Abstract: This study identifies built environmental factors that influence the determination of fault in urban pedestrian crashes in the United States, with implications for both safety and equity. Using data from Columbus, Ohio, we apply regression modeling, spatial analysis, and case studies, and find pedestrians are more likely to be found at fault on fast, high-volume arterial roads with bus stops. We also observe that better provision of crossings leads to more marked intersection crashes, which are less likely to be blamed on pedestrians. In addition, large differences in both the provision of crossings and fault exist between neighborhoods. We interpret findings through the lenses of the systems-oriented safety approaches Safe Systems and Vision Zero. The conclusion argues that the designation of individual responsibility for crashes preempts collective responsibility, preventing wider adoption of design interventions as well as systemic changes to the processes that determine the built environment of US roadways.
Abstract. Public transit systems are facing higher risk of system degradation from external disruptions, affecting their ability to deliver reliable accessibility to transit users. Therefore, resilience, the ability to maintain functions during a disruption, becomes a crucial assessment of public transit systems. In this paper, we calculate two space-time prism-based measures with General Transit Feed Specification real-time (GTFS-RT) data: realizable real-time accessibility, a conservative real-time accessibility measure that can be achieved by users subject to delays, and scheduled accessibility, accessibility based on schedule. We also define accessibility unreliability, the deviation between realizable accessibility and scheduled accessibility, to measure the reliability of delivered accessibility. We use the two measures to gauge the resilience of public transit systems and conduct two case studies of short- and long-term disruptions, namely Ohio State football games and the COVID-19 pandemic, on the Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA) bus system in Columbus, Ohio. We find there are two peaks of high unreliability before and after each football games, with the stadium as the geographic center of the disruption. The after-game peaks are shorter and more intense than the before-game. We also find COVID-19 had persistent negative impacts on accessibility and reliability: Realizable accessibility universally declined during the pandemic, but only part of cities experienced unreliability increase, primarily in urban perimeters and suburbs. Improved traffic conditions during the pandemic may help to reduce unreliability, but the later service cuts increased unreliability. The two case studies prove the effectiveness of the method to detect system disturbances and provide important guidance for public transit system operation and planning.
In our project, we are focusing on Black and Brown neighborhoods in Columbus that have been altered and, in many cases,damaged by deliberate actions such as urban highway construction, urban renewal and redlining practices. Our intentis to raise awareness and empower restorative justice by creating evocative experiences that connect with people in a visceral manner. A longer-termobjective istobuild a scientific database to which we can apply high resolution morphological analytics to understand the impacts of built environments – and their large–scale alterations – on social, health and environmental justice outcomes in these communities.
Here are some updates about our three main study sites to date: i) Hanford Village in 1961; ii) Poindexter Village in 1940; iii) Mt. Vernon Ave in 1951.
(All images can be clicked for larger versions.)
Hanford Village in 1961
Our first study site is Hanford Village, a historically Black neighborhood in Columbus that was bisected and harmed by the construction of highway I-70 starting in the late 1960s. The image below shows our initial 3D model. The buildings are from 1961; the completed I-70 highway is superimposed on the image. Buildings in red were demolished for the highway and adjacent Alum Creek Drive (on the right side of the image, near the highway curve). Our results show that a total of 380 buildings have been demolished in these areas, including 286 dwellings, 86 garages, 5 apartments, and 3 stores.
Note that the buildings textures (exteriors) are plausible but not accurate. We applied simple rules within ESRI City Engine to generate these textures. In our current phase, we are studying historical and current day photos to build more accurate building textures. The image below shows a Google Street View image of a still existing 1940s Cape Cod home in the George Washington Carver Addition in Hanford Village with a 3D model of the building. We are currently working on making all of the buildings in our Hanford Village model this realistic and accurate.
Poindexter Village in 1940
Poindexter Village was one the first public housing project in Ohio and one of the first in the United States: Franklin Delano Roosevelt attended its dedication in 1940. Most of the buildings have since been demolished. The images below shows our 3D model of Poindexter Village, overlaid on a present day aerial image. The top image shows an overview; the bottom image shows building details. The only buildings that remain are the church (the building with the columns) and the two residential buildings to its left in both images.
A museum and visitor center is planned for the two remaining buildings. We are in the final stages of building this model. We are also working in partnership with the Ohio History Connection to explore ways to incorporate this model into the planned museum and visitor center, delivered via the web, onsite digital displays or a 3D printed tabletop model.
Mt. Vernon Ave in 1951
Mt. Vernon Ave in 1951 is our newest study site and time, supported by a seed grant from the Battelle Engineering, Technology and Human Affairs (BETHA) Endowment fund at The Ohio State University and in partnership with the Columbus Landmarks Foundation and the City of Columbus Near East Area Commission (NEAC). CLF and NEAC are pursuing historic district designation for Mt. Vernon Ave. Mt. Vernon Ave was the commercial heart of the Black community in Columbus in the mid 20th century; the construction of the I-71 highway severed this corridor from Columbus downtown. The image below shows a map of Mt. Vernon Ave in the Bronzeville neighborhood of Columbus. The dashed line indicates where the street no longer exists (the present day Columbus State Community College campus.)
Our initial study area is a three-block stretch of Mt. Vernon Ave between present-day Monroe St (to the west) and 20th Street (to the east). The images below shows a present-day aerial image with our study area demarcated at two different map scales. Based on our research, this was the largest concentration of commercial activity in 1951. It was also the site of an ill-considered urban renewal project in 1971 under the Model Cities program
The next three images illustrate the information extracted from the Sanborn maps. The first image shows building footprints with uses, overlaid on a present-day map. D = dwelling; F = flat (apartment); S = store (commercial); A= automobile (garage).
This image shows the number of stories derived from the Sanborn maps:
Finally, the building construction material from the Sanborn maps:
The animation below compares the present-day buildings in 3D to the 1951 buildings in 3D. Even with this basic, simple building models, we can see the sharp decline in density and loss of commercial activity after the urban renewal project.
We are currently conducting archival research to determinate accurate building textures, especially for the commercial buildings, and adding this information to the models. We are also working with Dr. Matt Lewis to develop an in-situ augmented reality experience of Mt. Vernon Ave in 1951.