Downy mildew continues to spread on cucumbers in Ohio, with a confirmed report in Henry County this week. The disease is likely to be widespread on cucumbers in northern Ohio, particularly after last week’s rainy, humid weather. As usually happens within a few weeks of cucumber downy mildew outbreaks, we are now finding downy mildew on cantaloupe. Chris Smedley and the Wayne County IPM Scouting team found widespread and fairly severe downy mildew in commercial melons in the northwestern part of Wayne County, where we first reported downy mildew on cucumbers on June 28. As noted in previous posts, it is imperative that growers protect melons as well as cucumbers with downy mildew-effective fungicides such as Orondis Opti and Ranman if they are in an area where downy mildew risk is high, such as northern Ohio. See my June 28 post for a list of recommended fungicides. Remember to follow label instructions and alternate products with different modes of action.
We have just reported to the Cucurbit Downy Mildew ipmPIPE the first case of downy mildew on cucumbers in Wood County. While the sample was just received today, the grower estimated that symptoms were first present July 7, about a week after the first report of downy mildew on cucumbers upwind in southeastern Michigan. The multiple rainstorms last week likely delivered the downy mildew pathogen from long distances and also moved it about locally, while the overcast, humid conditions favored pathogen survival and infection. Although predicted weather patterns for this week in northern Ohio are not as favorable for downy mildew as last week, growers should assume the pathogen is present and take or continue measures to protect cucumbers and melons from downy mildew. We have not yet found or had reports of downy mildew in central or southern Ohio on any crops, and no reports of the disease on squash, pumpkins, cantaloupe or watermelon in northern Ohio. That being said, cantaloupe is second to cucumber in susceptibility to downy mildew, and should be protected by fungicides in this area. See my posts on June 28 and July 8 for more information on cucurbit downy mildew management.
We also found downy mildew at a very early stage of development in our sentinel plot in Wooster today (see photo). There were only a few lesions present and it took a keen eye to spot them. When scouting for downy mildew in cucumbers, look for this type of early lesion. If the diseases progresses significantly it will be difficult to avoid yield losses despite fungicide applications.
If you suspect downy mildew in any cucurbit or basil, please send us a sample for confirmation. It is best if the sample is wrapped lightly in a damp paper towel and shipped in a box by overnight mail or courier to: Sally Miller, OSU-OARDC, Dept. Plant Pathology, 1680 Madison Ave, Wooster, OH 44691; 330-466-5249.
Hot rainy weather and fields with a history of anthracnose mean high risk for for this disease in peppers and tomatoes. Anthracnose, caused by species of the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum, causes no obvious leaf lesions on tomato foliage and only occasionally on pepper foliage under high disease pressure. However, pepper and tomato fruits are very susceptible to the disease. The fungus can be introduced on seeds, and survives over the winter in temperate climates associated with crop debris. Fruits are infected when green; pepper fruits develop large lesions with salmon-colored spores when green or ripe, but tomato fruits do not develop the typical sunken lesions until they begin to ripen. Spores of the fungus are moved about by splashing rain, so rainstorms can promote disease spread throughout a field. Mechanically harvested processing tomatoes are particularly prone to anthracnose problems since fruits ripen at different rates but are harvested all at once. Management practices include thorough scouting, sanitation/removal of diseased fruits, and fungicide applications. There are some differences in susceptibility of pepper and tomato varieties to anthracnose, but none are highly resistant.
It is time now to start protecting plants from anthracnose – fungicides must be applied as soon as fruits begin to set, and continued on a weekly schedule as fruits develop. Fungicides labeled for use against anthracnose in fruiting vegetables (eggplant, pepper, tomato) are listed in the Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers. Several studies have shown the best results with Aprovia Top, Quadris, Quadris Top, Cabrio or Priaxor alternated with chlorothalanil or mancozeb. Some labels may recommend a spreader-sticker; be sure to read and follow label instructions.
Ohio cucurbit growers have been battling Phytophthora blight in squash for at least the past 2 weeks, and yesterday we diagnosed an unusual outbreak in cucumber seedlings. Phytophthora can attack any part of cucurbit plants, but we don’t usually see seedling disease in cucumbers in Ohio. This may be due in part to an “escape” scenario, since many cucumber crops are planted early before Phytophthora blight pressure builds. In addition, cucumber plants usually hold up well to Phytophthora blight, although fruits are highly susceptible. It looks like this may be another season of high Phytophthora blight pressure.
Management of Phytophthora blight in cucumbers and other cucurbits is complicated by the fact that downy mildew may also be a problem. Currently we are only seeing downy mildew on cucumbers in northern Ohio, although we expect to find it in melons soon – see my posts on June 28 and July 8. Phytophthora blight is different from downy mildew in a number of ways, and similar in others. One big difference is that Phytophthora movement through the air is limited, unlike downy mildew. Another is that the pathogen survives over the winter in Ohio. Third, Phytophthora has to be introduced into a field, usually by contaminated water or movement of soil. Phytophthora tends to thrive in hot weather and downy mildew in cooler weather, but there is considerable overlap. Phytophthora and the downy mildew pathogen are related; some of the fungicides that are effective against downy mildew are effective to a degree against Phytophthora. All cucurbits are susceptible to Phytophthora blight, as are peppers and some other vegetable crops. No varieties of cucurbits are resistant to Phytophthora blight, so cultural practices (raised beds, good drainage, clean irrigation water; no cull piles) and fungicides are needed to manage this disease. The pathogen is a “water mold” and moves around readily in wet, and especially flooded fields. The sporangia that contain the zoospores that swim to and infect plants can also be splashed onto stems, leaves and fruit.
Keeping ahead of both diseases is important, but any efforts to manage them can be undone by long periods of wet weather, when it is particularly important to keep a tight schedule of fungicide applications. The Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers lists the products labeled for these diseases on cucurbits – see page 117 in the 2017 Guide for a chart on relative efficacy of fungicides against different diseases of cucurbits. Dr Mary Hausbeck, Michigan State University, recommends applying fungicides when pickles are 1”, 3” and 5” long to suppress Phytophthora blight. Fungicides with 0-days pre-harvest interval (PHI) – Orondis Ultra, Ranman, Zampro and Zing! – will be useful when fruits are close to harvest. Make sure to note re-entry intervals. While copper in itself is not very effective against Phytophthora blight, tank mixing with a copper fungicide (e.g. Kocide 3000 – also 0 days PHI) improves activity against Phytophthora. Dr. Mohammad Babadoost’s research at the University of Illinois indicates that Revus tank mixed with a copper fungicide and alternated with Ranman + copper, Tanos + copper, or Zampro + copper (7-day intervals) is effective in suppressing Phytophthora blight.
Be sure to read and follow label directions for application of fungicides and other pesticides. Alternating fungicides with different modes of action is critical to reduce the risk of resistance development in pathogen populations.
Click on table to enlarge.
On July 5, downy mildew was found on cucumbers in Huron County, one week after the first 2017 Ohio report (Wayne County) of the disease. In this case, disease symptoms had just become visible in a low spot in the field, but the sporulation was very strong, indicating a good potential for the pathogen to spread. The disease was also confirmed in Ontario on June 27 and in Michigan on June 29. Given the favorable weather conditions of the last week, with high humidity, overcast skies and rainstorms moving through the state, growers in the northern third of Ohio should assume that the risk of downy mildew in cucumbers and melons is very high. See the Cucurbit Downy Mildew ipmPIPE website for a detailed forecast; you can also find the map of outbreaks on this site. As indicated in my post on June 28, growers need to scout fields carefully, especially in low or shady spots that may hold moisture longer than other parts of the field. The only way to manage this disease at this point is through application of effective fungicides – and recommendations are provided in the June 28 post.
There were reports of downy mildew on cucumbers in Erie County in western NY and Columbia County in central PA, but so far there have been no reports of downy mildew on pumpkins or squash in the US Midwest or Northeast.
Reminder: I report outbreaks of cucurbit downy mildew and other veggie diseases as soon as we know about/confirm them on Twitter: @OhioVeggieDoc.
Downy mildew was confirmed this afternoon in cucumbers in West Salem (Wayne County), OH. This follows a report of downy mildew on pickling cucumbers and cantaloupe in Essex County, Ontario yesterday, and is about 8 days earlier than our first Ohio report in 2016. Cucumber and melon growers throughout Ohio should intensify scouting, and these crops should be protected with effective fungicides. Cooler, wetter conditions the last week have been very favorable for downy mildew. In northern Oho counties, the downy mildew risk is high, so the more effective downy mildew fungicides Ranman 400SC and/or Orondis Opti A & B (co-pack) should be the core of the fungicide program. Zing!, Gavel, Zampro or other fungicides (see table below) can be rotated into the program. A chlorothalanil (Bravo, Echo, Equus, Initiate) or mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb) product should be tank mixed with the downy mildew fungicide. Always rotate fungicides with different modes of action and follow label instructions. Remember that Orondis Opti A & B applications are restricted to 1/3 of the total fungicide applications. We recommend applying the first Orondis application when the risk of downy mildew is highest. Under highly conducive environmental conditions, apply fungicides on a 5-7 day schedule. When the risk is lower due to hot, dry, sunny weather, or downy mildew has not been reported in the area, the schedule may be stretched to 7-10 days. Cucumber and cantaloupe downy mildew risk is much higher in northern than in central and southern Ohio at this time.
Thanks to Chris Smedley and the Wayne County IPM scouting program for bringing this sample to us for confirmation.
Our colleagues in Ontario reported late blight today on tomatoes in Chatham-Kent. That means that inoculum of the late blight pathogen is active in the region, and given the rainy/overcast, cool conditions of the last week or so, it is time to make sure tomato and potato crops are protected from this disease.
It is very important that both potatoes and tomatoes be scouted regularly (at least twice per week) for late blight. If late blight is suspected, it can be confirmed by bringing or sending a sample to the OSU Vegetable Pathology Lab in Wooster or the OSU C. Wayne Ellett Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic in Reynoldsburg. We appreciate hearing from you if late blight is suspected so that we can confirm and alert others.
Growers need to maintain an effective fungicide program on tomatoes and potatoes. This should continue as long as rainy conditions, high humidity and/or heavy dews are expected. If late blight has not been observed and weather conditions are generally dry and warm, use a protectant fungicide on a 7-10 day schedule, depending on how fast the plants are growing. Good protectants are chlorothalanil (Bravo, Equus, Echo), mancozeb (Penncozeb, Manzate, Dithane), and to a lesser extent, copper-based products – use according to label instructions. Under cool wet conditions when late blight is likely, or if late blight has been found on the farm or nearby, use one of the following, tank mixed with one of the above protectants: Curzate (3 day PHI),Orondis Ultra (1 day PHI),Presidio (2 day PHI), Previcur Flex (5 day PHI), Ranman (0 day PHI), or Tanos (3 day PHI). Orondis Opti (3 day PHI), Zing! (5 day PHI) and Gavel (5 day PHI) are pre-mixes containing mancozeb or chlorothalanil. Note the Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) for these fungicides ranges from 0 – 5 days. So far, Ohio late blight strains have been sensitive to Ridomil, so that is another option (but may be risky).
For organic producers, there is a good webinar on late blight and its management in organic potatoes and tomatoes originally presented in January 2014 and featuring leading researchers on late blight from New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin and Florida. They mention Actinovate AG, EF-400 and Zonix as products approved for organic that can be effective in reducing late blight – but will not completely control the disease. OMRI-approved copper fungicides (Champ WG, Nordox 75 WG, and others) generally rank highest for control among organic approved products. Actinovate, EF-400 and Zonix might be used in a program with copper. NOTE: It is critical to apply fungicides prior to infection – these fungicides (and most for conventional use as well) are not effective once plants have become infected.
If the disease is mainly found in one or a few foci, it is a good idea to remove and destroy the diseased plants. This is particularly important for organic tomato or potato growers. Home gardeners should consider spraying tomatoes and potatoes with a fungicide containing chlorothalanil, and should prune out diseased tissue. Pack up diseased plants in a plastic garbage bag and discard – don’t leave them in the field or garden or on a compost pile, where the pathogen can be released into the air and spread to other plants.
It has been a busy week in the diagnostics lab – we continue to receive high tunnel and greenhouse tomatoes, but open-field vegetables and herbs are now making an appearance. These are some of the plant disease problems from around Ohio received this week.
Basil downy mildew. The sample from Ashland County had unusual sporulation on the stems (see photo). We normally find lesions on leaves with spores on the underside. This might indicate a systemic infection, possibly from seeds. See my post on May 4, 2017 for recommendations on management of this disease. Note: The basil downy mildew pathogen does not cause disease in cucurbits. We have not seen cucurbit downy mildew in Ohio or in the Great Lakes region yet this year.
Cucumber bacterial wilt. This disease was found in Highland County. Bacterial wilt can be a very serious problem in cucumbers, melon, squash and pumpkins, among other cucurbits. It is caused by a bacterial plant pathogen – Erwinia tracheiphila – that overwinters in striped and spotted cucumber beetles. When the beetles emerge from the soil they feed on cucurbit plants and transmit the bacteria to wounded tissue. We expect that beetle survival was higher than usual this year as a result of the mild winter of 2016/2017. The beetles can damage or kill young plants even in the absence of Erwinia, but if the bacteria enter the plant it is likely to die or at least perform poorly. The earlier plants are infected, the more likely they are to die quickly. Conventional growers can control bacterial wilt with appropriate insecticides – see the Midwest Vegetable Production Guide (pp. 122-123 in 2017 Guide) for recommendations. Options are limited for organic growers and gardeners, although row covers until flowering will protect plants when they are most vulnerable.
Southern blight. We found this disease on young eggplant and pepper seedlings on OSU’s Waterman farm in Columbus. This is a disease that thrives under hot, moist conditions – it is not common in northern Ohio but we have seen it before in central and southern Ohio. An elongated brown lesion on the lower stem and root rot were accompanied by white mycelium (see photo), sometimes clearly in a fan shape, at the base of the stem. Small, round sclerotia eventually form on the surface and serve as overwintering structures. Sclerotia can survive many years in the soil, so it is important to remove diseased plants and accompanying sclerotia from the field.
Septoria blight of tomato. The disease was diagnosed tomatoes from Highland County. Typical symptoms are small necrotic spots on leaves, but not on fruit, which can help distinguish this disease from bacterial spot. Necrotic lesions caused by Septoria lycopersici contain tiny round black structures called pycnidia that can be seen with a hand lens. The pycnidia contain spores of the pathogen that are released when exposed to water. Therefore the disease is rare in greenhouses and high tunnels unless there is exposure to rainsplash or overhead irrigation. Septoria can be seedborne – we diagnosed Septoria blight in tomato transplants from a greenhouse with overhead irrigation earlier this spring in which infested seed was a likely source. Septoria blight is best managed with timely fungicide applications; a strobilurin fungicide should be included in the program.
Herbicide drift damage – high tunnel tomato. We have seen several cases of herbicide drift damage to tomatoes from high tunnels so far this season. When we receive samples that look like possible herbicide damage, we pass the sample on to OSU’s Dr. Doug Doohan. He diagnosed the sample pictured here as damage from exposure to the herbicide 2,4-D. This was a very severe case.
Corky root rot of high tunnel tomato. This disease is often part of a soilborne disease complex of tomato that may also include Fusarium wilt, Verticillium wilt, black dot, and root knot nematode, among others. In this case, corky root rot was the primary problem. Like other soilborne diseases, corky root rot is very difficult to manage if resistant varieties are not available. Where the disease is a problem, grafting onto a corky root rot- resistant rootstock is very helpful in managing the disease. We are also working on anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) as a method of reducing populations of soilborne plant pathogens in high tunnels.
Many thanks to OSU Vegetable Pathology lab members Dr. Francesca Rotondo, Dr. Anna Testen and Claudio Vrisman for their work on these cases.
While open-field tomatoes are just getting started in parts of this region, high tunnel and greenhouse tomatoes have been in the soil for quite a while now to get that early start on the season. So we are seeing a number of diseases appearing on tomatoes produced in high tunnels and greenhouses. Some of the diseases are soilborne, some airborne, and some spread by insect pests. Here are some examples we’ve seen so far this spring:
Tospoviruses – Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV). Symptoms include yellow and/or necrotic spots on leaves, as well as purplish-to-brown spots or streaks on petioles and stems. Plants may wilt and new growth may be very stunted. Fruit symptoms appear as blotchy yellow or necrotic spots or ringspots, depending on the virus. Tospoviruses are transmitted by thrips, which acquire the virus while feeding as larvae on infected plants. Adult thrips do not acquire these viruses, although thrips that are infected retain the virus for their lifetimes and can pass the virus on to their progeny. We can test for TSWV quickly with a commercially available immunostrip test, but TCSV requires a more time-consuming lab test. Once the disease is observed in a greenhouse or high tunnel, the infected plants should be removed and destroyed, or they will serve as a reservoir of the virus. Thrips populations must also be controlled. More information can be found in last year’s post on TSWV in peppers and tomatoes and on OSU’s Vegetable Disease Facts website.
Botrytis gray mold. This is a disease caused by the fungus Botrytis. Botrytis spores are windborne and are most likely to cause problems when the weather is cool, skies are overcast, and humidity in the greenhouse or high tunnel is high. Leaves, stems, petioles and fruit can be infected. Fuzzy brown-to-grey moldy growth on infected tissue is the telltale sign of grey mold disease. The disease is managed by cultural practices such as reducing humidity in the structure by ventilation, pruning plants adequately, maintaining fertilization, especially calcium, at a level optimal for plant growth, and removing dead and dying tissue to reduce the spore load. Several fungicides are labeled for use on tomatoes in greenhouses or high tunnels, including Fontelis, Botran, and Scala. See the Midwest Vegetable Production Guide for more information. Products such as Oxidate, Fracture and various biocontrols may reduce disease pressure and be acceptable for organic growers as well. See our Botrytis gray mold factsheet for pictures of symptoms and an in-depth discussion of disease management.
Pith necrosis. Pith necrosis is also a disease favored by cool weather, so it is more of a problem in the spring and early summer in tomatoes produced under protected culture than in mid-summer. It usually appears to be randomly distributed in the tomato crop, and is associated with high nitrogen in soil. Pith necrosis is caused by several species of bacteria, most commonly Pseudomonas spp., all of which are common soil inhabitants. Affected plants may wilt and die; and brown to black lesions may be seen on the outside of the stem or petioles. The bacteria can be spread from plant to plant through contaminated tools or hands, so sanitation is very important in the management of the disease. Diseased plants should be removed from the greenhouse or high tunnel and destroyed. Pith necrosis can be diagnosed by splitting the stem lengthwise with a sharp knife and checking the pith in the center of the stem. Diseased pith is dark brown in color. You can find more information and pictures of symptoms on our Vegetable Disease Facts-Pith Necrosis website.
Verticillium wilt. This disease is caused by the fungus Verticillium, which lives in soil and infects plants through the roots. The disease is not usually a major problem in tomatoes in open fields as long as adequate crop rotation is practiced and resistant varieties are used. Adequate crop rotation (out of tomato/pepper/eggplant for at least 3 years) is not always practiced in greenhouses and high tunnels, so we are seeing Verticillium wilt and other soilborne diseases emerging in these tunnels. Further, many heirloom varieties popular for high tunnel/greenhouse production are very susceptible to Verticillium wilt. There are no effective fungicides available to control this disease. We are working to adapt a relatively new approach called anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) to protected culture systems, which has the potential to reduce disease pressure caused by Verticillium and other soilborne pathogens. (Verticillium photos by A. Testen).
White mold. This disease is caused by the fungus Sclerotinia, and is most common under cool, wet, high humidity conditions. See my post a year ago on white mold management in high tunnel tomatoes for details.
Phytophthora blight has become a very serious problem in peppers and cucurbits, particularly in areas with concentrated vegetable production. The pathogen is a water mold that thrives under conditions of high moisture and high temperature. It produces motile spores (zoospores) that are attracted to plants, then form a structure that allows them to infect, and aggressively attack any type of plant tissue. Zoospores can be splashed onto leaves, stems and fruits during rain events and overhead irrigation. Phytophthora blight is often seen first in low spots or other poorly drained areas of production fields, but the disease also occurs on well-drained, even sandy soils if the environmental conditions are right. An increase in intensive rainfall events that result in soil saturation and standing water in fields in the last decade or so is certainly a contributing factor to the uptick in problems with Phytophthora blight.
Effective management of Phytophthora blight in peppers requires an integrated approach:
Crop rotation. Phytophthora produces structures called oospores that can survive for a number of years in the soil. Plan to rotate out of peppers, cucurbits or green beans for 4-5 years if Phytophthora blight has been a problem.
Resistant varieties. A few pepper varieties are resistant to the root rot phase of the disease. In general, these varieties are susceptible to the crown rot phase, which affects foliage and fruits. Varieties with moderate to good resistance to Phytophthora blight are: Paladin, Aristotle, Declaration, Intruder, Vanguard (bell); Hechicero (jalapeño); and Sequioa (ancho).
Well-drained soil. Avoiding standing water is critical to limiting the movement of Phytophthora from plant to plant.
Avoid surface water for irrigation. We have found Phytophthora in irrigation ditches and ponds as early as late June in vegetable production-intensive areas in Ohio. Using surface water for irrigation is risky, especially if Phytophthora is present in fields near surface water sources.
Plant on raised beds. Prepared properly, raised beds will help prevent standing water near pepper plants. If possible beds should be domed, and there should be no depressions in the soil surrounding the plants.
Sanitation. Phytophthora can be moved from an infested field to a clean one on soil clinging to boots, equipment, etc. Power washing to remove soil is a good first step, followed by rinsing with a sanitizer.
Fungicides. There are a number of fungicides labeled for use on peppers to manage Phytophthora blight (see table below). The newest product, Orondis, has very good efficacy against this disease. It is available in the Midwest this year as a co-pack with either Revus (Orondis Ultra), Ridomil (Orondis Gold) or Bravo (Orondis Opti). Pre-mixes will be available in 2018. There are many restrictions on the use of Orondis – including the number of applications (no more than 1/3 of total applications for Phytophthora blight) and when it can be applied (to the soil or to the foliage but not both). Orondis Ultra and Orondis Gold can be applied in transplant water or through the drip, although Orondis does not move much in soil and emitters need to be right next to the plant. If the pepper variety is susceptible to Phytophthora blight, it may be a good idea to apply Orondis Gold or Orondis Ultra at planting, and follow up later with a program containing at least two of the fungicides with activity against Phytophthora (see table). Research conducted at the University of Illinois has shown that adding a copper-based fungicide to these foliar applications can improve their efficacy. If the pepper variety is resistant to Phytophthora, any of the three Orondis products can be used in a foliar fungicide program that includes other effective fungicides. The Bravo component of Orondis Opti will not help with Phytophthora blight, but will control anthracnose. Orondis Gold is considerably more expensive than Orondis Ultra and Orondis Opti, and resistance in Phytophthora to the Ridomil component of Orondis Gold has been found in numerous locations.