Freeze Forecast

It’s that time of year…a frost can anytime.  I put the second week of October as a likely candidate for a first frost…

Probability of Earlier Date in Fall Than Indicated
Temperature Earliest 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Latest
36 09/21 09/23 09/30 10/02 10/03 10/06 10/10 10/13 10/16 10/19 10/24
32 09/23 10/02 10/08 10/11 10/13 10/17 10/18 10/21 10/24 10/27 10/31
28 10/03 10/11 10/17 10/19 10/25 10/29 10/30 11/02 11/02 11/09 11/12
24 10/20 10/23 11/03 11/05 11/08 11/10 11/12 11/14 11/18 11/23 12/04
20 11/04 11/05 11/11 11/14 11/17 11/21 11/25 11/29 12/10 12/14 12/24


This data is reported at the Zanesville Airport weather station.

Midwestern Regional Climate Center

cli-MATE: MRCC Application Tools Environment

Generated at: 9/27/2021 2:53:35 PM CDT

OSU Enterprise Budgets

Several agriculture business enterprise budgets from the OSU Farm Office have been updated recently.  They are all available at Enterprise Budgets | Farm Office (

The most recent budgets published by the Farm Office Team are listed below:



Fall Armyworm Updates

Hopefully a few nights of of sub 50 degree F temperatures are helping to knock the fall armyworm population back.  However, we are still watching to see what transpires.  Recently articles on the Fall Armyworm population are available here:

Re-Alert: Fall Armyworm, Part II? | BYGL
Managing Forage Stands Damaged by Fall Armyworm | Forages
An Overview on Development Times for Fall Armyworm | Kentucky Pest News
Predictions for Round 2 of Fall Armyworm | Agronomic Crops Network

Fall Armyworm Causing Problems in Ohio

Fall Armyworm reports are coming in throughout Ohio.  This can be an issue in green crops and turf during the fall season and is widespread in Ohio at this time.  Hayfields, pastures, and lawns are particularly at risk.

More info at:

Agronomic Crops Network CORN Newsletter

Buckeye Yard and Garden Online

Kentucky Pest News


Spotted Lanternfly Updates

Spotted Lanternfly is again making the news with a recent detection of a population in the state of Indiana.  In Muskingum County, we have previously had reports of single insects, but have not detected any breeding populations.  Across Ohio, one population was detected previously and we are continuing to scout and monitor for the development of more populations.

Current information on Spotted Lanternfly is available at these links:

Spotted Lanternfly | New York State Integrated Pest Management
Spotted Lanternfly Update, 07.30.2021 | BYGL
Spotted Lanternfly | Ohio Department of Agriculture
Spotted Lanternfly | Penn State

Tomato Facts

“An application of a starter fertilizer at transplanting will help tomato plants grow faster and flower sooner.”

“In addition to starter fertilizer, tomatoes need 2 to 3 pounds of a complete fertilizer, such as 6-24-24, 6-12-18, and 8-16-16 per 100 square feet of garden area, or apply fertilizer based on soil test recommendations.”

“Determinate (D) tomato plants grow to a certain height and then stop. They also flower and set all their fruits within a relatively short period of time. This is an advantage if the tomatoes are being grown primarily for canning purposes. Determinate plants tend to be smaller plants, and are better suited for caging, staking, or containers.”

“Heirloom tomatoes are gaining popularity. There are quite a few good heirloom varieties that are worth noting. Brandywine, Cherokee Purple, Mortgage Lifter, and Rutgers are several popular heirloom varieties.”

“Another characteristic to look for when choosing tomato cultivars is disease resistance. Many cultivar names are followed by one or more letters indicating resistance to Verticillium wilt (V), Fusarium wilt (F), nematodes (N), Tobacco Mosaic Virus (T), Alternaria stem canker (ASC), and Septoria leaf spot (L).”

“Blossom-end rot is characterized as a dry, sunken, black spot or area on the blossom end of the fruit (Figure 10). This problem is not caused by an infectious disease, but rather an insufficient supply of calcium in the fruit due to cold soil, pH imbalance, water stress, excessive nitrogen, and possibly limited availability of calcium in soil.”

“Poor fruit set can be caused by extreme temperatures, drought, shading, and excessive nitrogen applications.”

The above quotes are from Growing Tomatoes in the Home Garden, HYG-1624.

Periodical Cicadas, Brood X, Low Risk in Muskingum County in 2021

17-year Periodical Cicadas are in the news in 2021 with the expected emergence of Brood X across a large portion of the mid-Atlantic states and a portion of the Midwest.  Washington DC, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Cincinnati are all cities that sit in the middle of the action.  In Ohio, this brood emerges in the region between Cincinnati and Columbus with a few isolated reports in other parts of the state.  In Zanesville, OH, we do not expect any major impact from this brood.  It is conceivable that we could experience some cicadas, particularly if you believe you experienced them in 2004, but the expectation for this is limited in our area.  A map of the geographic distribution of Brood X can be found here.

The major concerns that arise with cicadas are largely nuisance issues such as noise, large divebombing fliers, messiness, superficial damage to established trees, and potential fatal damage to newly planted poorly established trees.

The last emergence in Zanesville occurred in 2016 from Brood 5, which also emerged in 1999.  This is a separate population from what is emerging in 2021.

Further Reading

Brood X | Cicadas (

Periodical Update: Cicada Observations and Educational Opportunities | BYGL (