Wiggins, G. and J. McTighe. (2005). Understanding by Design (2nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Wiggins and McTighe introduce the concept of backward design to curriculum development in Understanding by Design as the “UbD model” of backward design. The UbD model encourages instructors to begin their course planning with learning outcomes in mind and to then fit the lectures, activities and materials around these desired learning outcomes.