*All academic articles are the sole copyright of the respective publishers. Materials are provided for personal, educational use only. Click on LINK to download a copy of the article.


Spencer, S. J., Logel, C., & Davies, P. G. (2016). Stereotype threat. Annual review of psychology67, 415-437: LINK


Walton, G. M., Logel, C., Peach, J. M., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2015). Two brief interventions to mitigate a “chilly climate” transform women’s experience, relationships, and achievement in engineering. Journal of Educational Psychology107(2), 468-485: LINK


Walton, G. M., Spencer, S. J., & Erman, S. (2013). Affirmative meritocracy. Social Issues and Policy Review7(1), 1-35: LINK

Jordan, C. H., Logel, C., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., Wood, J. V., & Holmes, J. G. (2013). Responsive low self-esteem: Low explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, and reactions to performance outcomes. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology32(7), 703-732:LINK

SPENCER, S., & ZANNA, M. P. (2013). Nonconscious Self-Esteem: Is There Something You’re Not Telling Yourself?. Self-Esteem Issues and Answers: A Sourcebook of Current Perspectives, 60.


Yoshida, E., Peach, J. M., Zanna, M. P., & Spencer, S. J. (2012). Not all automatic associations are created equal: How implicit normative evaluations are distinct from implicit attitudes and uniquely predict meaningful behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology48(3), 694-706: LINK

Walton, G. M., Cohen, G. L., Cwir, D., & Spencer, S. J. (2012). Mere belonging: the power of social connections. Journal of personality and social psychology102(3), 513-532: LINK

Logel, C. R., Walton, G. M., Spencer, S. J., Peach, J., & Mark, Z. P. (2012). Unleashing latent ability: Implications of stereotype threat for college admissions. Educational Psychologist47(1), 42-50: LINK


Tse, C., Logel, C., & Spencer, S. J. (2011). Stereotype Inoculation: An Elegant and Practical Model. Psychological Inquiry22(4), 296-298: LINK

Cwir, D., Carr, P. B., Walton, G. M., & Spencer, S. J. (2011). Your heart makes my heart move: Cues of social connectedness cause shared emotions and physiological states among strangers. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology47(3), 661-664: LINK

Peach, J. M., Yoshida, E., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., & Steele, J. R. (2011). Recognizing discrimination explicitly while denying it implicitly: Implicit social identity protection. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology47(2), 283-292: LINK


Walton, G. M., & Spencer, S. J. (2009). Latent ability grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students. Psychological Science20(9), 1132-1139: LINK

Kay, A. C., Gaucher, D., Peach, J. M., Laurin, K., Friesen, J., Zanna, M. P., & Spencer, S. J. (2009). Inequality, discrimination, and the power of the status quo: Direct evidence for a motivation to see the way things are as the way they should be. Journal of personality and social psychology97(3), 421-434: LINK

Logel, C., Walton, G. M., Spencer, S. J., Iserman, E. C., von Hippel, W., & Bell, A. E. (2009). Interacting with sexist men triggers social identity threat among female engineers. Journal of personality and social psychology96(6), 1089-1103: LINK

Logel, C., Iserman, E. C., Davies, P. G., Quinn, D. M., & Spencer, S. J. (2009). The perils of double consciousness: The role of thought suppression in stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology45(2), 299-312: LINK

Jordan, C. H., Logel, C., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., & Whitfiel, M. L. (2009). 9. The heterogeneity of self-esteem: exploring the interplay between implicit and explicit self-esteem. In Attitudes: Insights from the new implicit measures (pp. 251-284).


Ross, M., Spencer, S. J., Blatz, C. W., & Restorick, E. (2008). Collaboration reduces the frequency of false memories in older and younger adults. Psychology and Aging23(1), 85-92: LINK

Stinson, D. A., Logel, C., Zanna, M. P., Holmes, J. G., Cameron, J. J., Wood, J. V., & Spencer, S. J. (2008). The cost of lower self-esteem: testing a self-and social-bonds model of health. Journal of personality and social psychology94(3), 412-428: LINK

Strahan, E. J., Lafrance, A., Wilson, A. E., Ethier, N., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2008). Victoria’s dirty secret: How sociocultural norms influence adolescent girls and women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin34(2), 288-301: LINK

Lau, G. P., Kay, A. C., & Spencer, S. J. (2008). Loving those who justify inequality: The effects of system threat on attraction to women who embody benevolent sexist ideals. Psychological Science, 19(1), 20-21: LINK


Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., & Fong, G. T. (2005). Establishing a causal chain: why experiments are often more effective than mediational analyses in examining psychological processes. Journal of personality and social psychology, 89(6), 845-851: LINK

Jordan, C. H., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., Hoshino-Browne, E., & Correll, J. (2003). Secure and defensive high self-esteem. Journal of personality and social psychology85(5), 969-978: LINK

Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. Advances in experimental social psychology34, 379-440: LINK

Davies, P. G., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D. M., & Gerhardstein, R. (2002). Consuming images: How television commercials that elicit stereotype threat can restrain women academically and professionally. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin28(12), 1615-1628: LINK

Blascovich, J., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D., & Steele, C. (2001). African Americans and high blood pressure: The role of stereotype threat. Psychological science12(3), 225-229: LINK

McGregor, I., Zanna, M. P., Holmes, J. G., & Spencer, S. J. (2001). Compensatory conviction in the face of personal uncertainty: going to extremes and being oneself. Journal of personality and social psychology80(3), 472-488: LINK

Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. Journal of experimental social psychology35(1), 4-28: LINK

Major, B., Spencer, S., Schmader, T., Wolfe, C., & Crocker, J. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality and social psychology bulletin24(1), 34-50: LINK

Spencer, S. J., Fein, S., Wolfe, C. T., Fong, C., & Duinn, M. A. (1998). Automatic activation of stereotypes: The role of self-image threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin24(11), 1139-1152: LINK

Fein, S., & Spencer, S. J. (1997). Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others. Journal of personality and Social Psychology73(1), 31-44: LINK

Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Lynch, M. (1993). Self-image resilience and dissonance: the role of affirmational resources. Journal of personality and social psychology64(6), 885-896: LINK