By: Laura Lindsey
In general, the best time to plant wheat is the 10-day period starting the day after the fly-free safe date. When wheat is planted more than 10-days after the fly-free safe date, there is an increased chance of reduced fall growth and reduced winterhardiness. The effect of planting date on wheat yield is shown in Figure 6-2 of the Ohio Agronomy Guide. A free pdf of the guide is available by clicking here: https://stepupsoy.osu.edu/wheat-production/ohio-agronomy-guide-15th-edition (Download the pdf by clicking on the picture of the guide.) Currently, with funding from Ohio Corn and Wheat, we are re-examining the effect of wheat planting date…so stayed tuned next year for those results.
When wheat is planted 3-4 weeks after the fly-free-safe date, the same yield can be achieved as earlier planted wheat if freezing weather does not occur until late November or early December. However, a higher seeding rate is recommended. For wheat planted 3-4 weeks after the fly-free-safe date, use a seeding rate of 1.6 to 2.0 million seeds per acre. The actual number of seeds per pound and germination rate is important for determining the correct seeding rate and drill calibration (Table 1). There are fewer seeds per pound of large seeds than pounds of small seeds. The number of seeds per pound can be found on the seed bag.
Additionally, late planting also means plants will be smaller than normal when entering dormancy and have smaller, more shallow root systems, making them more susceptible to heaving next March. The best heaving control is to get the seed placed between 1.0 and 1.5 inches deep when planting and to plant no-till. These two practices combined will reduce heaving potential.
Table 1. Pounds of seed needed to plant from 1.2 to 2.0 million seeds/acre with seeds of varying sizes.
The publication for the 2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Trials has been finalized and is attached as a PDF file. This article will be published in the mid-August issue of the Ohio Country Journal. All of these results are also available online at the wheat performance trials website: https://ohiocroptest.cfaes.osu.edu/wheattrials/
2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Trial results
By Jason Hartschuh, OSU Extension Educator, Crawford County
Many producers use summer annual forages for grazing and stored forage to either fill the summer slump or keep livestock feed through the winter. With wheat harvest finalized across most of the state and straw baling completed for many now our attention turns to creating a second or third profit center off those wheat acres.
Wheat acres provide an excellent opportunity for double cropping with forages that when harvested at the proper growth stage can either make high-quality late gestation early lactation forage, grazing opportunities, or gut fill to mix lower the quality of other forages or concentrates.
Many species of summer annuals can be utilized for forage. Some of them such as radish and turnip can be easily grazed but do not make well-stored forage as Baleage or dry hay. For dry hay, we have found the best two species to be teff and oats. Most other species can be harvested as silage or Baleage. Be cautious making dry hay that for plant stem is truly dry. Continue reading
Septoria on wheat
By: Pierce Paul, Maira Duffeck and Marian Luis
Wheat is now between Feekes 8 (flag leaf emergence) and Feekes 10 (boot) across the state. Feekes 8 marks the beginning of the period during which we recommend that you begin scouting fields to determine which disease is present and at what level. Septoria tritici leaf spot is usually one of the first to show up, and it has already been reported in some fields. So far, it is restricted to the lower leaves and severity is low in most of the affected fields. This disease is favored by cool (50-68F), rainy conditions, and although it usually develops early in the season, it really does not cause yield loss unless it reaches and damages the flag leaf before grain fill is complete. Continue reading
By: Laura Lindsey, Pierce Paul, and Ed Lentz, CCA
It is important to correctly identify winter wheat growth stages to enhance management decisions, avoiding damage to the crop and unwarranted or ineffective applications. Remember, the exact growth stage cannot be determined by just looking at the height of the crop or based on calendar dates. Remember to stage several plants from several areas within your field.
Here, we will focus on staging wheat Feekes 6.0 through 9.0.
Feekes 6.0: At Feekes 6.0 growth stage, nodes are all formed, but sandwiched together so that they are not readily distinguishable. The first node is swollen and appears above the soil surface. This stage is commonly referred to as “jointing”. Above the node is the head or spike, which is being pushed upwards eventually from the boot. The spike at this stage is fully differentiated, containing future spikelets and florets.
Growers should remove and carefully examine plants for the first node. It can usually be seen and felt by removing the lower leaves and leaf sheaths from the large wheat stems. A sharp knife or razor blade is useful to split stems to determine the location of the developing head. A video showing how to identify the Feekes 6.0 growth stage can be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iukwznx4DPk Continue reading
From Laura Lindsey and Ed Lentz, OSU Extension
With melted snow and warmer weather in the forecast, is it time to apply nitrogen to the wheat?
The short answer. Wait until green-up to apply N to wheat.
The long answer. Wheat does not require large amounts of N until stem elongation/jointing (Feekes Growth Stage 6), which is generally the middle or the end of April depending on the location in the state and spring temperature. Ohio research has shown no yield benefit from N applications made prior to this time. Soil organic matter and/or N applied at planting generally provide sufficient N for early growth until stem elongation.
Nitrogen applied prior to rapid uptake by the plant has the potential to be lost and unavailable for the crop. Nitrogen source will also affect the potential for loss. Urea-ammonium nitrate (28%) has the greatest potential for loss, ammonium sulfate the least, and urea would be somewhere between the two other sources. Continue reading
From Barry Ward and John Barker
The profit margin outlook for corn, soybeans, and wheat is relatively positive as planting season approaches. Prices of all three of our main commodity crops have moved higher since last summer and forward prices for this fall are currently at levels high enough to project positive returns for 2021 crop production. Recent increases in fertilizer prices have negatively affected projected returns. Higher crop insurance costs, as well as moderately higher energy costs relative to last year, will also add to overall costs for 2021.
Production costs for Ohio field crops are forecast to be modestly higher compared to last year with higher fertilizer, fuel, and crop insurance expenses. Variable costs for corn in Ohio for 2021 are projected to range from $386 to $470 per acre depending on land productivity. Variable costs for 2021 Ohio soybeans are projected to range from $216 to $242 per acre. Wheat variable expenses for 2021 are projected to range from $166 to $198 per acre. Continue reading
Hessian Fly Free Date by county in Ohio.
Wheat helps reduce problems associated with the continuous planting of soybean and corn. With soybean harvest quickly approaching, we would like to remind farmers of a few management decisions that are important for a successful crop.
- Variety Selection. Select high-yielding varieties with high test weight, good straw strength, and adequate disease resistance. Do not jeopardize your investment by planting anything but the best yielding varieties that also have resistance to the important diseases in your area. Depending on your area of the state, you may need good resistance to powdery mildew, Stagonospora leaf blotch, and/or leaf rust. Avoid varieties with susceptibility to Fusarium head scab. Plant seed that has been properly cleaned to remove shriveled kernels and treated with a fungicide seed treatment to control seed-borne diseases. The 2020 Ohio Wheat Performance Test results can be found at https://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/wheattrials/
- Planting Date. Plant after the Hessian Fly Safe Date for your county. This date varies between September 22 for northern counties and October 5 for southern-most counties (Figure 1). Planting before the Fly Safe Date increases the risk of insect and disease problems including Hessian fly and aphids carrying Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus. The best time to plant is within 10 days after the Fly Safe Date.
- Seeding Rate. Optimum seeding rates are between 1.2 and 1.6 million seeds per acre. For drills with 7.5-inch row spacing, this is about 18 to 24 seeds per foot of row. When wheat is planted on time, the actual seeding rate has little effect on yield, but high seeding rates (above 30 seeds per foot of row) increase lodging and the risk of severe powdery mildew development next spring.
- Planting Depth. Planting depth is critical for tiller development and winter survival. Plant seed 1.5 inches deep and make sure planting depth is uniform across the field. No-till wheat seeded into soybean stubble is ideal, but make sure the soybean residue is uniformly spread over the surface of the ground. Shallow planting is the main cause of low tiller numbers and poor over-winter survival due to heaving and freeze injury.
- Fertilizer Application. Apply 20 of nitrogen per acre before planting to promote fall tiller development. Do not apply more than 10 lb N per acre as urea in contact with the seed. A soil test should be completed to determine phosphorus and potassium needs. Wheat requires more phosphorus than corn or soybean, and soil test levels should be maintained between 30-50 ppm (Mehlich-3 P) for optimum production. If the soil test indicates less than 30 ppm, then apply 80 to 110 pounds of P2O5 at planting, depending on yield potential. Do not add any phosphorus if soil test levels are higher than 50 ppm. Soil potassium should be maintained at 120 to 170 ppm (Mehlich-3 K) for soils with a cation exchange capacity >6 meq/100 g). For sandy soils with a cation exchange capacity of <5 meq/100 g, soil potassium should be maintained at 100 to 130 ppm. If potassium levels are low, apply between 65 to 180 pounds of K2O at planting, depending on the soil cation exchange capacity and yield potential. Soil pH should be between 6.3 and 7.0. In Ohio, limed soils usually have adequate calcium and magnesium. Sulfur should be added in the spring to sandy soils and soils with low organic matter. Ohio research from the past several years has not shown a yield response to supplemental sulfur on medium to fine-textured soils that have adequate organic matter. For the recently revised Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations for Corn, Soybeans, Wheat, and Alfalfa see: https://agcrops.osu.edu/FertilityResources/tri-state_info
By Mark Loux, OSU
Herbicide options for burndown of existing weeds prior to planting of no-till wheat include glyphosate, Gramoxone, Sharpen, and dicamba. Among these, the combination of glyphosate and Sharpen probably provides the best combination of efficacy on marestail, flexibility in application timing, and residual control. Dicamba labels have the following restriction on preplant applications – “allow 10 days between application and planting for each 0.25 lb ai/A used”. A rate of 0.5 lb ai/A would therefore need to be applied at least 20 days before planting. We do not know of any 2,4-D product labels that support the use of 2,4-D prior to or at the time wheat planting. There is some risk of stand reduction and injury to wheat from applications of 2,4-D too close to the time of planting. Liberty and other glufosinate products are also not labeled for use as a burndown treatment for wheat. Sharpen should provide limited residual control of winter annuals that emerge after herbicide application, and the rate can be increased from 1 to 2 oz/A to improve the length of residual. Gramoxone should also effectively control small seedlings of marestail and other winter annuals. Be sure to use the appropriate adjuvants with any of these, and increase spray volume to 15 to 20 GPA to ensure adequate coverage with Sharpen or Gramoxone.
There are several effective postemergence herbicide treatments for wheat that can be applied in November to control these weeds, in fields where preplant burndown treatments are not used. The most effective postemergence treatments include Huskie, Quelex, or mixtures of dicamba with either Peak, tribenuron (Express, etc), or a tribenuron/thifensulfuron premix (Harmony Xtra, etc). We discourage the application of 2,4-D to emerged wheat in the fall due to the risk of injury and yield reduction.
Hessian Fly Free dates across Ohio. Paulding County’s date is September 24
By Andy Michel, Pierce Paul, Kelley Tilmon
The cold temperatures this week reminded us that we are approaching our fly-free date for Ohio. These dates are based on predictions on when most Hessian fly adults would no longer be alive to lay eggs on emerging wheat. Planting winter crops after this date is a good practice to prevent infestations. Areas of Northern Ohio can safely plant wheat after September 22, whereas the dates in southern Ohio extend to October 4 and 5.
The fly-free date can also be used for both cover crops and to manage diseases. A hessian fly can infest certain types of cover crops such as rye and triticale. While we may not worry about yield loss in cover crops, high populations in the winter may provide for infestations in the following spring. For diseases, the biggest advantage and most important benefit of planting after the fly-safe date is a reduction in the fall establishment of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus (BYDV), Stagonospora blotch, and Septoria leaf spot.
Populations of the aphids that transmit BYDV are usually much lower after the fly-safe date, thus reducing the level of transmission of the disease to the new crop. BYDV tends to be more damaging and causes the greatest yield loss when it becomes established in the fall. For leaf diseases such as Stagonospora and Septoria, planting after the fly-safe date also reduces the risk of fall infections. When Stagonospora- and Septoria-causing fungi overwinter in the leaves, this usually gives both diseases a head-start in the spring, leading to great and earlier damage of the flag leaves before grain-fill is complete, and consequently, greater yield loss if a susceptible cultivar is planted and diseases are not managed with a fungicide.
Manure Application to Wheat
By Glen Arnold, Manure and Nutrient Management Specialist, OSU
Several livestock producers have inquired about applying liquid dairy or swine manure to newly planted wheat fields using a drag hose. The thought process is that the fields are firm (dry), there is very little rain in the nearby forecast, and the moisture in the manure could help with wheat germination and emergence.
The manure nutrients could easily replace the commercial fertilizer normally applied in advance of planting wheat. The application of fall-applied livestock manure to newly planted or growing crops can reduce nutrient losses compared to fall-applied manure without a growing crop.
Both swine and dairy manure can be used to add moisture to newly planted wheat. It’s important that the wheat seeds were properly covered with soil when planted to keep a barrier between the salt and nitrogen in the manure and the germinating wheat seed. It’s also important that livestock producers know their soil phosphorus levels, and the phosphorus in the manure being applied, so we don’t grow soil phosphorus levels beyond what is acceptable. Continue reading
Yield results for the 2020 Ohio Wheat Performance Test are online at https://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/wheattrials/default.asp?year=2020
The purpose of the Ohio Wheat Performance Test is to evaluate wheat varieties, blends, brands, and breeding lines for yield, grain quality, and other important performance characteristics. This information gives wheat producers comparative information for selecting the varieties best suited for their production system and market. Varieties differ in yield potential, winter hardiness, maturity, standability, disease and insect resistance, and other agronomic characteristics. Selection should be based on performance from multiple test sites and years. Continue reading
From July 10, 2020, via NASS (National Ag Statistics Service)
Ohio NASS Small Grains report July 1, 2020
By Glen Arnold, OSU Extension
Wheatfields have been or will be harvested in Ohio soon and some farmers will plant double-crop soybeans. In recent years there has been more interest from livestock producers in applying manure to newly planted soybeans to provide moisture to help get the crop to emerge.
Both swine and dairy manure can be used to add moisture to newly planted soybeans. It’s important that the soybeans were properly covered with soil when planted to keep a barrier between the salt and nitrogen in the manure and the germinating soybean seed. It’s also important that livestock producers know their soil phosphorus levels, and the phosphorus in the manure being applied, so soil phosphorus levels are kept an acceptable range. Continue reading
By: Jason Hartschuh, OSU Extension AgNR Educator, Crawford County (originally published in The Ohio Farmer)
Wheat provides many additional opportunities for your operation. These options include drainage improvements, weed-control timing, double-crop soybeans, double-crop forages, compaction mitigation, and soil building through cover crops. From the time wheat is harvested, there are about nine months for weeds to grow and soil to erode. If double-crop soybeans are not planted, the use of cover crops will protect the soil and assist with weed control. High populations of cover crops provide competition and soil cover to control weeds. Continue reading
By Clint Schroeder, OSU Extension, Allen County
The 2020 Ohio wheat harvest is rapidly approaching. Now is the time to prepare for a successful harvest. Before the combine goes to the field, a key component will be to have grain handling and storage facilities adequately sanitized. Taking the proper steps now should help eliminate insect infestations that can significantly reduce grain quality or salability.
The majority of insect infestations that occur in stored grains are a result of migration into the bin. These insect populations will be present in piles of spilled grain from the previous year, livestock feed in the area, litter, and weed growth. Newly harvested wheat can also be contaminated when it comes in contact with infested grain that was not cleaned from the combine, trucks, wagons, augers, dump pits, or grain leg buckets. Another source of contamination can be carryover grain in a bin that was not correctly emptied. Continue reading
By: Pierce Paul, OSU Extension
The head scab risk tool can be used to assess the risk of head scab and to help guide fungicide application decisions. Here are a few guidelines for using the system and interpret the output:
1.) Go to the website at www.wheatscab.psu.edu. You will see a map of the United States with some states in green, yellow, red, or gray. Continue reading
By: Laura Lindsey, Ed Lentz, CCA, Pierce Paul
It’s important to correctly identify winter wheat growth stages to enhance management decisions, avoiding damage to the crop and unwarranted or ineffective applications. Remember, the exact growth stage cannot be determined by just looking at the height of the crop or based on calendar dates. Continue reading
By: Laura Lindsey
Between planting in the fall and Feekes 4 growth stage (beginning of erect growth) in the spring, winter wheat is vulnerable to environmental stress such as saturated soils and freeze-thaw cycles that cause soil heaving. All of which may lead to substantial stand reduction, and consequently, low grain yield. However, a stand that looks thin in the spring does not always correspond to lower grain yield. Rather than relying on a visual assessment, we suggest counting the number of wheat stems or using the mobile phone app (Canopeo) to estimate the wheat grain yield. Continue reading