Over-the-Counter Antibiotics will Require Veterinary Oversight (Rx) Beginning in June of 2023

Dr. Gustavo M. Schuenemann, DVM, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Oho State University

In June of 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that all medically important antimicrobials will move from over-the-counter (OTC) to prescription (Rx) within a 2-year implementation period. The Center for Veterinary Medicine guidance for industry #263 (GFI 263) outlines the process for animal drug suppliers to change the approved marketing status of certain antimicrobial drugs for use in non-food (companion), food-producing animals, or both, that are currently approved with over-the-counter marketing status. In 2003, FDA ranked antimicrobials according to their relative importance to human medicine: “critically important,” “highly important,” or “important.” The FDA considers all antimicrobial drugs listed in Appendix A to GFI #152 to be “medically important”.

Continue reading

Ohio Ticks Present a Major Challenge for Livestock Producers

Dr. Tim McDermott, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Franklin County

Ohio is on the forefront for expansion of ticks and tick-vectored disease going from one tick that is medically important to humans, companion animals, and livestock twenty years ago to five ticks now.  I encountered the American Dog Tick way back when I was in clinical veterinary practice, then added the Blacklegged, or Deer Tick in 2010.  I talked about the Lone Star tick back in Farm and Dairy on June 27th, 2019 in the article “ Don’t Let a Lone Star Tick Bite Make You Allergic to Your Dinner” and still get nervous about potentially getting the mammalian muscle allergy (alpha-gal) that could make me allergic to my favorite food, bacon cheeseburgers. We finally added two more ticks to get to our total of five in 2020 with expansion to new host ranges of those ticks continuing to this day.  The Gulf Coast tick, not a true invasive, has been present in the United States since the 1800’s and was a serious pest for cattle producers at the time assisting with the economic and medical damage caused by the severe and reportable screwworm pest.  This tick has established colonies in counties in Southwestern Ohio.

Continue reading

Small Ruminant Management: Pre-weaning Health Considerations – Part 2

Dr. Brady Campbell, Assistant Professor, State Small Ruminant Extension Specialist

Continuing our discussion from last week, as we move beyond the first few critical days post lambing and kidding the nerves of new life on the farm dwindle as mother nature takes control. However, as lambs and kids begin to fill the barn, it is important to remain observant to ensure that we haven’t missed anything that management could have corrected for. One management task that is of utmost importance is ensuring that we maintain an up-to-date vaccination program. In more cases than not, the most skilled producers face young lamb and kid losses associated with a lack of timeliness when it comes to vaccination protocols. It’s understandable, life happens – let’s just not make a habit of it. As we have discussed in the past, vaccines should be considered when specific challenges present themselves with the only exception being with CD&T (we’ll talk about this one below). Once a vaccine has been used with your operation, boosters (using various time frames) are typically required.

Speaking of vaccines, I think it’s time for a little quiz and don’t worry, it’s not graded. Do you know how a vaccine is used by the body? Better yet, how long does it take for the immune system to develop in our young stock? What if you intend on vaccinating young lambs and kids, do you know when this vaccine can and should be given in order for it to be effective. According to Dr. Bret Taylor, in general it takes the immune system 3-4 weeks to mature. Therefore, it is critical that lambs and kids receive

Continue reading

Small Ruminant Management: Pre-weaning Health Considerations – Part 1

Dr. Brady Campbell, Assistant Professor, State Small Ruminant Extension Specialist

As we discussed a few weeks ago, abortion causing diseases can strike your operation at any time without warning. I hope that you don’t experience any of those types of hardships in your endeavors, but if you do, you now have a resource to reference when something goes awry. Being able to identify the current challenge your flock or herd is facing and having the tools to remedy the issue is key for success in any livestock enterprise. Of course, the management of your operation doesn’t stop at reproduction, or at least we hope not! Once you have hardy and healthy lambs and kids on the ground, it is important to remain vigilant to ensure success during the pre-weaning phase of production.

According to Dwyer and others (2016), lambs and kids are most vulnerable to disease and mis-management that often results in death during the first 24-48 hours after birth. Furthermore these authors also support that approximately 50% of pre-weaning death losses occur within the first two days of life. Globally, the estimated mortality or death rate in sheep operations hoovers around 15%, which has remained unchanged for Continue reading

Small Ruminant Management: Abortion Causing Diseases

Dr. Brady Campbell, Assistant Professor, State Small Ruminant Extension Specialist

For those raising sheep and goats in the Midwest, lambing and kidding season is in full swing. As we enjoy the victories and contemplate the challenges our management systems threw at us this year, it is important to note and document everything that happened so we can evaluate our outcomes at the end of the season. An important statistic to keep in any livestock operation is death loss. This number is valuable to quantify the efficiency of your operation, but without recording a reason for a loss or death in your operation, this statistic ends here. I know that it can be stressful and deflating when we encounter a loss, but understanding why it occurred and the reason behind it will pay dividends as you move forward. Although this discussion is a bit gloomy to talk about, it’s an important one none the less. Below, I have outlined some of the common diseases in sheep and goats that are associated with pregnancy loss, abortions, stillbirths, and birth deformities. Be sure to read each of these and compare them to your operation. Even if you don’t have issues today, these diseases can rear their ugly head at any given time. Keeping this information tucked away in your farming tool box will be well worth the read.

Campylobacter (Vibrio)
Campylobacter, or more commonly referred to as Vibrio, is caused by a bacterial infection with campylobacter jejuni or fetus. Ewes and does that contract this bacterial infection tend to abort during Continue reading

Small Ruminant Abortions: Cleanup and Facility Considerations

Russ Daly, Professor, South Dakota State University Extension Veterinarian, State Public Health Veterinarian
(Previously published online with South Dakota State University Extension: November 19, 2021)

(Image Source: Farmers Weekly)

Sheep and goat producers in the upper Midwest rely on annual lamb or kid crops to maintain economic viability. Reduction in the lamb or kid crop due to abortion (premature birth) and stillbirths are a common occurrence on many farms. Some of these problems have implications for human health as well as animal health. This article will discuss some methods to limit risk and improve biocontainment if you find yourself dealing with abortions on your farm.

Pregnancy losses in sheep and goats can be sporadic and uncommon or occur in the form of “abortion storms,” or outbreaks where up to 20% – 30% of a flock’s pregnancies are lost. These losses can occur for a number of reasons, including (particularly in the case of large outbreaks) infections with various bacteria, viruses, or protozoa.

Human Health
Some of these germs not only pose threats to Continue reading

Neonatal Lamb Management: Intraperitoneal Injection of Dextrose (Glucose)

Adapted from ‘What You Need to Know About Lambing’ presentation by Dr. Ileana Wenger.
Article, Text, and Tables provided by: Alberta Lamb Producers Factsheet
For additional information: Consult with your local veterinarian and/or additional neonatal management resources provided by Alberta Lamb Producers.

(Image Source : Farm Advisory Service)

As you have heard me say many times in the past, repetition is the key to learning. The reposting of this detailed article on the topic of intraperitoneal injection is no different. In talking with some shepherds as well as viewing comments and videos online in the past few days, this invaluable technique has already been implemented this season to save a number of young lambs as shepherds face challenges with the extreme fluctuations in temperatures. I can attest that this protocol works. Last year I used this article to follow the step-by-step process of this procedure. In our specific case, the lamb made a full recovery. This isn’t to say that this is a surefire way to save lambs, but it is a tool to consider to improve your odds when all other options have been exhausted. Who knows, a few minutes of reading may end up saving you a chunk of change this lambing and kidding season.

Most lamb deaths that occur shortly after birth are due to starvation and/or hypothermia (low body temperature). These losses are most often preventable, and lambs can be saved if problems are identified and treated quickly.

Why is timing important? Continue reading

Prolapses in Sheep

Isabel Richards, Veterinary Science – South Africa and owner/operator of Gibraltar Farm
(Previously published with the Eastern Alliance for Production Katahdins (EAPK): December 12, 2021)

There are three structures that can prolapse and be visible under a ewe’s tail: vagina, uterus, and rectum. Vaginal and uterine prolapses can negatively affect ewes around lambing and will be discussed here.

Vaginal Prolapse
A vaginal prolapse occurs when a ewe’s vagina protrudes out of her vulva. Most prolapses occur in the last few days or weeks of pregnancy. It usually starts with the ewe laying down and you just see a small little ball of red tissue protruding from the vulva that retracts when she stands up. This is the ideal time to start treatment and prevent it from progressing to a much more serious situation.

If left untreated, more of the vagina will start protruding. This tissue is not supposed to be exposed to the elements and with time it becomes dried out, contaminated with bedding and fecal matter and infection can set in. This is uncomfortable for the ewe and she will start straining, pushing more and more tissue out and making the situation worse. Often Continue reading

Falling Leaves Poison with Ease

Haley Zynda, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Wayne County

Even though we’re only a couple weeks away from the true start of winter (hard to believe, I know), some trees are still clutching onto their leaves as if the dying foliage will be enough to fortify their soon-to-be bare branches against the frigid temperatures. It’s important to take note of the trees that have leaves yet to fall, especially if you house livestock outside in pastures or sacrifice lots. I’m sure most have heard of the dangers of black/wild cherry limbs and leaves for cattle, but there are several other trees and shrubs that can cause negative impacts on cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.

Wild Cherry. Poisonous to all classes of livestock, wilted cherry leaves and branches can cause prussic acid poisoning, the same poisoning as seen in frosted sorghum-sudangrass. It’s best to remove Continue reading

Common Diseases of Goats

Joan S. Bowen, DVM, Wellington, CO
(Previously published in the Merck Manual – Veterinary Manual: January, 2014)

Goats harbor several species of coccidia but not all exhibit clinical coccidiosis (see Coccidiosis). Adult goats shed coccidia in feces, contaminate the environment, and infect the newborn. As infection pressure builds up in the pens, morbidity in kids born later increases. Signs include diarrhea or pasty feces, loss of condition, general frailness, and failure to grow. In peracute cases, kids may die without clinical signs. Rotating all the kids through one or two pens is dangerous. To help prevent coccidiosis in artificially reared dairy goats, the kids should be put in small, age-matched groups in outside, portable pens that are moved to clean ground periodically. Eradication is not feasible, but infection can be controlled through good management practices. Coccidiostats added to the water or feed are adjuncts to a management control program and not substitutes. Chronic coccidiosis is one of the main causes of poor growth in kids and is responsible for the uneconomical practice of delaying breeding for a year until the goat has reached adequate size (70 lb. [32 kg] for dairy breeds). In Angora goats kept extensively, the problem is seen at weaning, when the kids are kept in smaller lots and fed supplement on the ground.

Continue reading