Farm Science Review Tickets Still Available until Monday

Picture courtesy of Farm Science Review

There is still time until Monday to get tickets. The 59th annual Farm Science Review is set for September 21-23 at Ohio State’s Molly Caren Agricultural Center, 135 State Route 38, near London. The full program is located at https://fsr.osu.edu/sites/fsr/files/imce/Information/FSR%202021%20Full%20Program%20with%20Maps%20Gatefold.pdf 

Featured at the event will be more than 100 educational sessions, including “Ask the Expert” talks; 600 exhibits; the most comprehensive field crop demonstrations in the United States; a career exploration fair; and immersive virtual reality videos of agricultural activities.

This year’s Farm Science Review will also feature a new online component called “Farm Science Review Live.”

Hours for Farm Science Review are 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Sept. 21–22 and 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. Sept. 23.

Tickets are available at our office, $7 each. Either cash or check payable to OSU Extension Paulding County is accepted. Tickets are $10 at the gate. Ages 5 and under are free admittance. Currently, the Paulding County Office is back in our offices after our remodel. You will see a new facelift in the office. Please ask Katie for tickets.

Tar Spot confirmed in Paulding County

Tar Spot was confirmed in Paulding County on September 7, 2021.

This week Tar Spot was confirmed in a cornfield in Paulding County. Below is a picture of what to look for when scouting for Tar Spot.  For more information on Tar Spot please see the links:

  1. https://crop-protection-network.s3.amazonaws.com/publications/tar-spot-filename-2019-03-25-120313.pdf 
  2. https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/22-2021/tar-spot-showing-early-year-note-diagnosis
  3. https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2021-30/tar-spot-more-widespread-cross-state-ohio-2021

Thanks,

Grain Fill Stages In Corn

Please note: While many of the Corn Growth Stages are passed for Paulding County in the article from Bob Neilson, I received a few calls on later stage Corn Growth stages. The article below had some great comparison pictures. 

DATE: AUGUST 18, 2021 – INCLUDED IN ISSUE:

A stress-free grain fill period can maximize the yield potential of a crop, while severe stress during grain fill can cause kernel abortion or lightweight grain and encourage the development of stalk rot. The health of the upper leaf canopy is particularly important for achieving maximum grain filling capacity. Some research indicates that the upper leaf canopy, from the ear leaf to the uppermost leaf, is responsible for no less than 60% of the photosynthate necessary for filling the grain.

Kernel development proceeds through several distinct stages that were originally described by Hanway (1971) and most recently by Abendroth et al. (2011). As with leaf staging protocols, the kernel growth stage for an entire field is defined when at least 50% of the plants in a field have reached that stage.

Delayed planting of corn decreases the apparent thermal time (GDDs) required between planting and physiological maturity (Nielsen, 2019). A large proportion of that decrease occurs during grain filling and may be partially related to shorter and cooler days in late September and October that naturally slow photosynthesis and encourage plant senescence.

Silking Stage (Growth Stage R1)

Silk emergence is technically the first recognized stage of the reproductive period. Every ovule (potential kernel) on the ear develops its own silk (the functional stigma of the female flower). Silks begin to elongate soon after the V12 leaf stage (12 leaves with visible leaf collars), beginning with the ovules near the base of the cob and then sequentially up the cob, with the tip ovules silking last. Consequently, the silks from the base half of the ear are typically the first to emerge from the husk leaves. Turgor pressure “fuels” the elongation of the silks and so severe drought stress often delays silk elongation and emergence from the husk leaves. Silks elongate about 1.5 inches per day during the first few days after they emerge from the husk leaves. Silks continue to elongate until pollen grains are captured and germinate or until they simply deteriorate with age.

Silks remain receptive to pollen grain germination for up to 10 days after silk emergence (Nielsen, 2020b), but deteriorate quickly after about the first 5 days of emergence. Natural senescence of silk tissue over time results in collapsed tissue that restricts continued growth of the pollen tube. Silk emergence usually occurs in close synchrony with pollen shed (Nielsen, 2020c), so that duration of silk receptivity is normally not a concern. Failure of silks to emerge in the first place (for example, in response to silkballing or severe drought stress) does not bode well for successful pollination.

Pollen grains “captured” by silks quickly germinate and develop pollen tubes that penetrate the silk tissue and elongate to the ovule within about 24 hours. The pollen tubes contain the male gametes that eventually fertilize the ovules. Within about 24 hours or so after successfully fertilizing an ovule, the attached silk deteriorates at the base, collapses, and drops away. This fact can be used to determine fertilization success before visible kernel development occurs (Nielsen, 2016).

 

Silk appearance at R1

Closeup of ovules and R1

Continue reading

Fall armyworms are marching

Fall armyworm damage to a yard in Paulding County. If you are seeing this please contact me. There is a chance the yard will come back with the rains received on Thursday evening.

I have received many phone calls and emails this week about armyworms this week from both farmers and landowners.  I have worked with Curtis Young in Van Wert County to make the positive ID of Fall armyworm.  I have shared some of the pictures of the damage armyworms can do.  I am receiving these calls from around the county.

Fall armyworm in a lawn in Paulding County. The threshold for control is 4 worms per square foot for lawns/homeowners.

Across the US, the Fall armyworm numbers have been much higher than in previous years due to our current weather patterns and the life cycle of Armyworms, there is a chance we could see a third-generation yet this year.  These guys like to feed on the species in the grass family and their “candy” is newly seeded yards (within the last few years), volunteer wheat fields, and newly seeded forages. Additionally, I am linking extra articles with information on control and general question both agronomically and for homeowners. As always, contact me with your questions.

Thanks,

Unusual Armyworm Outbreaks are Taking Many by Surprise

Kelley Tilmon, Mark Sulc, Andy Michel, James Morris

Figure 1. Fall armyworm feeding damage. Photo by James Morris, OSU Extension

We have received an unusual number of reports about fall armyworm outbreaks particularly in forage including alfalfa and sorghum-sudangrass, and in turf.  Certain hard-hit fields have been all but stripped bare (Figure 1).  Armyworm is not typically a problem in Ohio in late summer, so we encourage farmers to be aware of feeding damage in their fields.  Armyworms are much easier to kill when they are smaller, and feeding accelerates rapidly as they grow, so early detection is important.  Look for egg masses glued not only to vegetation but to structures like fence posts.  Egg masses have a fluffy-looking cover (Figure 2).  When the cover is peeled back, eggs are pearly and tan when new, and turn darker as they approach egg-hatch.

Figure 2. Fall armyworm egg mass, with cover peeled back. Photo by Ric Bessin, University of Kentucky.

Fall armyworm caterpillars vary in color from greenish to tan to dark brown with stripes along the body.  They can be easily confused with other species, but a good identifier is an inverted white “Y” shape behind the head. (Figure 3). Another species, true armyworm, feeds at night but fall armyworm will feed during the day.

Insecticides will not penetrate egg masses well; it’s best to spray caterpillars when they are less than ¾ inches long, at which point most armyworm-labeled pyrethroids will kill them reasonably well.  For larger caterpillars, products containing chlorantraniliprole will provide longer residual which may help with control of the harder-to-kill caterpillars over ¾ inches.

Figure 3. Fall armyworm caterpillar, with an inverted “Y” near the head. Photo by James Morris, OSU Extension

In forages, a threshold that can be used is 2-3 fall armyworm larvae per sq foot.  If larvae are smaller (less than ¾ inch), they can still do a lot of feeding and are worth treating with an insecticide application. An early cut can help limit damage, but check the field for survivors.  If survivors are abundant, an insecticide application may be warranted to protect nearby fields.  Armyworms get their name from moving in large bodies (marching) to new feeding areas.

In corn, armyworms can randomly feed on leaves, with holes occurring throughout the leaf surface. The more damaging stage is when they feed on developing silks and kernels after entering the ear. Once they enter the ear, control by insecticides is much more difficult.  Most Bt corn varieties with above-ground protection is labeled for armyworm control, but resistance to several Bt traits has appeared in the US.  While we have not found Bt resistance in armyworms in Ohio, we would recommend growers scout ALL corn (Bt or non-Bt) for any evidence of damage or resistance. If feeding is found, please contact us (tilmon.1@osu.edu, or michel.70@osu.edu) or your local extension educator.

Figure 4. Fly Free Dates in Ohio. Wheat planted after this date have lower risks of damage from Hessian Fly as well as other pests, including fall armyworm and aphids that spread wheat viruses

Fall armyworm does not overwinter in Ohio.  Moths come up from the South early in the season and temporarily colonize the area, especially in grassy areas.  The current caterpillars are second-generation.  If we have a warm fall we could possibly see a problem third generation, especially in forage, cover crops, and winter wheat planted before the fly-free date (see Figure 4).

Please visit the Forages chapter in the Michigan State/Ohio State Field Crops Insect Pest Management Guide for management notes and labeled insecticides in forages.  https://aginsects.osu.edu/sites/aginsects/files/imce/MSU%20-%20OSU%20Insect%20IPM%20Guide.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Trial results released

The publication for the 2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Trials has been finalized and is attached as a PDF file. This article will be published in the mid-August issue of the Ohio Country Journal. All of these results are also available online at the wheat performance trials website: https://ohiocroptest.cfaes.osu.edu/wheattrials/

2021 Ohio Wheat Performance Trial results

Regional Field Days Focus on Cover Crop Application and Termination – Paulding County host site

OSU Extension will host two educational field days focused on soil health and cover crops next week. Extension specialists and farmers experienced with cover crops will present on topics including inter-seeding cover crops into a growing crop, terminating cover crops, cover crop variety selection, and more. Field demonstrations cover crop plots, and equipment demonstrations will be on-site.

Each field day is free to attend. Registration is appreciated. Register at go.osu.edu/RegionalFieldDay

Monday, August 16th – 6:30-8:30 pm. Location: Klopfenstein Farm (Paulding County), 10136 Road 60, Haviland, OH.  The event will feature Jason Hartschuh speaking about interseeded cover crops and Alyssa Essman will speak about cover crop termination.

Tuesday, August 17th – 2:00-5:00 pm. Location: Fayette County Airport, 2770 Old Route 38, NW, Washington CH, OH. This event is part of the Southwest Corn Growers’ Field Day, which is from 9:00-2:00 pm. Get more information on this field day here.

Purdue Researcher Shalamar Armstrong to speak in Paulding County on Thursday, August 19

Know via his Twitter handle as the @CoverCropDr, Dr. Shalamar Armstrong is an Associate Professor of Soil Conservation and Management in the Department of Agronomy at Purdue University. He holds a B.S. degree in Plant and Soil Science from Southern University, an M.S. in Soil Fertility from Alabama A&M University, and a Ph.D. in Agronomy from Purdue University.

Paulding County is very excited to host a soil health tour round-up event with Armstrong as the keynote speaker. Speaker Shalamar Armstrong of Purdue University will speak on Cover Crops’ Effects on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling and Fate, and certified crop advisor credits will be available for this talk. In addition, talk with farmers from Northwest Ohio about different practices used to improve soil health on their farms. This event follows the Northwest Ohio Soil Health Tour showcasing different soil health practices, such as reduced tillage, cover crop usage, manure usage, and structural practices such as controlled drainage and wetlands.

Soil Health Event – Thursday, August 19th from 6:30 PM – 8:30 PM; networking from 6:30 PM – 7:30 PM with speaker Shalamar Armstrong beginning his talk at 7:30 PM. A free meal is being sponsored by The Nature Conservancy and an RSVP is appreciated by Wednesday, August 18 by 5:00 PM.

Where:  Soil Health Event – Paulding County Extension Building, 503 Fairground Dr. Paulding, OH 45879

Cost: No cost

RSVP: Registration is required for the Soil Health Event, as a meal will be provided at go.osu.edu/soilhealthtour

For more information, contact Rachel Cochran at Cochran.474@osu.edu or 567-344-5016 or Sarah Noggle, noggle.17@osu.edu or 419-399-8225

Don’t get Burned by Hopperburn—Check Alfalfa for Potato Leafhoppers

By:  Andy Michel, Mark Sulc, Curtis Young, CCA, Kelley Tillmon

alfalfa leaf hoppers on dimePotato leafhopper (PLH) adults arrived in Ohio during the last week of June and the first week of July. Since then, the eggs have hatched and we are now seeing late-stage nymphs and adults infesting alfalfa fields.  A few fields are showing the typical “hopper burn”, which is a triangular yellowing from the center of the leaf to the leaf margin. The more mature the crop of alfalfa is since the last cutting, the more the hopper burn symptoms will be showing. Hopper burn will also become more pronounced in areas of the state that are short on rain or are predicted to become drier because the alfalfa will not be able to outgrow the feeding activity of PLH.  Scouting now and making appropriate management decisions based on the scouting can help avoid serious damage to the crop. Continue reading

Don’t Forget to Register for the Tri-State Precision Agriculture Conference

Join OSU Extension Henry County for the inaugural Tri-State Precision Agriculture Conference on August 11, 2021. Speakers will discuss current trends in tillage equipment, and equipment demonstrations will feature high-speed tillage, vertical tillage, strip tillage, and cover crop seeding systems. Fertilizer re-certification and CCA credits available.

When:  Wednesday, August 11, 8:00 a.m. – 3:30 p.m. Continue reading

Soil Health Tour and Event Scheduled for Northwest Ohio

Farmland, Half, Soil, Ground

By Rachel Cochran, OSU Extension Water Quality Associate

Paulding County Extension will be hosting two events in Northwest Ohio in August: a soil health tour and a follow-up event with a guest speaker. The soil health tour includes stops around Northwest Ohio showcasing different practices to help improve soil health. A map of tour stops can be found at go.osu.edu/soilhealthtour and will be updated as tour stops are confirmed. Continue reading

Manure Science Review Coming August 10th

By Glen Arnold- OSU Extension

The annual Manure Science Review will be held on Tuesday, August 10 from 10:00 am to 3:00 pm at MVP Dairy near Celina, Ohio. Attendees will see and hear about this state-of-the-art dairy’s 80-cow rotary milking parlor, manure handling and management for the 4,400-cow herd, and regenerative farming practices. Speakers will provide updates on the effectiveness of saturated buffers in reducing runoff in Grand Lake Saint Marys as well as issues of legacy phosphorus runoff and the KDS/Quick wash system for manure nutrient recovery. Field demonstrations will include solid and liquid applicators, the Cadman Side-dress System, Oxbo Equipment, in-season manure side-dress demos, and more.

Continuing education credits have been approved for Certified Crop Advisors, Certified Livestock Managers, and Indiana State Chemist certifications. Registration costs are $25 per person until August 1st and $30 per person after that date. For program and registration details, click on the link at ocamm.osu.edu or contact Mary Wicks (wicks.14@osu.edu; 330.202.3533).

Double Crop Forages to Maximize Summer Forage Potential

By Jason Hartschuh, OSU Extension Educator, Crawford County

Many producers use summer annual forages for grazing and stored forage to either fill the summer slump or keep livestock feed through the winter. With wheat harvest finalized across most of the state and straw baling completed for many now our attention turns to creating a second or third profit center off those wheat acres.

Wheat acres provide an excellent opportunity for double cropping with forages that when harvested at the proper growth stage can either make high-quality late gestation early lactation forage, grazing opportunities, or gut fill to mix lower the quality of other forages or concentrates.

Many species of summer annuals can be utilized for forage. Some of them such as radish and turnip can be easily grazed but do not make well-stored forage as Baleage or dry hay. For dry hay, we have found the best two species to be teff and oats. Most other species can be harvested as silage or Baleage. Be cautious making dry hay that for plant stem is truly dry. Continue reading

Purdue Corn and Soybean Monthly Outlook Webinar on Friday, May 14 – 12:30 – 1:30 PM

Register Now

Upcoming Webinar

MAY CORN & SOYBEAN OUTLOOK UPDATE WEBINAR

Time: 12:30 p.m. – 1:30 p.m. EDT

Date: Friday, May 14, 2021

Join us for our free monthly corn and soybean outlook webinar series

Purdue ag economists Michael Langemeier, Nathanael Thompson, and James Mintert will host a free Corn and Soybean Outlook monthly webinar series for the remainder of 2021. Each webinar will follow the release of that month’s U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Crop Production and World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates (WASDE) reports. Continue reading

Wheat Between Feekes 8 and 10 and Disease Concerns

Septoria on wheat

Septoria on wheat

By: Pierce Paul, Maira Duffeck and Marian Luis

 

Wheat is now between Feekes 8 (flag leaf emergence) and Feekes 10 (boot) across the state. Feekes 8 marks the beginning of the period during which we recommend that you begin scouting fields to determine which disease is present and at what level. Septoria tritici leaf spot is usually one of the first to show up, and it has already been reported in some fields. So far, it is restricted to the lower leaves and severity is low in most of the affected fields. This disease is favored by cool (50-68F), rainy conditions, and although it usually develops early in the season, it really does not cause yield loss unless it reaches and damages the flag leaf before grain fill is complete. Continue reading

Are Periodical Cicadas a Threat to Field Crops?

Are periodical cicadas a threat to field crops? The quick and dirty answer to this question is NO. Are they a threat to the health and welfare of anything? There is no quick and dirty answer to this question.

The best way to answer the second question is to start by looking at what the periodical cicada is, what it feeds on, where one would expect to find them, and its life cycle.

The periodical cicada or 17-year cicada is an insect with an extremely long life cycle that takes 17 years to get from the egg stage to the adult stage. Some people mistakenly refer to this insect as a locust. Unfortunately, locusts and cicadas are not one-in-the-same.  Locusts are a type of grasshopper (Order Orthoptera).  Cicadas (Order Hemiptera) are not grasshoppers. And the 2 look nothing like one another.

grasshopper

Grasshoppers

Dog-day cicada Continue reading

Call for Cooperators – 2021 On-Farm Research

By Rachel Cochran, Water Quality Extension Associate, and Sarah Noggle, Extension Educator

As we begin to approach Spring planting, it’s important to think about the intricacies of the growing season – what fertilizer to use, how much to apply, how to apply it, etc.  If you’re unsure what rate would most benefit your crop while earning you the largest profit, on-farm research may be a good way for you to determine that. If you’re unsure what effects different management practices are having on the health of your soil, on-farm research may be a helpful tool. For almost any question you may have about your operation, an on-farm research trial may be a good way to better understand what the best practices may be for your farm.

This year, we plan to continue the eFields Soil Health Study that was started in 2020. In this study, soil samples are pulled from three depths: 0-4”, 0-6”, and 0-8” within a field. A variety of different tests are then performed on that soil, including routine nutrient analysis, pH, Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), total organic matter, aggregate stability, and Permanganate Oxidizable Carbon (POXC). The results of these tests will be grouped with fields of similar management and published in the 2021 eFields book and will help to give you a snapshot of the health of your soil.

OSU Extension Paulding County is here to help you find out what’s best for your operation, whether it be through sharing of information or planning of research trials on your farm. Reach out to Sarah Noggle, Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension Educator, or Rachel Cochran, Water Quality Extension Associate, if you’re interested in doing any type of on-farm research this growing season. We will be happy to set up a trial for you to get the answers you need.

Contact our office at (419) 399-8225, or email noggle.17@osu.edu or cochran.474@osu.edu for more information.

Farmer Advocates wanted!

Do you know of a farmer who would be an excellent candidate with leadership, enthusiasm, and passion for soil health and water quality management as a Farmer Advocate for Conservation? You can nominate them by completing an online form. Select the button for the application.

The Nature Conservancy is looking for farmers who are currently utilizing cover crops on their farms in the Maumee River Watershed of the Western Lake Erie Basin. We are looking for a diverse group of farmers; large acreage, small acreage, corn and soy, small grains, livestock, new and experienced, willing to reach out and share their knowledge and experiences with other farmers in their area. Selected farmers will be compensated for their time. Select the button for this application.

If you are interested in being part of this exciting farmer-led outreach project and would like to apply as a Farmer Advocate for Conservation please complete the online application form by selecting the button above.

The application period is open for farmers in the Western Lake Erie Basin that are interested in sharing their conservation farming practices with other farmers.  Farmer Advocates will be compensated for their time to attend the training and work with other farmers @ $30/hour.  The focus of the project is to promote farmers learning from each other about building soil health and managing water.

To apply as a Farmer Advocate for Conservation or to nominate a farmer you believe would be an excellent candidate please use the online application and nomination forms on the landing page found at https://sites.google.com/view/farmeradvocate or please contact Stephanie Singer, Stephanie.Singer@tnc.org.

Forage Planting – How to Do It Well

By:  Mark Sulc and Jason Hartschuh, CCA

The window of opportunity for spring forage seedings has been very tight the past three years. Are you ready to roll?

Early spring provides one of the two preferred times to seed perennial cool-season forages, the other being late summer. The outlook for this spring is for probabilities of above-average precipitation in April and May. Planting opportunities will likely be few and short. An accompanying article on preparing now for planting along with the following 10 steps to follow on the day you plant will help improve chances for successful forage establishment.

  1. Check now to make sure soil pH and fertility are in the recommended ranges.  Follow the Tri-state Soil Fertility Recommendations (https://forages.osu.edu/forage-management/soil-fertility-forages).  Forages are more productive where soil pH is above 6.0, but for alfalfa, it should be 6.5 – 6.8. Soil phosphorus should be at least 20 ppm for grasses and 30 ppm for legumes, while minimum soil potassium should be 100 ppm for sandy soils less than 5 CEC or 120 ppm on all other soils. If seedings are to include alfalfa, and soil pH is not at least 6.5, it would be best to apply lime now and delay establishing alfalfa until late summer (plant an annual grass forage in the interim). Continue reading