Tupac Isn’t Dead!!

Tupac Amaru Shakur, born Lesane Parish Crooks, was known to be one of the best rappers of all time. He died on September 13, 1996 in a drive-by shooting after attending one of Mike Tyson’s fights. But did he actually die? Since his death was so sudden and he was such a big celebrity, many of Tupac’s loyal fans entertain the idea that his death was a coverup. There are a plethora of rumors circulating the internet on the status of Tupac, where he is, and what he is doing. Such reports include an attempt to cover-up Tupac’s own death to leave fame behind, multiple hideouts where Tupac may be living, and hidden clues he has left behind. With new reports still coming out after 22 years, information on the conspiracy theory can be found all over the internet, but a specific article written by Tom Connick of NDE compiles all the stories together.

Tupac was known to have a strong personality and constantly clashed with others. He was involved in the East Coast versus West Coast rap rivalry that occurred during the 1990s and had many enemies as a result. He was considered a prominent hip hop artist and is known to be one of the best-selling music artists of all time, with much of his music discussing contemporary issues. Considering he was an activist that also dealt with legal troubles, people assume that his death was strategically planned. One of the most popular theories behind Tupac’s death is the Machiavelli-Kasinova theory, stating that Tupac faked his own death because he was inspired by the philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli, who favored the notion of faking one’s death to gain advantage over his or her enemies. The rapper eventually changed his stage name to Makaveli, which references the philosopher and is an anagram of “AM ALIVE K”. The K in this anagram is thought to allude to a present-day rapper named Kasinova The Don, who vocally compares to the likes of Tupac. Furthermore, Kasinova The Don released a song called Mystery that contains lyrics that allude to Tupac and his faked death.

A second mainstream theory is that Tupac is living in either Malaysia or Cuba. Several doctored images, such as Tupac partying with Rihanna, have been released to fuel this rumor. Furthermore, Tupac’s aunt is said to have moved to Cuba after receiving asylum for her political activism in the United States, so he may be living with her. Suge Knight, the founder of Death Row Records, was with Tupac when he died; this man doubts Tupac’s death because he said it seemed like Tupac was getting healthier the last time he saw him, so he must be on a beach “smoking a Cuban cigar” at the moment. Furthermore, Suge Knight’s son used vague evidence to assert that Tupac is currently living in Malaysia, such as screenshots of text messages and an image of Tupac supposedly with 50 Cent and Beyoncé. Though it has been incredibly difficult finding articles attempting to disclaim the conspiracy theories, an article by Gabby Hart depicts an officer’s recollection of the shooting and Tupac’s last words as the officer held him in his arms. It was also said that much of the community knew the culprit behind the shooting was Orlando Anderson, who was murdered shortly after he killed Tupac. In addition, Snoop Dogg answers in an interview that the conspiracy theory claims make for good press and entertaining television, but that his good friend is truly resting in peace. The rapper also believes that Tupac’s prodigious legacy makes people want to believe that he is still alive, so they continue to fuel the theory even though it has been over twenty-two years since his death.

There are multiple cognitive contributions that add to the belief that Tupac is not dead. Firstly, the use of irrelevant conclusions is relevant for a majority of the theories. People assume that because the killer has never officially been identified that one can assume that Tupac never actually died in the first place, which does not make any sense. Secondly, Tupac’s obsession with Machiavelli and the anagram behind Makaveli are used as a basis to sustain the idea of Tupac faking his death and there is no concrete evidence substantiating the significance behind either. Moreover, the media plays a huge role in fueling confirmation bias because they only discuss information that adds to the conspiracy theory, purely because it is more entertaining to read about. Affirming a conclusion from a negative premise is also relevant because one of the main arguments is that the person who was sitting next to Tupac, Suge Knight, did not get hit even though Tupac did, therefore Tupac could not have died. Lastly, cognitive dissonance plays a role in keeping the conspiracy theory alive because fans do not want to believe that the famous rapper could have actually passed away. These people find evidence that strengthens their desire for Tupac to still be alive (the media or sporadic claims that he is living in Cuba or Malaysia) giving them a reason to remove any cognition that suspects his death is real. These people are definitely misinformed because there is no actual physical evidence that would allow people to jump to this conclusion, there are only photoshopped photos, vague elements that are given meaning, and unproven claims made by other celebrities.

The community of believers originates from both fans as well as conspiracy theorists who want to believe in something so extraordinary. Their beliefs are sustained through the use of social media and new articles coming out constantly. In addition, people are easily fooled and are willing to believe anything they read online, such as doctored images. All in all, the Tupac conspiracy theory has been circulating for twenty-two years, but there is no credible evidence that proves it to be true. The reason the conspiracy theory may have been created in the first place is because of the controversy Tupac was surrounded by during his life and his strong fan base creating connections that allude to anything other than death. None of the premises have strong foundations that lead to real conclusions, and both cognitive dissonance and confirmation bias play strong roles in keeping the legend alive.


Connick, T. (2018, October 08). Is Tupac alive? A comprehensive guide to the rumours and conspiracy theories. Retrieved March 27, 2019, from https://www.nme.com/blogs/nme- blogs/tupac-still-alive-rumours-2386712

Hart, G. (2018, July 9). First officer on scene of Tupac’s death recalls his last words, speaks on new revelations. Retrieved March 27, 2019, from https://news3lv.com/news/local/first-officer-on- tupacs-death-recalls-rappers-last-words-speaks-on-new-revelations

On the 22nd anniversary of his death, here are the craziest Tupac conspiracy theories. (2018, September 13). Retrieved March 27, 2019, from https://www.sfgate.com/entertainment/article/2pac-shakur-death-theories-suge-knight-diddy- 13108237.php#photo-7256875

Warner, C. (2017, October 31). Snoop Dogg Responds To Rumours That Tupac Is Still Alive. Retrieved March 27, 2019, from https://www.capitalxtra.com/artists/snoop-dogg/news/responds- to-rumours-that-tupac-is-still-alive/

Ghosts: Fact or Fiction?

The notion of ghosts has been long debated, whether it’s the existence of Casper, Anne Boleyn’s lost spirit lurking, or your neighbor’s grandma visiting from the afterlife. Ghosts are remnants of the bodies of people that have died and are commonly discussed in folklore. Apparitions can range from a simple strange presence to the aura of a living being. Roughly half of all Americans believe in ghosts or life after death according to a website called Ghosts and Gravestones. Many within the population of believers have shared perceived experiences of the phenomenon, or share a strong belief life after death. In addition, many believers are also religious: numerous religions discuss life after death in one form or another. Hinduism and Buddhism believe in reincarnation, and Christianity, Islam, and Judaism believe that the soul is eternal and will continue to exist after death.

People believe in this idea because no one knows what happens after death and wants to believe that there is some form of life, and that maybe humans are able to visit their loved ones after passing on. According to the previously mentioned website, Ghosts and Gravestones,

“We seek explanations for what’s happening around us. It’s just the way the human brain is wired; we need to know why things occur or what’s causing something. And when it comes to inexplicable, mysterious happenings, the only logical explanation is often the presence of something supernatural.”

Information regarding ghosts can be found all over the Internet and on television. There are websites substantiating this belief, but most are reiterating that the idea is false.

The notion of ghosts has been around for thousands of years. One of the only websites I found on the origination of ghosts is Wikipedia, which says that stories of ghosts originated in early Mesopotamia and ancient Greece. Furthermore, ghosts were written into Homer’s the Odyssey and Iliad. In the Bible, Jesus was at first believed to be a ghost before convincing his followers that he rose from the dead. Furthermore, ghost stories circulated during the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance, all throughout history until today. More people believe in ghosts in the modern day than they did in the past, with more and more people believing each year, along with the amount of evidence against ghosts increasing over time.

Ghosts are considered extraordinary because the idea of them is unable to be authenticated by science. There is no replicable experiment known that can validate a ghost’s presence; people coming back after death as spirits defies all scientific laws of nature. Besides hope, the belief of ghosts continues to live on through oral stories that are passed on from person to person. Those in favor of the existence of ghost are mostly believers because they cannot attribute their experiences to normal circumstances. The belief is solely built on personal experience with the help of religious beliefs (life after death, reincarnation, etc.) to explain what happens in the afterlife. According to HowStuffWorks, “the evidence for ghosts is all around us, but only living beings with a certain sensitivity can feel their presence.” In addition, the website states that technology is not yet advanced enough to create physical proof. According to some quantum physicists, “we still do not fully understand the interaction of the human mind and external matter at the quantum level” (HowStuffWorks). Moreover, ghosts may not be dead humans but merely humans from other points in time.

On the other hand, those against the premise of ghosts are more backed by science than those in favor. Benjamin Radford, Live Science Contributor, claims that the stories of ghosts switch between being able to walk through walls but still be able to move them, and that these contradicting ideas go against the laws of physics. Furthermore, he claims that if these spirits were truly lost and had unfinished business, then mediums would be able to help them in a multitude of ways (solve their murders, identify killers). Those who claim to have evidence like ghost hunters use pseudoscience to demonstrate their claims: electromagnetic field meters, cameras, thermometers, and other equipment are used to detect any changes in energy. The change in energy is automatically assumed to be the presence of a supernatural being. Jumping to the conclusion that any change in the atmosphere is due to paranormal causes is logically incorrect; people misinterpret the results due to confirmation bias, only looking for evidence that strengthens their beliefs in ghosts.

All in all, the notion of ghosts is one that has originated and survived over a long period of time. A large percentage of the world’s population believes in ghosts in one form or another, whether it’s life after death or the eternal existence of human energy. Many of these believers claim to have personal experiences with ghosts, while others only believe because of their religion or hope. There is conflicting evidence to whether ghosts exist, as the premises backing them is controversial and up for debate. Perhaps advances in technology over time will give us a final answer or ghosts will make contact with the public themselves.

Ghost. (2019, February 07). Retrieved February 10, 2019 from


Ghosts & Gravestones. (2018). Why Do People Believe in Ghosts? Retrieved February 5, 2019, from https://www.ghostsandgravestones.com/believe-in-ghosts

Radford, B. (2017, May 17). Are Ghosts Real? – Evidence Has Not Materialized. Retrieved February 9, 2019, from https://www.livescience.com/26697-are-ghosts-real.html

Stuff Media. (2019). Stuff They Don’t Want You To Know: Ghosts: The Evidence. Retrieved February 11, 2019, from https://www.stufftheydontwantyoutoknow.com/videos/ghosts- part-3-evidence-video.htm