Marcy Ward, Extension Livestock Specialist, New Mexico State University
Shad Cox, Superintendent – Corona Range and Livestock Research Center, New Mexico State University
John Wenzel, Extension Veterinarian, New Mexico State University
(Previously published with New Mexico State University: Guide B-127: Sheep and Goat Vaccine and Health Management Schedule)
Most livestock vaccine and health management protocols revolve around the animal’s stage of production. For sheep and goats, it is recommended to vaccinate prior to lambing, weaning, and breeding. The purpose of this publication is to offer a guide in establishing a health management schedule. Every operation is unique, and it is therefore imperative that producers consult with their veterinarian before establishing a specific vaccination and health protocol.
Table 1 provides information on vaccine timing, recommended and optional vaccines, and covered diseases.
|Table 1. Recommended Vaccine and Health Management Schedule for Sheep and Goats|
|Stage of production||Timing||Recommended vaccines/health management||Diseases covered||Optional vaccines*|
|Pregnant sheep and goats
||2–4 weeks prior to lambing or kidding||
||Clostridium perfringens types C and D and tetanus
Keds and lice in sheep
|At lambing or kidding||
||Prevents internal parasite
|SE/vitamin E can help prevent white muscle disease|
||Lambs 2 weeks of age||
||300 I.U. tetanus antitoxin, if dam was not vaccinated during gestation|
|30 days after lambing or kidding. Booster at 45 days (2 weeks later).||
||Enterotoxemia||Ovine ecthyma for soremouth|
|Ewes and does
||Vibriosis (late-term abortions)
Chlamydia (late-term abortions; vaccine can be used in both sheep and goats)
Eight clostridial strain
CL, a contagious bacterial disease that causes skin lesions and abscesses
|Bucks and rams
||Eight clostridial strain bacterial diseases
Prevents parasite infestation
Things to Consider
- Read all labels carefully before administering vaccines or other treatments.
- For optimal parasite control, a fecal egg count should be done to assess level of infestation, and may determine potential anthelmintic resistance. Your veterinarian can assist you with this process.
- When treating for parasites, it is now recommended that you remain consistent with your de-worming protocol. The key is to get the appropriate dose per animal. Animals that are under-dosed have an increased risk of becoming anthelmintic-resistant.
- For external parasites like keds and ticks, topical permethrin-based products work well.
- Caution: Avoid applying to dairy goats. Zeta-cypermethrin products can be used as an alternative.
- Depending on weather and level of infestation, a second dose may be needed two weeks later to sufficiently treat the animals.
- Ewe lambs and doelings will require an additional dose (total of three) of both Campylobacter and Chlamydia vaccines to ensure full protection prior to their first breeding season.
- Older sheep and goats who have been properly vaccinated as young animals should only require annual vaccines covering the clostridial (i.e., 8-way) and anti-abortive vaccines (i.e., Vibrio).
- Clostridial vaccines can be highly reactive at the vaccination site. To reduce blemishes, use clean, high-gauge needles (18 g) and subcutaneous administration techniques.
To learn more about external parasite management, refer to NMSU Extension Guide B-112, Guide for Control of External Parasites of Sheep and Goats.
Figure 1. An example animal health protocol with corresponding schedule in a farm flock situation.
Figure 2. An example animal health protocol with corresponding schedule for sheep and goats on range.