Which of the following is true regarding multiple sclerosis (MS).
- MS is a disease involving the peripheral nervous system affecting the axons of lower extremities first.
- MS is a chronic inflammatory disease, caused by an autoimmune response, resulting in degeneration of myelin sheath in the CNS.
- MS is a disorder of the CNS caused by the Varicella-zoster virus.
- Exacerbation of MS causes damage to the cell body (soma) of sensory neurons.
You are treating a patient experiencing an exacerbation of MS. Which lab value would you expect to find?
- Elevated CSF immunoglobulin G (IgG)
- Elevated Vitamin D levels
- Critically low hemoglobin and hematocrit
- Positive hepatitis B surface antigen screen
A patient newly diagnosed with MS has arrived at your clinic. Which of the following is most likely to be true regarding this patient?
- The patient is a 45-year-old male with a positive family history of MS.
- The patient is female and recently had a bacterial infection not treated with antibiotics.
- The patient is a 30-year-old female presenting with relapsing remitting episodes of recurrent neurological symptoms.
- The patient is male IV drug user presenting with flu-like symptoms.
What is the best treatment for a patient experiencing an acute MS exacerbation?
- Corticosteroids, such as methylprednisolone, to promote a swift recovery.
- Penicillin, an antibiotic, to treat the infection.
- Vitamin D supplement to promote a positive progression.
- Oseltamivir, an antiviral, to prevent viral replication.
You suspect your patient is experiencing symptoms of MS. The patient has never been diagnosed with MS, you have taken a thorough history and have ruled out other diagnoses. The last 3 months your patient has had 2 separate episodes of asthenia (atypical muscle weakness) along with brainstem symptoms lasting more than 24 hours. What is your next step to confirm diagnosis?
- Order a brain MRI to assess for plaques and tangles.
- Obtain serum ammonia levels, a head CT to rule out hemorrhage, and admit the patient to the hospital for further testing.
- Diagnosis can be confirmed from the provided information.
- Order a brain MRI to assess for demyelinating plaques and obtain a CSF sample to measure the IgG index.
A patient diagnosed with Spinal MS is most likely to present with which of the following symptoms?
- Memory problems and vision changes.
- Ataxia and weakness in extremities.
- Rapid onset of severe headache and tachycardia.
- Bladder and bowel problems.