- Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.
- Chemical formula – C2H6O
- Is the principal active ingredient found in alcoholic drinks.
- Ethanol is considered a universal solvent, as its molecular structure allows for the dissolving of both polar, hydrophilic and non-polar, hydrophobic
Ethanol can be fermented from many sources of starch, including:
- Grain sorghum
- Sugar cane
- Sweet sorghum
- Started being used in the U.S as lamp fuel in 1840.
- In 1908, Ford Model T’s could be run on ethanol
- When prohibition started in 1920, ethanol fuel sellers were suspected of selling alcohol, so they stopped the production.
- The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest organic reactions that man learned to carry out and the history of man-made ethanol is very long.
- Read More: https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/biofuels/ethanol.php
- Medicinal solvent
- Engine fuel
- Rocket fuel
- Household heating
Mechanism of action of alcohol
- Is a CNS depressants
- Acute alcohol causes:
–Enhancement the effect of GABA( inhibitory neurotransmitter) on its GABA receptors in brain leading to CNS depression
-Inhibition of glutamate action (excitatory neurotransmitter) on NMDA receptors leading to disruption in memory, consciousness, alterness.
Read more: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/pharmacology-toxicology-and-pharmaceutical-science/ethanol
The primary site of ethanol metabolism is the liver. However, other organs are also able to metabolize alcohol, but to a lesser degree. These include the kidneys, lungs, and digestive organs.
Read more: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3484320/
- GI tract (small intestine) when ingested
- Lungs when inhaled
- Sometimes absorbed by the skin.
- Ethanol is distributed equally throughout the body depending on:
- the amount of water in that area.
- blood flow to that area
- tissue mass
- Via liver
- Typically via breath, breast milk, urine, sweat, saliva, feces.
Alcohol poisoning signs and symptoms include:
- Slow breathing (less than eight breaths a minute)
- Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths)
- Blue-tinged skin or pale skin
- Low body temperature (hypothermia)
- Passing out (unconsciousness) and can’t be awakened
- Careful monitoring
- Prevention of breathing or choking problems
- Oxygen therapy
- Fluids given through a vein (intravenously) to prevent dehydration
- Use of vitamins and glucose to help prevent serious complications of alcohol poisoning
Severe complications can result from alcohol poisoning, including:
- Stopping breathing (asphyxiation)
- Severe dehydration
- Irregular heartbeat
- Brain damage
You can’t reverse the effects of alcohol poisoning, and you could actually make things worse through some actions. Here’s what doesn’t work:
- Sleeping it off — you can lose consciousness while asleep
- Black coffee or caffeine ― this does not counteract the effects of alcohol poisoning
- A cold shower — the shock of cold can cause a loss of consciousness
- Walking it off ― this does not increase the speed at which alcohol leaves your body
To avoid alcohol poisoning:
- Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all
- Don’t drink on an empty stomach
- Communicate with your teens
- Store products safely
- Get follow-up care
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Ethanol, CID=702, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Ethanol (accessed on July 7, 2020)
- “Ethanol – Compound Summary”. The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information.
- figure 1, 2: https://www.nutrientsreview.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Ethanol-structure.jpg
- figure 3;<https://sites.google.com/site/wikilabblog/li>
- figure 4 ;<https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/183708/li>
- figure 5 ;<https://www.evergreendrugrehab.com/blog/alcohol-poisoning-symptoms-risks-prevention//li>