Solvent – Ethanol

Farm, ethanol groups angered at final EPA ethanol rule


  • Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor.
  • Chemical formula – C2H6O
  • Is the principal active ingredient found in alcoholic drinks.
  • Ethanol is considered a universal solvent, as its molecular structure allows for the dissolving of both polar, hydrophilic and non-polar, hydrophobic


Ethanol GHS Sign | Setonfigure 1


Absolute alcohol
cologne spirit
drinking alcohol
ethyl alcohol

ethyl hydrate
ethyl hydroxide
grain alcohol


Ethanol can be fermented from many sources of starch, including:

  • Corn
  • Wheat
  • Grain sorghum
  • Barley
  • Potatoes
  • Sugar cane
  • Sweet sorghum


Ethanol Molecular Formula and Empirical Formula

figure 2


PPT - The History of Alcohol PowerPoint Presentation, free ...

  • Started being used in the U.S as lamp fuel in 1840.
  • In 1908, Ford Model T’s could be run on ethanol
  • When prohibition started in 1920, ethanol fuel sellers were suspected of selling alcohol, so they stopped the production.
  • The fermentation of sugar into ethanol is one of the earliest organic reactions that man learned to carry out and the history of man-made ethanol is very long.
  • Read More:



figure 3

Medical :

  • Antiseptic
  • Antidote
  • Medicinal solvent
  • Pharmacology


Fuel :

  • Engine fuel
  • Rocket fuel
  • Household heating




Mechanism of action of alcohol

  • Is a CNS depressants
  • Acute alcohol causes:

Enhancement the effect of GABA( inhibitory neurotransmitter) on its GABA receptors in brain leading to CNS depression

-Inhibition of glutamate action (excitatory neurotransmitter) on NMDA receptors leading to disruption in memory, consciousness, alterness.

PPT - Alcohol Withdrawal PowerPoint Presentation, free download ...

figure 4

Read more:


The primary site of ethanol metabolism is the liver. However, other organs are also able to metabolize alcohol, but to a lesser degree. These include the kidneys, lungs, and digestive organs.

Read more:



  • GI tract (small intestine) when ingested
  • Lungs when inhaled
  • Sometimes absorbed by the skin.


  • Ethanol is distributed equally throughout the body depending on:
    • the amount of water in that area.
    • blood flow to that area
    • tissue mass


  • Via liver


  • Typically via breath, breast milk, urine, sweat, saliva, feces.


Alcohol Poisoning: Symptoms, Risks and Prevention

figure 5

Alcohol poisoning signs and symptoms include:

  • Confusion
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures
  • Slow breathing (less than eight breaths a minute)
  • Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths)
  • Blue-tinged skin or pale skin
  • Low body temperature (hypothermia)
  • Passing out (unconsciousness) and can’t be awakened


  • Careful monitoring
  • Prevention of breathing or choking problems
  • Oxygen therapy
  • Fluids given through a vein (intravenously) to prevent dehydration
  • Use of vitamins and glucose to help prevent serious complications of alcohol poisoning


Alcohol Poisoning: Signs, Symptoms and Intoxication Treatment

Severe complications can result from alcohol poisoning, including:

    • Choking
    • Stopping breathing (asphyxiation)
    • Severe dehydration
    • Seizures
    • Hypothermia
    • Irregular heartbeat
    • Brain damage
    • Death

Dangerous myths

Antibiotics and alcohol: Can they be mixed? - Insider

You can’t reverse the effects of alcohol poisoning, and you could actually make things worse through some actions. Here’s what doesn’t work:

      • Sleeping it off — you can lose consciousness while asleep
      • Black coffee or caffeine ― this does not counteract the effects of alcohol poisoning
      • A cold shower — the shock of cold can cause a loss of consciousness
      • Walking it off ― this does not increase the speed at which alcohol leaves your body


To avoid alcohol poisoning:

  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all
  • Don’t drink on an empty stomach
  • Communicate with your teens
  • Store products safely
  • Get follow-up carealcohol-poisoning - Health All in One


  1. National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Ethanol, CID=702, (accessed on July 7, 2020)
  3.  “Ethanol – Compound Summary”The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information.
  4. figure 1, 2:
  5. figure 3;<>
  6. figure 4 ;<>
  7. figure 5 ;<>

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *