The OSU Extension Fruit & Vegetable Report is written/published collectively by OSU Extension staff across the state.
View a recording of the OSU Extension Bi-Weekly Fruit & Vegetable Report updates below:
Strip tillage is a form of conservation tillage that attempts to combine the benefits of no-till and conventional tillage by working only the area where the crop will be planted. Leaving residue cover over the majority of the field protects the soil against erosion and helps to build organic matter, improve aggregate stability, and boost other indicators of soil health. Working the soil in the strip zone warms the soil faster and prepares a better seedbed to support plant growth.
Components of a strip till unit – A) lead coulter for slicing through residue, B) row cleaners for parting residue, C) shank for fracturing and lifting soil, D) berm-building coulters to shape tilled soil into strip, & E) rolling basket for creating level seedbed. Photo courtesy of Orthsman/Unverferth Manufacturing.
Strip-till in sweet corn stubble. Photo by Chris Galbraith, OSU Extension.
While strip till targets the benefits that come with integrating the two systems, there are downsides to consider as well. These mostly involve issues with cover crop and/or residue interference with growing the crop. Vigorous cover crops need to be terminated in a timely fashion and crop development can still be delayed in strip-till if the season begins cold and wet. Pests like slugs and voles can also build-up with the increased residue cover. The cost of the equipment can also be a substantial investment which creates a barrier to entry for many growers.
Many vegetables can be grown in strip tillage systems, including cucurbits, sweet corn, snap beans, potatoes, cole crops, carrots, and more. Recent studies at Michigan State University have found a slight yield increase from strip till in vegetable crops, but many of the issues mentioned can impact this (climate, residue management, pest pressure). It is important to consider the factors that go into making strip till a successful venture in order to make the most of the equipment and the practice.
For additional info on strip till in vegetables, check out this website on strip tillage from the Cornell Small Farms Program.
Wildlife Control in Fruits & Vegetables
This season has been severe in terms of wildlife damage in specialty crops. Animals like deer, groundhogs, voles, raccoons, and birds have caused major losses on some farms. Dr. Marne Titchnell, wildlife program director for OSU Extension, recently gave an in-depth presentation at Farm Science Review on different wildlife mitigation strategies for growers. The information and slides can be found on her blog through the link below:
OSU Extension Center for Cooperatives
Opportunities abound for farms when it comes to teaming up to save money and improve effectiveness through joint purchasing, collaborative marketing, and other similar practices. These types of partnerships between farm businesses is captured by the cooperative or “co-op” model where growers access resources and savings by acting together and making decisions as a group in certain scenarios. The Center for Cooperatives at OSU specializes in these sorts of opportunities and can offer guidance to growers who are interested in leveraging the benefits of organizing for collaborative business purposes.
Find more information at the center’s website. Read more about the topic of collaborative marketing in this recent article on the Center of Cooperatives blog.
Heavy cross striped cabbageworm and imported cabbageworm feeding is still being observed in some brassica plantings. Aphids have made a late season push in brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli plantings. Cabbage aphids are typically a grayish color, and are often found amongst a waxy, white secretion which covers their body. Reproduction rates of these aphids are highest in temperatures between 50-68F. Scout for these pests on the underside of younger leaves, between leaf layers and on flower buds or seed stalks. It is recommended to treat cabbage when you see 1-2% of plants infested with aphids. There are a number of products that can be used to treat aphids in cabbage including Movento, Sivanto, Assail, Exirel and Beleaf. Prioritize products that have reduced toxicity (e.g., Beleaf) which will conserve natural enemy communities. Refer to the Midwest Vegetable production guide for other options.
Cabbage aphid infestation. Photo by Frank Becker, OSU Extension.
Cucurbits are seeing upticks in a variety of beetles in flowers and fruit. These include corn rootworm species. Spotted cucumber beetles are active. Aphids are also beginning to be found with some more frequency in the fall vine crops. Squash bugs are also active within the crop. Most cucurbits do not have blooms in fields, so pyrethroid and carbamate applications may be applied (e.g., Sevin, Pounce, Capture). Refer to the Midwest Vegetable production guide for other options.
The pumpkin crop has been strong in Ohio this season. Many growers in northwest Ohio were able to manage downy mildew with fungicides. Plectosporium blight has been causing some problems for growers where fungicide spray coverage may not have been as thorough as desired. Most fungicide spray programs being used are adequate to limit impacts from plectosporium blight. Spray penetration into the canopy and coverage across the field is as important as selecting the right product.
Plectosporium blight on pumpkin, identified by light colored lesions on fruit, handles, and vines. Photos by Frank Becker, OSU Extension.
Late blight has been confirmed in several tomato fields in and around Wayne County. Bacterial diseases have also begun to start, and with cool mornings and heavy dews, it will become increasingly more difficult to manage.
Several high tunnel producers have reported dealing with broad mites/cyclamen mites in their high tunnel peppers. The mites feed on the fruit while it is still developing and their feeding damage causes the peppers to become russested and misshapen. The leaves may also appear distorted, almost as if they were drifted with herbicides. Keep in mind that these mites are in a different group than two-spotted spider mites. Therefore, it’s important to select control options that are appropriate and effective on this species. Sanitation and crop rotation are also important cultural control measures that need to be taken when dealing with mites in high tunnels.
Although the growing season is behind us for onions, curing is still ongoing, and some growers have reported some challenges with curing. Make sure that you are providing the proper conditions for curing onions. Less than ideal conditions will result in frustrations and losses of product. Ideal conditions are warm, dry, well ventilated areas. Ideal temperature range is between 75-90F. The other factor that contributes to losses while curing is not curing the best graded onions. Curing is not an attempt to bring quality back, only preserve it. Grading hard for only the best onions to be cured will help reduce the chance that rots begin to develop. Take note of any disease or insect issues that you have observed this year and use these notes to help you next year. Onions that may have had heavy thrips loads, or untreated disease infection during the season are not going to hold up as well as desired during the curing process.
Green onions are seeing thrips populations slow down. Typically, thrips populations will decrease as we enter into Autumn and see these species move onto weedy hosts.
Sanitation is an important component of an integrated disease management program. In small fruit and tree fruit alike, there are diseases that can over winter on infested fruit, foliage and branches. As the season winds down, it is still important to scout for diseases that may be present, identify the disease and have a plan of action to manage the disease. Finding and removing mummy fruit, which are dried and shriveled fruit that are typically full of fungal structures, will help to significantly reduce disease inoculum from the production area. Too, mowing and mulching or raking away the leaves from around the trees and bushes reduces the amount of viable inoculum that may be overwintering in foliage. Much progress can be made towards disease management with efforts made in the fall. Taking these steps, and committing to them long term, helps to break disease cycles and reduce the overall pathogen load over time.
Fruit rots are being observed in apples, including white rot and bitter rot. Bitter rot is common in apples during warm, wet conditions. For more information, take a look at this OSU article on bitter rot in apple. Marsoninna blotch is also found on apples.
The pawpaw crop in Ohio this season has been later and smaller than past years. Pawpaw is a niche crop that is gaining popularity with Ohio consumers and can be used as an ingredient in specialty craft beers, ice cream, and other value-added items. For more information on pawpaw production, check out this factsheet from Cornell University. Learn more about the pawpaw industry in Ohio by visiting the Ohio PawPaw Growers Association website.
Pawpaw fruit cluster. Photo by Clemson University.
September 30, Albany, OH OEFFA CSA Veggie Farm Tour
December 5 – 7, Grand Rapids, MI, Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable, & Farm Market Expo
January 15 – 16, Columbus, OH, 2024 Ohio Produce Network
February 15 – 17, Newark, OH, 2024 Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association (OEFFA) Conference