The OSU Extension Fruit & Vegetable Report is written/published collectively by OSU Extension staff across the state.
View a recording of the OSU Extension Bi-Weekly Fruit & Vegetable Report updates below:
Farm Science Review 2023
The Farm Science Review (FSR) is one of the nation’s premier farm shows and one of OSU Extension’s largest, most far-reaching educational programs. The event will be held at the Molly Caren Agricultural Center near London, Ohio on September 19th – 21st. The OSU Extension Fruit & Vegetable Team will be hosting a tent all 3 days that will feature presentations from academic and industry speakers on a variety of topics, including nutrient management, entomophagy, integrated pest management, variety trial results, farm marketing, and more. The OSU Extension Fruits & Vegetables exhibit will be located near the gazebo near the Utzinger Garden (booth 385). We hope to see you there!
Check out the 2023 Farm Science Review Program for further information.
Speaker schedule for OSU Extension Fruits & Vegetables exhibit at FSR 2023. Note: There will also be a presentation by Dr. Marne Titchnell, Extension Wildlife Program Director for OSU, on wildlife management in fruits & vegetables on Wednesday, September 20th from 1:30 – 2:00 PM.
Purple carrot-seed moth detection
The OSU Plant & Pest Diagnostic Clinic (PPDC) recently received an insect sample that was identified to be purple carrot-seed moth (Depressaria depressana), a known pest of crops in the Apiaceae family. This was the first report of purple carrot-seed moth found in Ohio, though it has been found in neighboring states. The insect feeds on the flower heads of crops like carrot, parsnip, dill, celery, parsley, and more, but it is yet unknown if it will be an economically important pest of these crops in Ohio. Check out the article from PPDC for more information.
Purple carrot seed moth larvae (top) and adult (bottom). Photo by Iowa State University Extension (top) and University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Entomology (bottom).
Downy mildew continues to wreak havoc in cucurbit plantings this time of year. As a refresher, here is a factsheet from Michigan State University on downy mildew mitigation. Powdery mildew pressure is reported to be increasing in southern Ohio. Striped cucumber beetles populations are declining in central/northeast Ohio and transitioning more towards higher numbers of corn rootworm beetles. Western corn rootworm, a look-alike of striped cucumber beetle, also feeds on cucurbits and can impact yield if heavy populations are present. Check out this article from Iowa State University for information on identifying different rootworm beetle pests.
Virus symptoms are being observed in some melon plantings. There are various aphid-vectored potyviruses that affect cucurbits and they can be hard to differentiate from one another, though control practices are similar for all of them. The big 4 for cucurbit crops are cucumber mosaic virus, papaya ring spot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus. Like many crop diseases, management practices are preventative and include using resistant varieties or planting earlier to ensure harvest before viral symptoms appear towards the end of the season. Getting aphids under control may also minimize virus infection to some degree.
Cucumber mosaic virus – symptoms include yellowish-green “mosaic” mottling on foliage or fruit and crinkled leaves. Photo by Gerald Holmes, Strawberry Center, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, Bugwood.org.
Papaya ringspot virus – symptoms include wrinkled leaves and discolored, bumpy fruit. Photo by Mary Ann Hansen, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org.
Watermelon mosaic virus – symptoms include wrinkled leaves and geometric patterns on fruit. Photo by Dorina Pitorac, European Plant Protection Organization.
Zucchini yellow mosaic virus – symptoms include blistered, wrinkled leaves and fruit with discolored bumps. Photo by University of Massachusetts Extension.
Late-season aphid feeding is being observed in some solanaceous crops. Honeydew is a sugary liquid secreted by aphids and other sap-sucking insects (whiteflies, spotted lanternfly, etc.). Honeydew accumulation on crop foliage or fruit can lead to growth of sooty mold, which is a term for various genera of fungi that colonize the sticky exudate. Sooty mold does not render vegetables inedible, however, and can be readily washed off.
Honeydew from aphids (and other sap-suckers) on plant leaves is sticky to the touch and can be colonized by sooty mold. Photos by Kansas State University Entomology (top) and Joe Boggs, the Ohio State University Extension (bottom).
Regular bouts of rainfall as we head into the fall are leading to increased incidence of Phytophthora infection in peppers (and cucurbits). While excess water is a problem for some vegetable growers in Ohio, some parts of western Ohio still remain abnormally dry, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. Mites have been a problem in some areas, while thrips have taken a downturn. Keeping mites under control towards the end of the season can reduce the chance of heavy pressure next season by reducing the egg load/number of overwintering adults that will become next year’s mite infestations.
Early varieties of apples are being harvested across the state. Brown marmorated stinkbug pressure is increasing. Bitter rot is starting to be observed in some orchards. Marssonina leaf blotch is also being seen in some organic orchards, where management can be difficult without the use of fungicides. Removal/destruction of leaves on the orchard floor in the fall can reduce overwintering sites for the pathogen. Black knot is being seen on some ornamental plum trees, so commercial plum and cherry growers should keep an eye out for black knot galls on their trees and promptly remove them if they see them.
Gall of black knot (Apiosporina morbosa), a fungal pathogen of plum, cherry, and other types of fruit trees. Photo by Joseph O Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org.
Preparing Brambles for Winter – Sanitation Practices for Disease Prevention
Melanie Ivey, State Fruit Pathologist and Fresh Produce Safety Specialist, The Ohio State University
Disease management of perennial fruit crops is a year-round endeavor. Many fungal pathogens survive the winter months in the soil or plant debris, infected canes or buds, or dead canes. As part of an integrated disease management program fall sanitation practices to reduce inoculum in the planting should be done. Best sanitation practices include removing floricanes after harvest, removing diseased and dead canes, removing dead or systemically infected plants, and raking or chopping fallen leaves. Pruning debris should be destroyed by burning or placing in the trash or discarding it away from the planting. Diseased plant material should not be composted. Pruning cuts should be sharp and clean to avoid unnecessary mechanical wounds.
The fall is also a good time to scout for and remove wild bramble populations that are near the production field. In addition to fall sanitation practices, some diseases require a dormant or delayed dormant fungicide application. For dormant or delayed dormant fungicide recommendations consult the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide (OSU Extension Bulletin 506).
The table below summarizes where the fungi for several common diseases of brambles in Ohio overwinter, the recommended fall sanitation practices for each disease, and whether a dormant or delayed dormant fungicide application is recommended.
September 19 – 21, Farm Science Review
September 27, Wooster, OH, Midwest Mechanical Weed Control Field Day
September 30, Albany, OH OEFFA CSA Veggie Farm Tour
December 5th – 7th, Grand Rapids, MI, Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable, & Farm Market Expo
January 15 – 16, Columbus, OH, 2024 Ohio Produce Network
February 15 – 17, Newark, OH, 2024 Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association (OEFFA) Conference