produce Auction (Mount Hope Produce Auction), 7701 OH-241, Millersburg, Ohio 44654
  • August 20, 9 a.m.–3 p.m.: Clinton County, Former Nutrien Site, 6704 US 22, Willmington, Ohio 45177

The pesticide collection and disposal services are free of charge, but only farm chemicals will be accepted. Paint, antifreeze, solvents, and household or non-farm pesticides will not be accepted. The pesticide collections are sponsored by ODA in conjunction with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. To pre-register, or for more information, contact the Ohio Department of Agriculture at (614) 728-6987.