Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patall, E. A. (2006). Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of Research, 1987–2003. Review of Educational Research, 76(1), 1–62. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543076001001
This source is a synthesis of other studies, ranging from 1987 to 2003, about the effects of homework on academic performance. Those conducting the synthesis found that while there is an academic benefit to homework, that is dependent on grade level, with substantial benefits for high school studies, middling benefits for middle school students, and few measurable benefits for elementary students. Cooper is a Professor of Psychology and Director of the Program in Education at Duke University in North Carolina; Robinson was at the time a PhD candidate in Social Psychology in the Department of Psychology at Duke University; Patall was at the time of writing a graduate student in Social Psychology at Duke University. The source was chosen for its long timeline of information, as it covers many years. As the information was compiled in 2006, it is not particularly current, but it is still relevant, as it covers a span of history including the 21st century. The source was found by searching Google Scholar, using the terms “homework” and “achievement.”
Cooper, H. (2010). Homework’s Diminishing Returns. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/12/12/stress-and-the-high-school-student/homeworks-diminishing-returns
This source is a continuation of Harris Cooper’s research into the nature of homework in today’s world, and the argument he puts forward that it is quality, not quantity, that matters. Cooper is a Professor of Psychology and Director in Education at Duke University in NC. This source was chosen as it shows a progression of Cooper’s thoughts on homework. It pairs with the synthesis of research he and his colleagues conducted in 2006. It is a short article, and is meant to inform the general public; the fact that it is an article on a news website makes it geared towards a wider audience than his study, making his research and opinions formed by said research more accessible. The article was written in 2010, which is not particularly recent but still holds weight and relevance for Cooper’s stance on homework in the 21st century, and its trending when compared to the previously referenced synthesis. The source was found by searching Google for “Harris Cooper” and “homework.” It is hosted on The New York Times website.
Terada, Y. (2015). Research Trends: Why Homework Should Be Balanced. Edutopia. Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/research-trends-is-homework-effective-youki-terada
This article is a short synthesis of others’ research the importance of balance when it comes to homework. There is evidence of homework linked positively to academic performance, yes, when used properly as a learning tool, but there is a limit and a measure of quality that must be considered. Too much homework can lower student achievement and interfere negatively with a student’s home life and other important extracurricular activities. Youki Terada is a Research and Standards Editor for Edutopia; before Edutopia Terada studied connections between informal and formal science learning for elementary students at UC Berkeley, and researched for STEM digital libraries and other educational technology programs. This article was written in 2015, making it a more recent compilation of information relating to homework and its positives and negatives, and this variety bolsters its relevance. The source was found by searching Google for “homework” and “education” and “research.” The source is hosted on Edutopia, a website by the George Lucas Educational Foundation that seeks to “[shine] a spotlight on what works in education.”