Middendorf, Joan, and Shopkow, Leah (2018). Overcoming Student Learning Bottlenecks: Decode the Critical Thinking of Your Discipline. Sterling: Stylus Publishing.
Decoding the Disciplines is a widely-used and proven methodology that prompts teachers to identify the bottlenecks – the places where students get stuck – that impede learners’ paths to expert thinking in a discipline. The process is based on recognizing the gap between novice learning and expert thinking, and uncovering tacit knowledge that may not be made manifest in teaching.