Apples are progressing in fruit development and overall the crop looks very good. Codling moth numbers in traps remained low this week. Based on growing degree days (GDD) accumulated, a second generation moth flight should be noted soon. All apple maggot traps remained negative the week of July 6-10. Other insects noted at below threshold levels in orchards included green apple aphids, wooly apple aphids, European red mites, leafminers and Japanese beetles. Growers have done a good job with their fungicide spray programs and disease levels are low in orchards scouted by this program.
Peaches are also developing with minimal pest issues being noted. Oriental fruit moth trap captures were high this week. This will prompt a biofix date being set, and an advisory to spray for OFM early in the week of July 13-17.
Turning to small fruit, the big news is that there were positives in the spotted wing drosophila (SWD) traps this past week. Samples collected July 8 from traps placed in raspberries in the West Salem area and samples collected July 9 from traps in raspberries in the Wooster area had SWD flies. Numbers are still low, only 3 total SWD flies were found, but the threshold to begin an insecticide spray program is 1 SWD found in a trap. Growers are being advised to start a spray program on ripening and ripe small fruits.
Other than SWD, powdery mildew is showing up in grapes and growers need to be on a fungicide program to prevent damage from this disease. Raspberry harvest is progressing and no other pest issues were noted. Blueberries are ripe and picking has begun. Some low levels of phomophsis blight have been seen. Japanese beetles are present in low levels and birds are working on some of the berries.
Wet weather is causing all sorts of issues. Diseases, both fungal and bacterial are present at varying levels in fields, and wet, saturated soils are causing nitrogen loss, some root damage, and yellow plants in some areas. Despite this, growers are harvesting and plants are producing. Use of fungicide spray programs, where appropriate, is a key component in production at this point.
In tomatoes, both field and high tunnel grown, the most serious disease problems are septoria leaf spot and early blight. In these warm, wet conditions, septoria can rapidly defoliate a plant if not managed early with an effective and consistent fungicide spray program. Bacterial spot is also showing up, mainly in field tomatoes and growers are being advised to not work with the plants when they are wet, practice good sanitation between infected and non-infected plants and maintain a copper spray program to suppress the disease. (See Photo Below) In high tunnel production scouts are also finding fusarium crown rot, leaf mold, botrytis gray mold, timber rot and yellow shoulder. Insects have not been an issue in field grown tomatoes, but in some high tunnel production white flies and stink bugs are being noted(See photo below)
Garlic is maturing tops are beginning to dry down. In onions, thrip populations have remained low. In some plantings, botrytis leaf blight and purple blotch are causing some yield reductions.
Cole crops overall look good. Some new plantings for a planned fall harvest were going in this week. Established plantings are at the almost ready to harvest to harvest underway stage. Some bacterial soft rot was noted in some plants of one planting by scouts. Imported cabbage worm larvae were found and in some fields were at economic treatment threshold. Zebra caterpillars are also being found in cole crops, resulting in some minimal defoliation.
In vine crops, many plantings of summer squash and zucchini are at the point of harvest, fall squash and pumpkins are in bloom, melons are at fruit set, and cucumbers range from new plantings to harvest. Downy mildew has been found in Wayne County so growers are being advised to use a fungicide spray program on a 5-7 day schedule to protect against downy mildew. Cucumbers are most vulnerable followed by cantaloupe and then squash, pumpkins and watermelon. Powdery mildew also was noted by scouts in summer squash this week.
Angular leaf spot, a bacterial disease has been found across all vine crops and in many fields. Anthracnose and alternaria leaf spot have also been found and growers need to be on a good fungicide spray program. (See photo below) Bacterial wilt, a disease vectored by cucumber beetles was noted by scouts in both melons and cucumbers this week. Cucumber beetles ranged from low numbers to above treatment threshold levels. Scouts found squash bug eggs on fall squash and pumpkin leaves this week so growers need to be watching for this insect pest.
Peppers are developing fruit with some ready to harvest. In some plantings, bacterial spot is present. Scouts also noted blossom end rot, Japanese beetles and zebra caterpillars at low levels in some fields. (See Photo Below) Eggplant is doing well but there are plants with verticillium wilt and anthracnose. Colorado potato beetles were noted at low numbers this week. Green beans vary from newly emerging to harvest. Overall quality is good. In some plantings there are Japanese beetles and low levels of potato leaf hoppers.
Sweet corn, due to staggered plantings, ranges from v-4 to harvest. Only 1 corn earworm moth was caught between traps at 4 locations this week. European corn borer moth captures ranged from 0 to 8 between 4 trap locations. Feeding by snails, slugs, European corn borer larvae, Japanese beetles and grasshoppers was noted by scouts this week.
Potatoes overall look good. Colorado potato beetle is at threshold levels in some plantings and under control in others. Low numbers of potato leaf hoppers were noted. Some light levels of early blight were found in one planting.
Agronomic Field Crops:
Corn ranges in development from v-6 to R1 silking. In some fields lower leaves are turning yellow due to nitrogen shortage as the plant mobilizes nitrogen from older leaves to use for younger leaf growth. Wet soils have caused nitrogen loss through both denitrification and leaching. Grey leaf spot in some fields and some varieties is at levels that may warrant a fungicide spray at stage V-T. Northern corn leaf blight is also being seen in some fields but at low levels. European corn borer, Japanese beetles and grasshoppers are all being noted at low levels in some fields.
In low areas and poorly drained areas water is standing in some fields and soybean growth and development is suffering. In other fields soybean growth looks good and soybeans are at pod development, R3-4. Scouts are noting brown spot on the lower leaves of most soybean fields. Bacterial leaf blight has been found in some fields. Leaf defoliators including bean leaf beetle, Japanese beetles, grasshoppers and slugs have all been noted on scouting reports. No western bean cutworm moths have been captured in traps to this point. (See photos Below)