Figure 1. Soybean field in southern Ohio are severely affected by sudden death syndrome (SDS) with premature defoliation in the R5/R6 growth stage (A); symptoms begin with interveinal yellowing (chlorosis) of a leaf (B); eventually, leaf tissue dies and becomes brown but veins remain green (C). The fungus infects the root and produces toxins that are responsible for the above-ground symptoms.
Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS)
We are finding fields in Ohio severely affected by sudden death syndrome (SDS) [Fig.1 and Fig. 2]. SDS is caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium virguliforme. This species is the most prevalent in the region, however, other Fusarium species can cause SDS. SDS above-ground symptoms can be confused with those produced by a different fungus (Cadophora gregata) that causes brown stem rot (BSR). To distinguish SDS from BSR, symptomatic plants should be dug out and stem cut open longitudinally. SDS-infected plants have white, healthy-looking pith, while BSR-infected plants present brown discoloration of the pith. Moreover, fields with severe SDS symptoms can also have high levels of soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Visit here for more information on SDS.
Join the Digital Ag Team as they dive into research results from around the state of Ohio based on the 2021 eFields report. Registration is free but required. Have you been enjoying the 2021 fields Report and are excited to learn more? Join us to learn more about the eFields program and the results we are seeing across the state.
The program will happen on Tuesday, February 1 and 8 from 9:00 AM – 10:00 AM. The format will be the same but due to participants registered different 2021 eFields reports may be discussed. CCA and CEUs will be offered.
Due to popular demand, the AgCrops Team will host the 2nd annual virtual Corn College and Soybean School on February 15, 2022, from 9:00 AM – 4:00 PM featuring your OSU Extension state specialists, including the new corn agronomist, Dr. Osler Ortez, and new soybean pathologist, Dr. Horacio Lopez-Nicora. CCA CEUs will be available during the live presentations. The cost of the program is $10. To register go to go.osu.edu/cornsoy. A zoom link will be sent after registering for the webinar. For more information contact, Laura Lindsey at 614-292-9080 or email her at firstname.lastname@example.org.
by: Chris Zoller, Extension Educator, ANR, Tuscarawas County & David Marrison, Extension Educator, ANR, Coshocton County
Dr. Gary Schnitkey, University of Illinois, and Dr. Carl Zulauf, Emeritus Professor, The Ohio State University, are conducting an online survey of soybean growers in nine soybean-producing states, including Ohio. The nine states represent 75% of U.S. soybean production.
The researchers intend to measure the impact of each communication channel – mass media, social media, and interpersonal meetings – on farmers’ decision-making to adopt new digital technology. This survey is focused on soybean producers in these states: Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Indiana, Nebraska, Missouri, Ohio, South Dakota, and North Dakota. The results will support new research and contribute in a practical way to increase knowledge about the most efficient communication channels for the dissemination of digital agriculture technologies.
The survey takes approximately five minutes to complete, and all data will be kept confidential. If interested, you can provide your email address to receive a copy of the final survey results.
By Jason Hartschuh, OSU Extension Educator, Crawford County
Many producers use summer annual forages for grazing and stored forage to either fill the summer slump or keep livestock feed through the winter. With wheat harvest finalized across most of the state and straw baling completed for many now our attention turns to creating a second or third profit center off those wheat acres.
Wheat acres provide an excellent opportunity for double cropping with forages that when harvested at the proper growth stage can either make high-quality late gestation early lactation forage, grazing opportunities, or gut fill to mix lower the quality of other forages or concentrates.
Many species of summer annuals can be utilized for forage. Some of them such as radish and turnip can be easily grazed but do not make well-stored forage as Baleage or dry hay. For dry hay, we have found the best two species to be teff and oats. Most other species can be harvested as silage or Baleage. Be cautious making dry hay that for plant stem is truly dry. Continue reading →
Purdue ag economists Michael Langemeier, Nathanael Thompson, and James Mintert will host a free Corn and Soybean Outlook monthly webinar series for the remainder of 2021. Each webinar will follow the release of that month’s U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Crop Production and World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) reports. Continue reading →
With funding from United Soybean Board, soybean agronomists across the U.S. are hosting a ‘Notes from the Field’ webinar series the first Friday of each month beginning May 7. Join research and extension specialists from Land Grant institutions for a monthly informal discussion on production topics of timely relevance. Bring your questions!
When: May 7, June 4, July 9, and August 6 at 9:00 AM eastern time
Vomitoxin in the 2020 corn crop continues to plague both livestock and grain producers. Livestock producers are trying to decide how best to manage corn and corn by-products with high levels of vomitoxin, and those who grow corn are trying to decide how best to avoid vomitoxin contamination in 2021.
In the 15 minute video below, OSU Extension Educations John Barker, Rob Leeds, and Jacci Smith discuss where and why this year’s vomitoxin issues originated, considerations for avoiding problems in coming years, how it impacts livestock, and what’s involved in testing grain for vomitoxin.
The profit margin outlook for corn, soybeans, and wheat is relatively positive as planting season approaches. Prices of all three of our main commodity crops have moved higher since last summer and forward prices for this fall are currently at levels high enough to project positive returns for 2021 crop production. Recent increases in fertilizer prices have negatively affected projected returns. Higher crop insurance costs, as well as moderately higher energy costs relative to last year, will also add to overall costs for 2021.
Production costs for Ohio field crops are forecast to be modestly higher compared to last year with higher fertilizer, fuel, and crop insurance expenses. Variable costs for corn in Ohio for 2021 are projected to range from $386 to $470 per acre depending on land productivity. Variable costs for 2021 Ohio soybeans are projected to range from $216 to $242 per acre. Wheat variable expenses for 2021 are projected to range from $166 to $198 per acre. Continue reading →
Did you miss out on the Ohio State University Extension Corn or Soybean College on February 11th? We have an opportunity for you to rewatch the recordings. The recordings are broken down into topics and smaller sections. If you are having any problems viewing, please reach out to me.
The recorded presentations up on our Ohio State Ag Crops YouTube Channel:
Information on preharvest herbicide treatments for field corn and soybeans can be found in the “Weed Control Guide for Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois”, at the end of these crop sections (pages 72 and 143 of the 2020 edition). Products listed for corn include Aim, glyphosate, and paraquat, and for soybeans include Aim, paraquat, glyphosate, and Sharpen. Some dicamba products are also approved for preharvest use in soybeans, and some 2,4-D products are approved for use in corn, and these are not listed in the guide. The basic information for these follows:
Dicamba – soybeans: Apply 8 – 32 oz/A (4 lb/gal products) as a broadcast or spot treatment after soybean pods have reached mature brown color and at least 75% leaf drop has occurred; soybeans may be harvested 14 days or more after a pre-harvest application; do not use preharvest-treated soybean for seed unless a germination test is performed on the seed with an acceptable result of 95% germination or better; do not feed soybean fodder or hay following a preharvest application of this product. Continue reading →
Sclerotinia stem rot – The nights have been cool this growing season, even when the days were very warm. The fog this morning in Wayne County reminded me that this is the time of the year to begin to scout for this stem disease. Sclerotinia is caused by a fungus that survives from season to season and over several years from sclerotia. The infections actually occurred during flowering when the canopy was closed, and cool nights can really enhance and favor this disease. For this disease, disease levels can reach 20% incidence before there is a measurable yield loss. Sclerotinia will occur as single plants or a small patch of dying plants, that wilt and turn a deeper olive green color. Look at the stem and white fluffy growth will appear on the stem, this is the sign of the fungus.
Sclerotinia Stem Rot
Sudden Death Syndrome – reports that this disease is also beginning to develop in some areas of the state where soybeans are reaching R6. Symptoms include irregular yellow spots, which turn brown or necrotic between the veins. Interestingly the veins are surrounded by green. The center of the stem or pith is bright white in this disease. This is a fungal pathogen and infections most likely occurred shortly after planting and this fungus causes extensive root rots. The figure has both susceptible and resistant cultivar. There is a look-alike symptom caused by triazole fungicides when applied under hot conditions. To separate these two, if a triazole had been sprayed, look at the roots. The roots will be very healthy where SDS, the roots, and the center of the taproot are discolored. Continue reading →
This article originally appeared in Ohio’s Country Journal and Ohio Ag Net
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ohio Ag Net and Ohio’s Country Journal crop tour is moving to a virtual experience for 2020! We are inviting growers from across Ohio to send in their yield data using the form below. This data will be posted completely anonymously, however, we are asking you to enter your contact information to be eligible for a drawing for a $500 gift card to Rural King. Each field entry is another entry for the drawing.
Print our handy worksheets to help you with your calculations and to take notes in the field! You are free to make as many copies as you would like.
A new suite of crop staging videos has been built by faculty at The Ohio State University that highlight corn, soybean, and alfalfa. The videos highlight some common staging methods for each crop and connect the staging guidelines to practice using live plants in the field. The videos can be found in the “Crop Growth Stages” playlist on the AgCrops YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbqpb60QXN3UJIBa5is6kHw/playlists. These compliment some of the wheat staging videos previously posted on the AgCrops YouTube channel as well. As the crops progress through the reproductive stages, expect some more videos to be posted! Continue reading →
With continued dry weather, spider mites are one of the main pests to remain vigilant about in field crops. They will often show up in field borders first as they move in from other habitats, for example, if nearby ditches have been mowed. Spider mites are difficult to see. Look for injury signs — yellow spotting or stippling on the upper side of leaves. In soybeans, this damage usually begins in the lower canopy and progresses upward as the mite population increases. Heavily infested leaves may also have light webbing similar to spider webs. Continue reading →
Several calls this past week for fungicide applications on corn and soybean at all different growth stages. So let’s review what might be at stake here.
Soybeans. Frogeye leaf spot and white mold on susceptible varieties when the environment is favorable for disease easily pay the cost of application plus save yield losses. Let’s dig a bit deeper. Both of these diseases are caused by fungi but the frogeye leaf spot is a polycyclic disease, meaning that multiple infections occur on new leaves through the season while the white mold is monocyclic and the plant is really only susceptible during the flowering stage. Both of these diseases are also limited geographically in the state. White mold is favored in North East Ohio and down through the central region where fields are smaller and airflow can be an issue. Frogeye has been found on highly susceptible varieties south of 70, but it is moving a bit north so it is one that I am watching.
White mold is also favored by a closed canopy, cool nights, and high relative humidity. So farmers in these areas should double-check their variety ratings first. If it is moderate to low score for resistance (read the fine print) then this year a spray may be warranted. We have gotten consistent control of white mold with Endura at R1. Herbicides that are labeled for white mold suppression have also knocked back this disease, but if a drought occurs or no disease develops, losses of 10% or greater can occur due to the spray alone. For these purposes, R1 is a flower on the bottom of 1/3 of the plants in the field. Continue reading →
Wheatfields have been or will be harvested in Ohio soon and some farmers will plant double-crop soybeans. In recent years there has been more interest from livestock producers in applying manure to newly planted soybeans to provide moisture to help get the crop to emerge.
Both swine and dairy manure can be used to add moisture to newly planted soybeans. It’s important that the soybeans were properly covered with soil when planted to keep a barrier between the salt and nitrogen in the manure and the germinating soybean seed. It’s also important that livestock producers know their soil phosphorus levels, and the phosphorus in the manure being applied, so soil phosphorus levels are kept an acceptable range. Continue reading →
Stage VC – Definition: Fehr and Caviness (1977)- Unifoliolate leaves sufficiently unrolled, so the leaf edges are not touching Pederson (2009)- Unifoliolate leaves unrolled sufficiently, so the leaf edges are not touching
Across the state, soybean growth and development is variable, ranging from early vegetative stages to flowering. However, there has been some confusion regarding the identification of the VC and V1 growth stages. This confusion is mostly due to two definitions of V1…that actually mean the same thing. The Fehr and Caviness Method (1977) is based on the number of nodes that have a fully developed leaf, whereas Pederson (2009) focuses more on leaf unrolling so that the leaf edges are no longer touching. The VC definition for both methods is the same, but the differences start to appear between the methods at V1. Fehr and Caviness define V1 as “fully developed leaves at unifoliolate nodes,” which also means that there is “one set of unfolded trifoliolate leaves unrolled sufficiently, so the leaf edges are not touching.” This second definition is common in extension publications (Pedersen, 2009). Continue reading →