An addiction is not just to a substance / drug, it’s compulsive physiological need for and use of a habit-forming substance.
When an individual’s attitude, mood, or behaviour is affected because they can or can’t do something because of their smartphone is a sign of dependency or need for a habit.
Gutiérrez, J. D., Fonseca, F. R., & Rubio, G. (2016). Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00175
- This journal dives into evidence supporting the claim that cell-phones can be just as addictive as any substances. Using the approach of psychology to support an argument that, these devices can abused.