Double Crop Forages to Maximize Summer Forage Potential

By Jason Hartschuh, OSU Extension Educator, Crawford County

Many producers use summer annual forages for grazing and stored forage to either fill the summer slump or keep livestock feed through the winter. With wheat harvest finalized across most of the state and straw baling completed for many now our attention turns to creating a second or third profit center off those wheat acres.

Wheat acres provide an excellent opportunity for double cropping with forages that when harvested at the proper growth stage can either make high-quality late gestation early lactation forage, grazing opportunities, or gut fill to mix lower the quality of other forages or concentrates.

Many species of summer annuals can be utilized for forage. Some of them such as radish and turnip can be easily grazed but do not make well-stored forage as Baleage or dry hay. For dry hay, we have found the best two species to be teff and oats. Most other species can be harvested as silage or Baleage. Be cautious making dry hay that for plant stem is truly dry. Continue reading

Purdue Corn and Soybean Monthly Outlook Webinar on Friday, May 14 – 12:30 – 1:30 PM

Register Now

Upcoming Webinar

MAY CORN & SOYBEAN OUTLOOK UPDATE WEBINAR

Time: 12:30 p.m. – 1:30 p.m. EDT

Date: Friday, May 14, 2021

Join us for our free monthly corn and soybean outlook webinar series

Purdue ag economists Michael Langemeier, Nathanael Thompson, and James Mintert will host a free Corn and Soybean Outlook monthly webinar series for the remainder of 2021. Each webinar will follow the release of that month’s U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Crop Production and World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) reports. Continue reading

Science for Success: Answering Soybean Questions

With funding from United Soybean Board, soybean agronomists across the U.S. are hosting a ‘Notes from the Field’ webinar series the first Friday of each month beginning May 7. Join research and extension specialists from Land Grant institutions for a monthly informal discussion on production topics of timely relevance. Bring your questions!

When:  May 7, June 4, July 9, and August 6 at 9:00 AM eastern time

Want to plug in:  Register to attend (via Zoom) for each monthly session and you will receive Zoom login information. Register at:
https://ncsu.zoom.us/meeting/register/tJEkdeiqrTIqHNMYI3FuXRVPgsC87mavL6hs

If you have any questions, please contact Laura Lindsey (lindsey.233@osu.edu or 614-292-9080).

Livestock and Grain Producers: Dealing with Vomitoxin and Zearalenone

Vomitoxin in the 2020 corn crop continues to plague both livestock and grain producers. Livestock producers are trying to decide how best to manage corn and corn by-products with high levels of vomitoxin, and those who grow corn are trying to decide how best to avoid vomitoxin contamination in 2021.

In the 15 minute video below, OSU Extension Educations John Barker, Rob Leeds, and Jacci Smith discuss where and why this year’s vomitoxin issues originated, considerations for avoiding problems in coming years, how it impacts livestock, and what’s involved in testing grain for vomitoxin.

Projected Returns for 2021 – Increasing Fertilizer Prices May Force Tough Decisions

From Barry Ward and John Barker

The profit margin outlook for corn, soybeans, and wheat is relatively positive as planting season approaches. Prices of all three of our main commodity crops have moved higher since last summer and forward prices for this fall are currently at levels high enough to project positive returns for 2021 crop production. Recent increases in fertilizer prices have negatively affected projected returns. Higher crop insurance costs, as well as moderately higher energy costs relative to last year, will also add to overall costs for 2021.

Production costs for Ohio field crops are forecast to be modestly higher compared to last year with higher fertilizer, fuel, and crop insurance expenses. Variable costs for corn in Ohio for 2021 are projected to range from $386 to $470 per acre depending on land productivity. Variable costs for 2021 Ohio soybeans are projected to range from $216 to $242 per acre. Wheat variable expenses for 2021 are projected to range from $166 to $198 per acre. Continue reading

Did you miss out on our Ohio State University Corn or Soybean College?

Did you miss out on the Ohio State University Extension Corn or Soybean College on February 11th? We have an opportunity for you to rewatch the recordings.  The recordings are broken down into topics and smaller sections. If you are having any problems viewing, please reach out to me.

The recorded presentations up on our Ohio State Ag Crops YouTube Channel:

Pierce Paul summarized the Q&A portion of his session in the Corn Newsletter last week. You can access that summary here.

Pre-harvest Herbicide Treatments

Velvetleaf in a Soybean Field

Information on preharvest herbicide treatments for field corn and soybeans can be found in the “Weed Control Guide for Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois”, at the end of these crop sections (pages 72 and 143 of the 2020 edition).  Products listed for corn include Aim, glyphosate, and paraquat, and for soybeans include Aim, paraquat, glyphosate, and Sharpen.  Some dicamba products are also approved for preharvest use in soybeans, and some 2,4-D products are approved for use in corn, and these are not listed in the guide.  The basic information for these follows:

Dicamba – soybeans:  Apply 8 – 32 oz/A (4 lb/gal products) as a broadcast or spot treatment after soybean pods have reached mature brown color and at least 75% leaf drop has occurred; soybeans may be harvested 14 days or more after a pre-harvest application; do not use preharvest-treated soybean for seed unless a germination test is performed on the seed with an acceptable result of 95% germination or better; do not feed soybean fodder or hay following a preharvest application of this product. Continue reading

How to Identify Late Season Soybean Diseases in 2020

By Anne Dorrance

Sclerotinia stem rot – The nights have been cool this growing season, even when the days were very warm. The fog this morning in Wayne County reminded me that this is the time of the year to begin to scout for this stem disease.  Sclerotinia is caused by a fungus that survives from season to season and over several years from sclerotia.  The infections actually occurred during flowering when the canopy was closed, and cool nights can really enhance and favor this disease.  For this disease, disease levels can reach 20% incidence before there is a measurable yield loss.  Sclerotinia will occur as single plants or a small patch of dying plants, that wilt and turn a deeper olive green color. Look at the stem and white fluffy growth will appear on the stem, this is the sign of the fungus.

Sclerotinia Stem Rot

Sclerotinia Stem Rot

Sudden Death Syndrome – reports that this disease is also beginning to develop in some areas of the state where soybeans are reaching R6. Symptoms include irregular yellow spots, which turn brown or necrotic between the veins.  Interestingly the veins are surrounded by green.  The center of the stem or pith is bright white in this disease.  This is a fungal pathogen and infections most likely occurred shortly after planting and this fungus causes extensive root rots.  The figure has both susceptible and resistant cultivar.  There is a look-alike symptom caused by triazole fungicides when applied under hot conditions.  To separate these two, if a triazole had been sprayed, look at the roots.  The roots will be very healthy where SDS, the roots, and the center of the taproot are discolored. Continue reading

The Ohio Crop Tour Goes Virtual

This article originally appeared in Ohio’s Country Journal and Ohio Ag Net

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ohio Ag Net and Ohio’s Country Journal crop tour is moving to a virtual experience for 2020! We are inviting growers from across Ohio to send in their yield data using the form below. This data will be posted completely anonymously, however, we are asking you to enter your contact information to be eligible for a drawing for a $500 gift card to Rural King. Each field entry is another entry for the drawing.

Worksheets

Print our handy worksheets to help you with your calculations and to take notes in the field! You are free to make as many copies as you would like.

Click to download the corn worksheet.

Click to download the soybean worksheet.

Click to submit your data.

New Crop Staging Videos

A new suite of crop staging videos has been built by faculty at The Ohio State University that highlight corn, soybean, and alfalfa. The videos highlight some common staging methods for each crop and connect the staging guidelines to practice using live plants in the field. The videos can be found in the “Crop Growth Stages” playlist on the AgCrops YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCbqpb60QXN3UJIBa5is6kHw/playlists. These compliment some of the wheat staging videos previously posted on the AgCrops YouTube channel as well. As the crops progress through the reproductive stages, expect some more videos to be posted! Continue reading

Lookout for Spider Mites

Soybean leaves showing speckling.

With continued dry weather, spider mites are one of the main pests to remain vigilant about in field crops.  They will often show up in field borders first as they move in from other habitats, for example, if nearby ditches have been mowed.  Spider mites are difficult to see.  Look for injury signs — yellow spotting or stippling on the upper side of leaves.  In soybeans, this damage usually begins in the lower canopy and progresses upward as the mite population increases.  Heavily infested leaves may also have light webbing similar to spider webs. Continue reading

Drought Projections Do Not Go Well With Fungicide Applications

By Anne Dorrance and Pierce Paul, CORN Newsletter

Several calls this past week for fungicide applications on corn and soybean at all different growth stages.  So let’s review what might be at stake here.

Soybeans.  Frogeye leaf spot and white mold on susceptible varieties when the environment is favorable for disease easily pay the cost of application plus save yield losses.  Let’s dig a bit deeper.  Both of these diseases are caused by fungi but the frogeye leaf spot is a polycyclic disease, meaning that multiple infections occur on new leaves through the season while the white mold is monocyclic and the plant is really only susceptible during the flowering stage.  Both of these diseases are also limited geographically in the state.  White mold is favored in North East Ohio and down through the central region where fields are smaller and airflow can be an issue.  Frogeye has been found on highly susceptible varieties south of 70, but it is moving a bit north so it is one that I am watching.

White mold is also favored by a closed canopy, cool nights, and high relative humidity.  So farmers in these areas should double-check their variety ratings first.  If it is moderate to low score for resistance (read the fine print) then this year a spray may be warranted.  We have gotten consistent control of white mold with Endura at R1.  Herbicides that are labeled for white mold suppression have also knocked back this disease, but if a drought occurs or no disease develops, losses of 10% or greater can occur due to the spray alone.  For these purposes, R1 is a flower on the bottom of 1/3 of the plants in the field. Continue reading

Application of Manure to Double Crop Soybeans

By Glen Arnold, OSU Extension

Wheatfields have been or will be harvested in Ohio soon and some farmers will plant double-crop soybeans. In recent years there has been more interest from livestock producers in applying manure to newly planted soybeans to provide moisture to help get the crop to emerge.

Both swine and dairy manure can be used to add moisture to newly planted soybeans. It’s important that the soybeans were properly covered with soil when planted to keep a barrier between the salt and nitrogen in the manure and the germinating soybean seed. It’s also important that livestock producers know their soil phosphorus levels, and the phosphorus in the manure being applied, so soil phosphorus levels are kept an acceptable range. Continue reading

Soybean Vegetative Growth Stages- VC vs V1

Article by Laura Lindsey

Stage VC - Definition: Fehr and Caviness (1977)- Unifoliolate leaves sufficiently unrolled, so the leaf edges are not touching Pederson (2009)- Unifoliolate leaves unrolled sufficiently, so the leaf edges are not touching

Stage VC – Definition: Fehr and Caviness (1977)- Unifoliolate leaves sufficiently unrolled, so the leaf edges are not touching Pederson (2009)- Unifoliolate leaves unrolled sufficiently, so the leaf edges are not touching

Across the state, soybean growth and development is variable, ranging from early vegetative stages to flowering. However, there has been some confusion regarding the identification of the VC and V1 growth stages. This confusion is mostly due to two definitions of V1…that actually mean the same thing. The Fehr and Caviness Method (1977) is based on the number of nodes that have a fully developed leaf, whereas Pederson (2009) focuses more on leaf unrolling so that the leaf edges are no longer touching. The VC definition for both methods is the same, but the differences start to appear between the methods at V1. Fehr and Caviness define V1 as “fully developed leaves at unifoliolate nodes,” which also means that there is “one set of unfolded trifoliolate leaves unrolled sufficiently, so the leaf edges are not touching.” This second definition is common in extension publications (Pedersen, 2009). Continue reading

Ohio Soybean State of Soy Webinar

The Ohio Soybean Council will be sponsoring an Ohio Soybean State of Soy webinar on Tuesday, June 9 beginning at 10:00 a.m.  Ben Brown, Assistant Professor of Professional Practice in Agricultural Risk Management in the Department of Agricultural, Environmental, and Development Economics at The Ohio State University will be the featured speaker.

During this webinar, Ben Brown will speak on soybean market fundamentals, trade updates, and assistance programs. There is no cost to attend this program. For more information Click here.

OSU Extension Seeking Farmer Cooperators for Fallow Syndrome eFields Trial

By:  Stephanie Karhoff, AgNR, Williams County

Wet weather conditions last spring prevented Williams County farmers from planting over 85,000 acres (USDA-Farm Service Agency Crop Acreage Data). When fields are left unplanted or fallow, there may be a decline in beneficial mycorrhizal fungi, which is commonly referred to as fallow syndrome.

Mycorrhizae are beneficial fungi that colonize plant roots. They aid plants in scavenging for soil nutrients, by extending the root system via thread-like structures called hyphae. In return, plants provide sugars produced during photosynthesis to the mycorrhizae.

Stunting and phosphorus deficiency are common symptoms associated with the fallow syndrome. Continue reading

Corn – Soybean Day in Fulton County – January 17

From Eric Richer, Fulton County Ag/NR Educator

Please hold Friday, January 17, 2020, for the annual NW Ohio Corn-Soybean Day in Archbold at Founders Hall on the Sauder Village Campus.  Program runs from 8 am to 3 pm and includes a 3 hr Private Pesticide recertification plus 1 hour fertilizer; 2.5 hrs Commercial Recertification including 2d, 2c, core and fertilizer; and 4 hours of CCA credits. Prepaid registration is $35 if postmarked by Wednesday, January 8th.  A registration form/agenda for attendees is attached; print and send in ASAP with payment.  Please see the agenda for the day, located here: 2020 Corn-Soy Day agenda

Considerations for Using Soybeans as a Cover Crop

Taken from the CORN Newsletter – Article by Laura Lindsey

From the USDA RMA website (https://www.rma.usda.gov/News-Room/Frequently-Asked-Questions/Prevented-Planting-Flooding):

“Q. Can I plant a cover crop of the same crop I was prevented from planting? Or in other words, can I use the seed I have on hand (corn, soybeans, wheat) to plant a cover crop as long as it’s at a lower-seeded rate that qualifies for the cover crop?

A. Yes. An acceptable cover crop must be generally recognized by agricultural experts as agronomically sound for the area for erosion control or other purposes related to conservation or soil improvement is planted at the recommended seeding rate, etc. The cover crop may be the same crop prevented from planting and may still retain eligibility for a prevented planting payment. The cover crop planted cannot be used for harvest as seed or grain.” Continue reading