Learning to Hear in Arch City Religion

By Rachel McBride Lindsey
Saint Louis University

What do we gain as researchers by listening for religion in the city? This was one of the questions I posed to students in my second-year elective course, “Arch City Religion: Religious Life and Practice in St. Louis,” last spring. Like many of us who teach religion in American history, I had long incorporated music, audio clips of sermons, podcasts, and other forms of recorded sound into course content. The previous year, when teaching this course, I had come across some material relating to my university’s early adoption of “the radiophone” in the early 1920s as a civic and theological instrument and had contextualized that material with studies of religious sound by Isaac Weiner and Lerone Martin, among others. This year, with the considerable advantage of working with the American Religious Sounds Project, I was eager to seize the opportunity to build audio storytelling into the course design. Several weeks into the semester students got their hands on the Zoom audio recorders that would transform them from users into producers. In addition to identifying and analyzing sound as a largely unscrutinized register of religious life and practice, we were now jumping through the looking glass. Instead of using content that had been created by others, we now had to decide, before we clicked any buttons, what religion is and how best to translate lived aural experiences into meaningful archival products.

My research and teaching often center visual and material cultures of religion. Over the last several semesters I had begun to incorporate sound studies more directly into my classes, largely inspired by the work of the ARSP and its previous iterations. When the opportunity came to develop a more rigorous pedagogy of sound in my classes, I seized it, not only as another critical register for the study of religion but also, and more immediately, because there is perhaps nothing more emblematic of urban life than sound. Translating ARSP objectives into the pedagogical architecture of my second-year elective, one of the course objectives was to develop a critical awareness of creative and ambient sound in observations and analyses of religion in St. Louis. Alongside studies of urban religion that work to differentiate “religion in the city” from “religion of the city,” which lead to explorations of religious diversity and the role of religion in public life, we read about sound as a historically contested marker of religious practice. We learned about histories of recorded sound that have shaped the modern religious landscape. And we listened. We listened to podcasts, radio broadcasts, and the streets of St. Louis. And this time, before we listened to much audio content, we focused our attention on how we hear. Whether residents of the city or rural commuters, we each began to interrogate how sounds shape our ideas of the city and our responses to specific urban experiences.

On that first day in February when students finally got their hands on the Zoom recorders, they broke off into small teams and scattered across campus. On this day, their assignment was to listen. That’s it. Take the recorder, your headphones, your instruction manual, figure out how this thing works, and pay attention to what you hear—not, necessarily, to what is being said, but to what you hear. After a few hiccups, each group found a place to practice. At the end of the class period, the groups came back to debrief their experiences. The campus recreation center, a Starbucks, study spaces, the library, the West Pine Mall (a former city street transformed into a pedestrian thoroughfare that cuts through the heart of campus), each of these places had become sites of intentional listening. After a bit of prodding, students started to reflect aloud. Several students commented that they felt different in these familiar spaces, that the recorder had somehow altered their relationship with spaces that they pass through every day. Others noted that it took them longer to prepare the recorder for use—right setting, right volume, right position—than they had anticipated. One comment from that first practice session was echoed by several other students—“I heard better than I do with my own ears.” This student may not in fact have heard better, but she recognized that she listened differently, that she was attentive to the minute sounds of campus life that she often tunes out, through the deliberate act of recording ambient sound. This student may not remember when the first mosque was built in St. Louis or why I made her read about the Veiled Prophet or even, mercy, how the early history of Catholic immigration has shaped the city we know today. She has probably sold back all of the books she read in the class and archived or tossed the essays she wrote. But I have a hunch that she will remember for many years that time in college when she learned to listen, really listen, to the world around her.

Like the sounds of campus life, the sounds of religion in the city can be striking both in their novelty and in their newly recognized familiarity. Building on their initial observations and practices, Arch City Religion students went on to create a range of audio storytelling projects, from podcast reviews of Matthew J. Cressler’s Authentically Black and Truly Catholic, to semester projects exploring the religious history of coffee in St. Loui, to an audio postcard of the Bible Garden at the Missouri Botanical Garden:

Some of them are excellent and some need more work. But even the rougher products demonstrate a new method of engaging religion that is difficult to unhear. Attending to religious life and practice through sound works to bring the subject of study—”religion”—into focus as it is lived in the messy realities of a culturally, politically, racially, and economically diverse city. My approach to these outcomes is to teach students to use digital tools not as biological proxies that document specific events but as instruments that train us to attune to the cultural work of our bodies and senses.

Similar to other urban centers throughout the country, the city of St. Louis has a checkered history of defining religious sounds as public noise, from church bells in the 1910s to Muslim calls to prayer in the 2000s. Attending to the soundscapes of the city’s religious life—the bells of St. Ambrose in the Italian Catholic neighborhood of “The Hill,” drummers at the Festival of Nations in Tower Grove Park, the clink of coffee cups settling into their saucers at Crave Coffee House, excited footsteps of hundreds of Hindu faithful carrying their deities on chariots through the streets of west St. Louis County, the fullness of quiet reflection in Buddhist monasteries, Catholic convents, and municipal gardens—teach us not only to think about religion in new, potentially revealing ways, but also to hear each other through the sounds of our neighbors’ lives. It is probably a lot to ask of a college elective, but I am hopeful that our study of sound, guided by the ARSP, helps us to listen to each other better. Sure, there were scheduling mishaps, communication gaps, technology fails, and a low drum beat of controlled chaos as we learned how to hear the city through new techniques of scrutiny and analysis. Despite the challenges, though, I remain hopeful that this semester will be remembered less as a cautionary tale and more as a raspy first word, even a prefatory throat clearing, in the origin stories of many students who learned to hear better than they thought they could with their own ears.

Drummers at the Festival of Nations:


Religion Off the Cuff

By Christopher D. Cantwell and Catherine Abbott

Kenwood Boulevard runs through the heart of Milwaukee’s Upper East Side neighborhood. Though the street now forms the southern boundary of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee’s main campus, Kenwood’s wide birth and landscaped dividers are reflective of the boulevard’s earlier life as a thoroughfare through the one of the city’s most fashionable residential districts. Also indicative of the neighborhood’s history are the stories of the places of worship that line the street. Walking west from Lake Michigan where Kenwood terminates, one passes a Christian Science Reading Room that now houses the Chinese Christian Church of Milwaukee; the former home of Congregation Emanu-El B’ne Jeshurun that now belongs to the University’s Peck School of Arts; the gothic home of Kenwood Methodist Episcopal Church, where Wisconsin’s first ordained Native American woman preaches; and the former home of a Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod Church that now houses the Islamic Society of Milwaukee’s University Center. And all in just three blocks.

The remarkable diversity of this stretch of Milwaukee was the inspiration for a new project run out the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee’s history department called Gathering Places: Religion and Community in Milwaukee. Under the directorship of faculty member Christopher D. Cantwell, the project has teams of graduate students partner with places of worship across Milwaukee to document their history. Throughout the Spring 2018 semester, students consulted public records, conducted research in denominational archives, scoured old sanctuaries for materials, and interviewed current and former members of a congregation in an attempt to reconstruct a place of worship’s history and ongoing activities. All of this material will then be published online on a map-based interface in order to build a living archive of Milwaukee’s religious diversity.

In addition to exploring the history of Milwaukee’s churches, mosques, synagogues, and temples, however, Gathering Places will also now document the sounds of the city’s religious life as a pilot site partner with the American Religious Sounds Project. Our partnership with the ARSP has been incredibly beneficial. The ARSP’s focus on religion’s sonic dimensions has not only changed the kinds of material our project takes in, but has also complicated our conception of what, exactly, religion is. Catherine Abbott recently encountered this phenomenon as one of Gathering Places’ student researchers. Charged with writing the history of Plymouth Church, a progressive United Church of Christ congregation, Abbott and her research partner initially expected that documenting the community’s commitment to social justice would be easily accessed through the printed word and the church’s material culture. Like many liberal, mainline congregations, Plymouth’s sign prominently displays an LGBTQ flag and its sermons and bulletins are replete with announcements about opportunities for social activism like a rally in support of undocumented immigrants and refugees.

The sanctuary of Plymouth Church UCC, Milwaukee. Photograph by Jordan Heller.

Members of Plymouth Church UCC, Milwaukee prepare banners for an upcoming rally in support of refugees. Photograph by Jordan Heller.

But a field recording collected on April 29, 2018 complicated our perhaps stereotypical understanding of progressive religion. Like many congregations, Plymouth publishes its sermons on its websites. But in an interesting twist, Plymouth’s pastor Andrew Warner also publishes the texts of his sermons online. If someone were to study Plymouth solely based on the texts of these sermons, they would be able to construct an entirely predictable portrait of a mainline congregation that is committed to liberal politics. The April 29 sermon on the ways we perceive the person of Jesus, for example, makes an explicit reference to supporting refugees in America. But in our recording of the service what came across as the sermon’s highlight was an off-the-cuff remark made at the beginning of the service. While illustrating how Christians tend to romanticize Jesus’s love through hymns like “He Walks with Me in the Garden,” Pastor Warner paused after reading the line “And the joy we share as we tarry there / None other has ever known” and remarked, “Actually, I’ve known men arrested for that in the park.” The congregation laughed at the line, and then the minister continued. The rest of the sermon focused on how an expansive conception of Christ’s love should compel Christians to identify with those in need. As we suspected, standard mainline, liberal Protestant fare.

Pastor Andrew Warner preaching. Photograph by Jordan Heller.

But in processing our recording in the days and weeks after the service, we kept coming back to this moment of laughter. It became clear to us that this spontaneous moment also had as much meaning as the broader message of the sermon itself. It revealed both the congregation’s familiarity with the hymn as well as the its understanding of the practice of “cruising” for sexual encounters in public parks, which gay man often did in times when knowledge of their sexuality brought discrimination. It also made clear that the community found the pastor’s remark to be humorous and not shocking or sacrilegious. Why the community found the joke to be humorous is a matter in need of greater scrutiny. Does it signal the community’s belief that they had grown beyond a supposedly retrograde religious sensuality? Or is it a demonstration of the congregation’s diversity or cultural sophistication? The answers of such questions hopefully will emerge when we put this laughter in conversation with other sources from the church’s history. But it is important to note that none of this information would be available to scholars studying only the sermon’s printed version. Nor would even an official recording of pastor Warner’s sermon have picked up this information as the minister’s microphone would have lost the sounds of the crowd. But by listening to the audience listening to a sermon, our field recording revealed a great deal about the culture of that community.

We at the Gathering Places team are grateful to be partnering with the American Religious Sounds Project. The ARSP’s call to take sound seriously, to ask what religion in America sounds like, has already transformed how we study religion in Milwaukee. We hope it promotes an even greater commitment to listen to the sounds around us.

Singing HU

By Lauren Pond


In 2015, when I initially got involved in the American Religious Sounds Project (then the Religious Soundmap Project), my very first assignment was to attend an Eckankar seminar in Dublin, Ohio. Eckankar centers on the idea that humans are connected to God through a divine spirit, which can be “heard as sound and seen as light.” One of the cornerstones of Eckankar is the HU song, a chant that adherents say allows them to raise their consciousness and become closer to the divine.

Upon coordinating my visit to the Eckankar seminar, I learned that although I could record a group HU song, I would not be permitted to take photographs. Granted, the ARSP focuses on sound, but with my background in documentary photography, I was accustomed to telling visual stories, and I had anticipated at least being able to take a few contextualizing photographs to accompany my recordings. I became somewhat concerned: How was I going to tell a compelling story about Eckankar without a visual element?

However, my fears began to dissipate when I put on my headphones and started to record. Despite the fact that the HU song was just that, a song, it had almost a three-dimensional quality to it. About 50 disparate voices, all chanting “HU” at their own pace, combined to form an encompassing, undulating melody. Most people closed their eyes as they chanted, and I later learned that some had visualized colors or peaceful scenes. I, too, felt my mind drifting.

There was no need to photograph people chanting HU, I realized, and to do so would probably be a disservice to Eckankar. Sound served to help the mind wander, both visually and spiritually. Attempting to represent HU through imagery would flatten this experience.

What can we learn about religion if we begin by listening to it? This is one of the guiding questions of the American Religious Sounds Project. It only took one assignment for me to realize the importance of taking a sonic approach, and how this might help us understand religion in a more nuanced manner.


Text by Amy DeRogatis
Recordings by Emma Pittsley
Photographs and Audio Editing by Lauren Pond

On Saturday, April 15,  the Michigan State ARSP research team attended the Holy Saturday Divine Liturgy service at Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church in Lansing, Michigan. After the service, we joined congregants to help wrap red eggs for that evening’s celebration after the Paschal Vigil. During Thursday of Holy Week, congregation members had dropped off dozens of eggs that had been dyed bright red. These were ready to be wrapped in tulle on Saturday.

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Takin’ It to the Streets: Pilgrimage in East Lansing

By Amy DeRogatis

Last Sunday, April 2, 2017,  I participated in an interfaith pilgrimage through the streets of East Lansing. To prepare for the event, I spent a few days reading and thinking about pilgrimage.  Why do people take pilgrimages? What do they hope to accomplish? Where are they seeking to go? And, significantly for this project, what are the sounds that I might expect to hear while on a pilgrimage?

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Building Community Relationships

Text by Caroline Toy
Recordings, editing, and photographs by Lauren Pond

At many sites and events where ARSP researchers record, we try to make ourselves barely noticeable to the community. While we get permission to record and answer questions openly, it’s not unusual for us to document a service or festival understanding that our recordings are only an auditory snapshot, a single, ephemeral slice of religious life at a particular place and time.

In other cases, the opposite is true, and we set out to create a collage of such snapshots, stitched together by interviews with community members, the cycle of a sacred calendar, or narratives of change. These deeper relationships allow us to document how religious communities create and understand their place in their religious landscapes (local, historical, political, and the like). Many of the examples featured on this blog so far – such as the Nine Worlds Kindred community of Asatru practitioners, Wat Buddha Samakidham temple, and Three Cranes Grove of Druids (who sponsor the Krampus Parade in Columbus) – come from ongoing relationships with communities where we’ve recorded multiple times, interviewed clergy and practitioners, and tried to capture religious practices in multiple contexts.

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Sound as a Point of Contact

Recordings, photographs, and text by Lauren Pond and Isaac Weiner
Audio editing by Lauren Pond

One recurring motif to which the ARSP team has been attuned is how different sounds–including those deemed religious and those deemed secular–intersect and overlap in particular social contexts. We are interested in what it sounds like when religion spills outside of the institutional boundaries meant to contain it and, conversely, how the ambient sonic qualities of a given social situation shape the experience of religious life. In these moments, sound becomes a point of contact, mediating interactions among diverse religious communities, between religion and its broader social environment, and between human practice and the natural world. The following clips offer a few examples of what we have found.

1. Isha prayer at the Noor Islamic Cultural Center


Located just outside of Columbus proper, the Noor Islamic Cultural Center is one of Central Ohio’s largest mosques. On the day of the 2016 Presidential Election, the NICC served as one of the region’s largest polling sites. Likely for political and safety reasons, it abstained from projecting the Islamic call to prayer throughout the day, but resumed doing so for the last prayer of the evening, the Isha prayer, which took place shortly after the polls had closed. At the time this recording was made, it was pouring rain. The combination of the precipitation and the prayer made for a mournful-sounding recording — which, in retrospect, seems suggestive of the election outcome and the xenophobia and Islamophobia that have flourished since then.

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Recording the Human Side of Ceremony

By Bree Gannon

The Imam prays. A baby cries. This is the human in ceremony, the spontaneous in orchestration.

I made this audio clip from material I recorded at the Muslim celebration of Eid-Al-Fitr, the end of fasting for the month of Ramadan. It was my first time attending an Islamic service. As I observed, I noticed the children: They climbed in their parents’ laps, exchanged small gifts, ran around, and talked with each other. Having grown up in a religious tradition where children were tucked away in nurseries and church basements, this was a novel experience for me.

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Sounds of the Holiday Season

Recordings by J. Caroline Toy, Isaac Weiner, and Lauren Pond
Audio editing by Lauren Pond
Photographs by Lauren Pond and Isaac Weiner

Religion is often portrayed as a discrete entity – as something that’s confined within the four walls of a church, mosque, temple, synagogue, or the like. Our current work on the American Religious Sounds Project begins to challenge these assumptions. Through our field recordings and essays, we have started to explore how religious sound can seep out of its traditional confines and interact with the surrounding sonic environment – sometimes in a confrontational manner, and sometimes in a more symbiotic one. We’re examining how sound can serve as a point of contact between different faiths, between religious and secular spheres, and among religious followers themselves.

It has been particularly intriguing to listen for overlapping sounds during the holiday season, when many faith communities celebrate in the public sphere. The following audio clips and collages illustrate some of the sonic diversity and overlap of the holiday season in Columbus, Ohio.

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