Taxable Gross Receipts for Ohio Commercial Activity Tax (CAT)

The privilege of doing business in Ohio comes at a cost. Since July 1, 2005, Ohio has imposed an annual Commercial Activity Tax (“CAT”) on taxpayers doing business in Ohio. The CAT is measured by a taxpayer’s “taxable gross receipts” accumulated during the tax period, which for most taxpayers will be the calendar year.

Generally, any individual or business entity that is required to register or pay tax under Ohio law is subject to paying Ohio’s Commercial Activity Tax. There are certain “excluded taxpayers” including any taxpayer with $150,000 or less of “taxable gross receipts”, non-profit organizations, governmental entities, and others.

When determining if a taxpayer is subject to paying the CAT, a lot of the analysis focuses on what is and is not a “taxable gross receipt” under Ohio law. To determine what is a “taxable gross receipt” a taxpayer must undergo a three-step evaluation that starts with determining what is a “gross receipt” under Ohio law. Then a taxpayer must situs (or source) those “gross receipts” to Ohio in order to calculate their total “taxable gross receipts.” Lastly, a taxpayer must include all “taxable gross receipts” for the current tax period in their calculation. After the three steps have been completed a taxpayer’s total “taxable gross receipts” will then determine the remaining obligations a taxpayer has under Ohio’s Commercial Activity Tax.

To learn more about what is and is not a “taxable gross receipt” visit the Farm Office Team’s blog post that explains the “taxable gross receipt” process.



Farm Office Live Webinar Slated for April 21 at 10:00 a.m.

In this month’s webinar, the Farm Office Team will present the following topics:

Legislative and Case Law Update​ (Peggy Hall)

  • Farm Insurance Issues​ (Robert Moore)
  • “What is a ‘Taxable Gross Receipt’ under Ohio’s Commercial Activity Tax?”​ (Jeff Lewis)
  • Inflation and Interest Rates: An Update Including a Closer ​Look at Agricultural Machinery and Equipment​ (Barry Ward)
  • Crop Budgets/Income Outlook for ‘23​ (Barry Ward)
  • Avoid Chance by making 2023 Record Keeping Goals (Bruce Clevenger)

There is no fee to attend this webinar.  However, registration is required at

Check out for all your farm management and ag & resource law needs.

Farm On financial management course offers farmers, ranchers training to meet new program requirements

COLUMBUS, Ohio—A new online farm management course offered by The Ohio State University College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES) will help Ohio’s beginning farmers qualify for the requirements of the Ohio Department of Agriculture’s Beginning Farmer Tax Credit program.

Called Farm On, the self-paced, on-demand farm financial management course was created by Ohio State University Extension professionals and is offered through OSU Extension’s new Farm Financial Management and Policy Institute (FFMPI), said Eric Richer, assistant professor and OSU Extension field specialist in farm management.

OSU Extension is the outreach arm of CFAES.

“The Farm On financial management course was created to address the needs of Ohio’s new and beginning farmers who want to better prepare themselves to operate a commercial farm in Ohio and do that with a high level of economic stability while remaining profitable and responsible at every step along the way,” said Richer, who is the lead instructor for the Farm On course. “We believe Farm On will be a great deliverable to Ohio’s agriculture industry because it is on-demand, self-paced, and taught by Ohio State’s expert farm management instructor.”

What’s unique about the Farm On course is that, not only does it comply with the regulations of the new Ohio House Bill 95 Beginning Farmer Tax Credit program, it also meets the borrower training requirements for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Farm Service Agency’s Beginning Farmer and Rancher Loan Program, Richer said.

The Farm On course includes multiple video lessons, 10 quizzes, 10 exercises, individual and group consultations, and a 10-module course that covers the following topics:

  • Farm Business Planning
  • Balance Sheets
  • Income Statements
  • Cash Flow Projections
  • Calculating Cost of Production
  • Farm Record Keeping
  • Farm Taxes
  • Farm Financing
  • Risk Management
  • Farm Business Analysis

The Farm On course allows CFAES to serve the needs of farmers through OSU Extension and our FFMPI, said Cathann A. Kress, Ohio State vice president for agricultural administration and dean of CFAES.

“We are excited to partner with ODA and USDA-FSA to address the farm financial training that is required for running a farm business,” Kress said. “Currently, we are the only educational institution in Ohio with a course like ‘Farm On’ that qualifies for ODA’s Beginning Farmer Tax Credit program and FSA’s Borrower Training Requirements.

“As part of our land-grant mission, CFAES educates not just college students but over 2 million individuals across the lifespan.”

The Ohio House Bill 95 Beginning Farmer Tax Credit program went into effect in July 2022 and grants a 3.99% tax credit to landowners who sell or lease assets to a certified Ohio beginning farmer. The new law also allows an Ohio tax credit to the certified beginning farmer equal to the cost of the financial management course completed, Richer said. The Farm On course costs $300 per person.

“Ohio State’s Farm On course is a great way to help Ohio farmers qualify for ODA’s new Beginning Farmer Tax Credit program, which is an important tool to help current, beginning farmers and potential, future farmers do what they do best,” said ODA Director Brian Baldridge. “We are thankful for this partnership that is helping to keep Ohio’s hard-working farmers at the forefront.”

Ohio State’s Farm On course is now 1 of 5 approved vendors for borrowers in Ohio, said Darren Metzger, Ohio Farm Service Agency loan chief.

“The course is in-depth financial management training that can assist our borrowers to obtain and/or improve their knowledge in this critical area of farm management,” Metzger said.

The Farm On program is part of CFAES’ new FFMPI, which was created last year with the goal of sharing resource-based knowledge and best practices to help Ohio farmers manage their businesses as the agricultural industry changes and evolves. Housed within OSU Extension, the goal of FFMPI is for the integration, translation, and communication of CFAES’ farm management and ag policy presence that addresses critical farm management and policy issues affecting Ohioans.

“Farm On is meeting a need of today’s modern crop farmers, and it’s packaged in a way that respects the busy schedules of family farmers,” said Tadd Nicholson, executive director of Ohio Corn and Wheat. “It’s this type of tangible benefit that earns the support of Ohio’s corn and small grains checkoff funds. We are proud to partner with OSU Extension on this important new institute.”

Farm On, which is just one of the programs offered through the new FFMPI, isn’t just for new and beginning farmers, said Peggy Hall, CFAES agricultural and resource law specialist and a Farm On instructor.

“This course provides an opportunity for any farmer in Ohio, whether you’re a new farmer, a seasoned farmer, a small farmer, or a large farmer,” Hall said. “For a long time, we’ve needed to have this course in Ohio because farm management is so critical to ensuring the future of our farms.”

To sign up for Farm On, go to



Tracy Turner


Eric Richer

Peggy Hall

Darren Metzger

Sarah Huffman

Tadd Nicholson

Don’t Miss the March Madness Edition of the Farm Office Live on March 17

The OSU Extension Farm Office team invites you to attend the March Madness Edition of the “Farm Office Live” Webinar on Friday, March 17 from 10:00 to 11:30 a.m. This monthly webinar allows Ohio farmers and agribusiness personnel to learn more about current farm management and agricultural law issues.

In this month’s webinar, the Farm Office Team will present the following topics:

  • Federal & State Legislative Update (Peggy Hall)
  • New Postnuptial Agreement Legislation (Robert Moore)
  • Marital and Non-Marital Assets (Robert Moore)
  • Selling Timber- Call Before You Cut (Dave Apsley)
  • Update on Crop Input Costs and Crop Budget Outlook for 2023 (Barry Ward)
  • Sales Tax Exemption Issues (Jeff Lewis)
  • 2023 Spring Crop Insurance Update (Eric Richer)
  • Emergency Relief Program (David Marrison)

There is no fee to attend this webinar.  However, registration is required at

Check out for all your farm management and ag & resource law needs.

Farm Office Live Webinar to be Held on February 17 at 10:00 a.m.

Ohio’s farm and agribusiness industry are invited to attend OSU Extension’s  “Farm Office Live” webinar on Friday, February 17, 2023 from 10:00 to 11:30 a.m.  The Farm Office Team providing farm management and agricultural and resource law updates during this webinar.

This month’s session topics and featured speakers include:

Ohio Land Values and Cash Rents- Barry Ward

Making the 2023 Farm Bill Decision- Chris Bruynis

Legislative Update- Peggy Hall

Understanding Farm Insurance Policies – Robert Moore

Farm Accounting: Chart of Accounts with a Purpose- Bruce Clevenger

Pandemic Assistance Revenue Program (PARP) & USDA Disaster Declarations- David Marrison

There is no fee to attend this session. Register or watch replays at:

Farm Bill Decisions and Risk Mitigation in 2023

Source: Chris Bruynis, Extension Educator, Ross County

If I could accurately predict the future, I would then know which Farm Bill decision to elect for my farm. Even without knowing future yield and prices, I can determine what risks I face, and which are mitigated by the different farm bill programs. Each farm might have its own inherent risk related to yield and price, making the farm bill program election different for each FSA farm number.

Price Loss Coverage (PLC) – PLC is considered a disaster loss program and covers price risk when the market year average price falls below the reference price. The reference price can adjust over time, but even with the higher prices in recent years, they will remain the same for 2023 at Corn $3.70; Soybeans $8.40; and Wheat $5.50.  The market year average price (MYA) for the 2023 crops is from harvest to the following year’s harvest (July through June for Wheat and September through August for Corn and Soybeans).  PLC is paid on 85% of program (base) acres not planted acres as well as the program (base) yields not actual yields. If your actual planted acres vary significantly from the base acres, this may not cover your actual risk. In a November 2022 article from Chad Hart, Extension Economist from Iowa State University, prices were projected to be $5.70 for corn and $13.00 for soybeans click here .  These projections are clearly above the PLC reference prices for corn and soybeans.

Agricultural Risk Coverage County (ARC-CO) – ARC County is a revenue risk management program compared to the price loss component of PLC. It is considered a shallow loss program that works well when there is a 1- or 2-year revenue decline. Is compares actual revenue to a calculated county revenue guarantee which is different in each county.  The ARC-CO benchmark revenue is the 5-year Olympic average MYA price multiplied by the 5-year Olympic average county yield. Benchmark yields and MYA’s are calculated using the 5 years preceding the year prior to the program year. The ARC-CO guarantee is determined by multiplying the ARC-CO benchmark revenue by 86%. Payments under this program are also tied to 85% of the base acres and not actual planted acres. Calculating the eighty-six percent of the revenue guarantee, using an Ohio average yield and the estimated MYA for 2023, results in a $645.65 guarantee for corn and $466.35 guarantee for soybeans.  With the previously mention projected prices, it is unlikely that ARC-CO will make a payment for the 2023 crop year unless there are significant production issues.

Agricultural Risk Coverage Individual (ARC-IC) – ARC Individual is similar to ARC County with a few adjustments. This program still compares a benchmark revenue calculated the same way as ARC County with the 86% reduction factor. The difference is this program uses 65% of the base acres to calculate payments. Additionally, the actual revenue is based on the actual planted crops, not the base acre crops, tying this closer to actual crop income. This is a good option under certain circumstances such as high year-to-year production variability or relatively large acreage of fruits and vegetables.

2023 Program Year Decision – If crop yields and market prices were predictable, then electing the farm bill program that protects the farm business best would be easy. The question one should be asking is which component of revenue am I more concerned with, price or yield. If one believes that prices will not fall below the reference prices, then one of the ARC programs would be a better election. This is especially true if one believes that yields in 2023 may be reduced by weather conditions such as a widespread drought. However, if one uses the Supplemental Crop Insurance (SCO) product in their crop insurance portfolio, then PLC would need to be elected. The reason is that SCO insurance and ARC Farm Bill programs cover similar risk and the USDA will not permit farms to participate in both at the same time on the same acres. Either Farm Bill election, PLC or ARC, is not expected to make a payment with the current price and trend yield projections for 2023. The real question is will price and yield expectations be realized in 2023?  If you want additional information on the Farm Bill programs, go to








USDA ERS America’s Farms and Ranches at a Glance – 2021 Financial Performance

by: Chris Zoller, Extension Educator, ANR in Tuscarawas County

The United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (USDA ERS) released this report ( in December 2022.  The United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service America’s Farms and Ranches at a Glance summarizes a number of metrics about U.S. agriculture.  This paper highlights two indicators (Operating Profit Margin and Current Ratio) of the financial performance of U.S. farms and ranches.

Two Definitions

Since the 1970’s, USDA ERS has defined a farm as any place where, each year, $1,000 of agricultural goods were produced and sold.  USDA ERS uses acres of crops and heads of livestock to determine whether the definition is met.  Farm size is measured by Gross Cash Farm Income (GCFI), a measure of revenue, including acres of crops or numbers of head of livestock produced and sold.

Types of Farms

USDA ERS classifies farms into several types.  The following definitions are taken from the report:

Small family farms (GCFI less than $350,000)

  • Retirement farms: Small farms whose principal operators report having retired from farming, though continuing to farm on a small scale.
  • Off-farm-occupation farms: Small farms whose principal operators report a primary occupation other than farming.
  • Farming-occupation farms: Small farms whose principal operators report farming as their primary occupation. Farming-occupation farms are further sorted into two classes:
  • Low-sales: Farms with a GCFI of less than $150,000.
  • Moderate-sales: Farms with a GCFI between $150,000 and $349,999.

Midsize family farms (GCFI between $350,000 and $999,999)

  • Farms with a GCFI between $350,000 and $999,999.

Large-scale family farms (GCFI of $1,000,000 or more)

  • Large farms: Farms with a GCFI between $1,000,000 and $4,999,999.
  • Very large farms: Farms with a GCFI of $5,000,000 or more.

Nonfamily farms

  • Any farm where any operator and any individuals related to them do not own a majority (50 percent) of the business.

The table below summarizes farms by type, number, acres, and value of farm production.

Financial Performance

The Operating Profit Margin (OPM) is one measure of farm financial performance.  The OPM is the share of gross income that is profit.  In 2021, between 50 and 81 percent of small family farms had an OPM in the danger zone (less than 10 percent).

Large family farms, in 2021, were more likely to have a positive OPM (of at least 25 percent).  Positive on-farm income was also more likely for this classification.

Farms in the medium-risk category had an OPM greater than 10 percent and less than 25 percent.  Between 5 percent and 32 percent of these farms were in this category in 2021.


The current ratio is another measure of financial performance.  This ratio is calculated by taking current assets divided by current liabilities and is a simple method to determine whether a farm has enough capital to pay current liabilities.  A ratio less than one indicates a farm is unable to pay its current liabilities if all current assets were liquidated.

In 2021, 57 percent of farms had a current ratio greater than one.

In 2021, 52 percent and 47 percent of retirement and off-farm occupation farms, respectively, had the highest percentage of farms with a current ratio of less than 1.  However, many of these farms rely on off-farm income to compensate for the lower current ratio.

Between 23 percent and 25 percent of moderate, mid-size, and large family farms were in danger of being unable to meet current obligations in 2021.


If you are interested in learning more about your financial performance, talk to your lender or your local OSU Extension professional about the OSU Extension Farm Business Analysis and Benchmarking Program.  Additional information is available here:


America’s Farm and Ranches at a Glance, 2022, United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, available at:

Farm Office Live Webinar Slated for December 16

The Farm Office Team of OSU Extension will be holding their December Farm Office Live Webinar on Friday, December 16 from 10:00 to 11:30 a.m. via Zoom. Farm Office Live is a monthly webinar of updates and outlooks of legal, economic, and farm management issues that affect Ohio agriculture.

In this webinar, the teaching team of Peggy Hall and Robert Moore (Attorneys from the OSU Agricultural and Resource Law Program) and Eric Richer and David Marrison (Field Specialists, Farm Management) will share the following topics:

  • Federal and State Legislative and Legal Updates
  • Time to Review Estate Plans
  • Year End Balance Sheet Strategies
  •  Federal Farm Program Updates
  • Food Safety Certification for Specialty Crops Program
  • Emergency Relief Programs
  • House Bill 95 Beginner Tax Credit Update
  • Upcoming Programs

The webinar is free.  Registration and more details can be made at

Join OSU Extension for Annie’s Project series this fall in Chillicothe, OH in Ross County.

Annie’s Project is an educational program dedicated to strengthening women’s roles in modern farm enterprises.

This 6-week workshop focuses on five key areas of risk management: human, financial, marketing, production, and legal. Women learn about argi-business practices from experts in their fields. They also form valuable networks with others in the class.

Cost is $75.00 per person
Registration deadline is October 24, 2022


Session 1: October 27, Rm D

  • Welcome and Introductions
    •Real Colors Personality Test
    •Intro to Risk Management

Session 2: October 31, Rm C

  • Identifying & Managing Legal Liability on the Farm

Session 3: November 3, Rm D

  • Direct Marketing
    •Social Media Presence
    •Overview of Rules & Regs
    •Commodity Marketing
    •Knowing Your Production Costs
    •Different Marketing Tools

Session 4 November 7, Rm D

  • Record Keeping
    •Financial Statements
    •Budgeting & Benchmarking

Session 5: November 10, Rm D

  • Communication and Stress
    •Grandma’s Yellow Pie Plate
    •Estate Planning Strategies

Session 6: November 17, Rm D

  • Farm Services Agency
    •Natural Resources Conservation Service
    •Soil and Water Conservation District
    •Crop Insurance

Event Sponsors

Kingston National Bank
Farm Credit Services of Mid America
Atomic Credit Union
LCNB National Bank



Social Security Announces 8.7 Percent Benefit Increase for 2023

Source: Social Security Administration.

News Release: October 13, 2022

Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits for approximately 70 million Americans will increase 8.7 percent in 2023, the Social Security Administration announced today. On average, Social Security benefits will increase by more than $140 per month starting in January.

The 8.7 percent cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) will begin with benefits payable to more than 65 million Social Security beneficiaries in January 2023. Increased payments to more than 7 million SSI beneficiaries will begin on December 30, 2022. (Note: some people receive both Social Security and SSI benefits). The Social Security Act ties the annual COLA to the increase in the Consumer Price Index as determined by the Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics.

“Medicare premiums are going down and Social Security benefits are going up in 2023, which will give seniors more peace of mind and breathing room. This year’s substantial Social Security cost-of-living adjustment is the first time in over a decade that Medicare premiums are not rising and shows that we can provide more support to older Americans who count on the benefits they have earned,” Acting Commissioner Kilolo Kijakazi said.

To view a COLA message from Acting Commissioner Kijakazi, please visit

Some other adjustments that take effect in January of each year are based on the increase in average wages. Based on that increase, the maximum amount of earnings subject to the Social Security tax (taxable maximum) will increase to $160,200 from $147,000.

Social Security and SSI beneficiaries are normally notified by mail starting in early December about their new benefit amount. The fastest way to find out their new benefit amount is to access their personal my Social Security account to view the COLA notice online. It’s secure, easy, and people find out before the mail arrives. People can also opt to receive a text or email alert when there is a new message from Social Security–such as their COLA notice–waiting for them, rather than receiving a letter in the mail. People may create or access their my Social Security account online at

Information about Medicare changes for 2023 is available at For Social Security beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare, their new higher 2023 benefit amount will be available in December through the mailed COLA notice and my Social Security’s Message Center.

Cost-of-Living Adjustment (COLA) Information for 2023

Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits for approximately 70 million Americans will increase 8.7 percent in 2023.

The 8.7 percent cost-of-living adjustment (COLA) will begin with benefits payable to more than 65 million Social Security beneficiaries in January 2023. Increased payments to more than 7 million SSI beneficiaries will begin on December 30, 2022. (Note: some people receive both Social Security and SSI benefits)

Read more about the Social Security Cost-of-Living adjustment for 2023.

The maximum amount of earnings subject to the Social Security tax (taxable maximum) will increase to $160,200.

The earnings limit for workers who are younger than “full” retirement age (see Full Retirement Age Chart) will increase to $21,240. (We deduct $1 from benefits for each $2 earned over $21,240.)

The earnings limit for people reaching their “full” retirement age in 2023 will increase to $56,520. (We deduct $1 from benefits for each $3 earned over $56,520 until the month the worker turns “full” retirement age.)

There is no limit on earnings for workers who are “full” retirement age or older for the entire year.

Read more about the COLA, tax, benefit and earning amounts for 2023.