Author Studies R – X

| R | S | T | W | X |


R

Rou Shi 柔石

Bordahl, Vibeke. “Some Woman Characters in the Works of Rou Shi.” In Anna Gerstlacher, et al, eds., Women and Literature in China. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1985.

Ru Zhijuan 茹志鹃

Hegel, Robert E. “Political Integration in Ru Zhijuan’s ‘Lilies’.” In Theodore Huters, ed., Reading the Modern Chinese Short Story. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 92-104.

“An Interview with Ru Zhijian.” Chinese Literature 3 (March 1980): 92-99.


S

San Mao 三毛

Lang, Miriam. “San Mao Goes Shopping: Travel and Consumption in a Post-Colonial World.” East Asian History 10 (Dec. 1995): 127-64.

—–. “San Mao Makes History.” East Asian History 19 (June 2000): 145-80.

—–. San Mao and the Known World. PhD thesis. Canberra: Australian Naitonal University, 1999.

—–. “Taiwanese Romance: San Mao and Qiong Yao.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 515-19. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 280-85.

—–. “San Mao and Qiong Yao: A ‘Popular’ Pair.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 2 (Fall 2003): 76-120.

Lin Fangmei. Social Change and Romantic Ideology: The Impact of the Public Industry, Family Organization and Gender Roles on the Reception and Interpretation of Romance Fiction in Taiwan. Ph. D. diss. University of Pennsylvania, 1992.

Sha Ting 沙汀

Anderson, Marston. The Limits of Realism: Chinese Fiction in the Revolutionary Period. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. [final chapter]

Pin, Chih. “Sha Ting [She T’ing] the Novelist.” Chinese Literature 10 (1964): 97-104.

Wong, Kam-ming. “Animals in a Teahouse: The Art of Sha Ting’s Fiction.” In La litterature au temps de la geurre contre le Japon (1937 a 1945). Paris: Editions de la Fondation Singer-Polignac, 1982.

Sha Yexin 沙叶新

Barme, Geremie. “A Word for the Imposter–Introducing the Drama of Sha Yexin.” Renditions 19/20 (1983): 319-32.

Fong, Gilbert. “The Darkened Vision: If I Were For Real and the Movie.” In Constantine Tung and Colin Mackerras, eds., Drama in the People’s Republic of China. Albany: SUNY Press, 1987, 233-53.

Galik, Marián. “A Heavenly Assembly on the Chinese Stage: Jesus, Confucius and John Lennon.” Asian and African Studies [Bratislava] 21, 2 (2012): 152-73.

Vittinghoff, Natascha. Gesischichte der Partei entwunden: Eine semiotische Analyse des Dramas Jiang Qing und ihre Ehemanner (1991) von Sha Yexin. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1995. [study of Jiang Qing and her Husbands, plus translation of the play]

—–. “History and Heroes Privatim: Transformations of the Theatrical Norm in Sha Yexin’s Historical Drama.” China Information 11, 4 (Spring, 1997): 105-16.

—–. “China’s Generation X: Rusticated Red Guards in Controversial Contemporary Plays.” In Woei Lian Chong, ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 285-318. [discusses Sha Yexin’s New Sprouts from the Borderlands, Wang Peigong’s We, and Xun Pinli’s Yesterday’s Longan Trees]

Shan Shili

Brezzi, Alessandra. “Some Artistic Descriptions and Ethical Dilemmas in Shan Shili’s Travel Notes on Italy (1909). International Communication of Chinese Culture 3, 1 (2016): 175-89.

[Abstract: In this paper I will analyze the emotions that Rome, and its artistic heritage, excited in a Chinese traveller’s eyes and heart—rationally and unconsciously—at the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper will focus on the analysis of some pages of the Guiqian ji (归潜记), written by Shan Shili, the wife of the Ministry of China in Rome from July 1908 to November 1909. Unlike Chinese travellers of the previous period, she, during her sojourn in Rome, was more fascinated by art and culture than by scientific and technological marvels. This ‘unknown territory’—art, history, mythology, in brief, the historical and cultural European past—unknown to her, but also to the Chinese at that time, attracted her curiosity insomuch as to use artistic descriptions as means of cultural dialogue between her own culture and the other’s culture. But what did the discovery of a different artistic expression provoke in a Chinese traveller? Did she appreciate these forms of art? Did they go along with her artistic and cultural tastes? The analysis of some explanations of artistic works (paintings and sculptures), offered by Shan to her readers, and the reading of emotions and feelings which these works presented to her—esteem, repulsion, admiration or disapproval—allow us to draw a brief cultural dialogue between a Chinese female traveller and the other (Italian), at the end of the Qing empire.]

Widmer, Ellen. “Foreign Travel through a Woman’s Eyes: Shan Shili’s Guimao lüxing ji in Local and Global Perspective.” Journal of Asian Studies 65, 4 (Nov. 2006): 763-91.

Shang Qin 商禽

Lin, Nikky. “The Poetics of Exile: The Cases of Shang Qin and Bei Dao.” In Paul Manfredi and Christopher Lupke, eds., Chinese Poetic Modernisms. Leiden: Brill, 2019, 181-208.

Yeh, Michelle. “‘Variant Keys’ and ‘Omni-Vision’: A Study of Shang Qin.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 2 (1996): 327-68.

Yip, Wai-lim. “At Once Beyond and Within Reality and History: Shang Qin’s Subversive Strategies.” Renditions 74 (Autumn 2010): 67-79.

Shao Xunmei 邵洵美

Bevan, Paul. A Modern Miscellany: Shanghai Cartoon Artists, Shao Xunmei’s Circle and the Travels of Jack Chen, 1926-1938. Leiden: Brill, 2016. [MCLC Resource Center review by John A. Crespi]

[Abstract: Paul Bevan explores how the cartoon (manhua) emerged from its place in the Chinese modern art world to become a propaganda tool in the hands of left-wing artists. The artists involved in what was largely a transcultural phenomenon were an eclectic group working in the areas of fashion and commercial art and design. The book demonstrates that during the build up to all-out war the cartoon was not only important in the sphere of Shanghai popular culture in the eyes of the publishers and readers of pictorial magazines but that it occupied a central place in the primary discourse of Chinese modern art history.]

Grescoe, Taras. Shanghai Grand: Forbidden Love and International Intrigue in a Doomed World. NY: St. Martins Press, 2016. 

[Abstract: On the eve of WWII, the foreign-controlled port of Shanghai was the rendezvous for the twentieth century’s most outlandish adventurers, all under the watchful eye of the fabulously wealthy Sir Victor Sassoon. Emily “Mickey” Hahn was a legendary New Yorker journalist whose vivid writing played a crucial role in opening Western eyes to the realities of life in China. At the height of the Depression, Hahn arrived in Shanghai after a disappointing affair with an alcoholic Hollywood screenwriter, convinced she will never love again. After checking in to Sassoon’s glamorous Cathay Hotel, Hahn is absorbed into the social swirl of the expats drawn to pre-war China, among them Ernest Hemingway, Martha Gellhorn, Harold Acton, and a colourful gangster named Morris “Two-Gun” Cohen. But when she meets Zau Sinmay, a Chinese poet from an illustrious family, she discovers the real Shanghai through his eyes: the city of rich colonials, triple agents, opium-smokers, displaced Chinese peasants, and increasingly desperate White Russian and Jewish refugees―a place her innate curiosity will lead her to explore first hand. Danger lurks on the horizon, though, as the brutal Japanese occupation destroys the seductive world of pre-war Shanghai, paving the way for Mao Tse-tung’s Communists rise to power.]

Hahn, Emily. Mr. Pan. London: Robert Hale, 1942. [semi-fictional accounts of Shao (Mr. Pan) that first appeared serially in The New Yorker magazine]

Hutt, Jonathan. “La Maison d’Or: The Sumptuous World of Shao Xunmei.” East Asian History 21 (June 2001): 111-42.

—–. “Monstre Sacré: The Decadent World of Sinmay Zao 邵洵美.” China Heritage Quarterly 22 (June 2010).

Imbach, Jessica. “Ghost Talk in 1936: ‘Living Ghosts’ and ‘Real Ghosts’ in Republican-Era Literary Discourse and the Two Analects Fortnightly Ghost-Story Special Issues.” Journal of Modern Literature in China 10, 1 (2014): 14-45.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Decadent and Dandy: Shao Xunmei and Ye Lingfeng.” In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 232-66.

Shao Yanxiang 邵燕祥

Hung, Yung-ku. “Shao Yen-hsiang’s Writing: The Divergent Way.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 157-62.

Shen Congwen 沈从文

Hsia, C.T. “Shen Ts’ung-wen (1902- ).” In C.T. Hsia. A History of Modern Chinese Fiction 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, 189-211, 359-66.

Huangfu, Jenny. “Roads to Salvation: Shen Congwen, Xiao Qian, and the Problem of Non-Communist Celebrity Writers, 1948-1957.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 39-87.

Kinkley, Jeffrey. “Shen Congwen’s Legacy in Chinese Literature of the 1980s.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 71-106.

—–. “Echoes of Maxim Gorky in the Works of Ding Ling and Shen Congwen.” In Marian Galik, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of the May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Bratislava: Veda, 1990, 179-88.

—–. The Odyssey of Shen Congwen. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1987.

—–. “Shen Congwen and the Uses of Regionalism in Modern Chinese Literature.” Modern Chinese Literature 1, 2 (1985): 157-184.

—–. “Shen Ts’ung-wen’s Vision of Republican China.” Ph.D. Dissertation. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1978.

—–. “Shen Congwen and Imagined Native Communities.” Riep, Steven L. “Chinese Modernism: The New Sensationists.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 425-30. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 183-88.

—–. “Shen Congwen among the Chinese Modernists.” Monumenta Serica 54 (2006): 311-41.

—–. “Shen Congwen.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 192-205.

Lee, Haiyan. “The Other Chinese: Romancing the Folk in May Fourth Native Soil Fiction.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies ( special issue: “Ethics and Ethnicity”) 33, 2 (Sept. 2007): 9-34. [Deals with the works of Yang Zhensheng, Fei Ming, and Shen Congwen.]

Li, Rui. “Shen Congwen: A Different Commemoration.” Chinese Cross Currents 1, 2 (2004): 8-22. [in English and Chinese]

Lo, Man Wa. “Female Selfhood and Initiation in Shen Congwen’s The Border Town and Ding Ling’s The Girl Ah Mao.” Chinese/International Comparative Literature Bulletin 1 (1996): 20-33.

Lu, Jie. “Critiquing the City, Envisioning the Country: Shen Congwen’s Urban Fiction.” Neohelicon 37, 2 (Dec. 2010): 359-72.

MacDonald, William L. Characters and Themes in Shen Ts’ung Wen’s Fiction. Ph.D. Diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 1970.

McDougall, Bonnie. “Disappearing Women and Disappearing Men in May Fourth Narrative: A Post-Feminist Survey of Short Stories by Mao Dun, Bing Xin, Ling Shuhua and Shen Congwen.” In McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 133-70.

Nieh, Hua-ling. Shen Ts’ung-wen. Boston: Twayne, 1972.

Ng, Janet. “A Moral Landscape: Reading Shen Congwen’s Autobiography and Travelogues.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, and Reviews 23 (2002): 81-102. Rpt. in Ng, The Experience of Modernity: Chinese Autobiography in the Early Twentieth Century. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2003, 119-44.

Oakes, Timothy S. “Shen Congwen’s Literary Regionalism and the Gendered Landscape of Chinese Modernity.” Geografiska Annaler, Series B, Human Geography 77:2. 1995: 93-107.

Peng, Hsiao-yen. Antithesis Overcome: Shen Congwen’s Avant-Gardism and Primitivism. Taipei: Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, Academica Sinica, 1994.

Prince, Anthony J. The Life and Works of Shen Ts’ung-wen. Ph.D. Diss. Sydney: University of Sydney, 1968.

Rabut, Isabelle. La creation litteraire chez Shen Congwen, du proces de l’histoire a l’apologie de la fiction. Ph. D. diss. Paris, 1992.

Stafutti, Stefania. “Wonderful China?–On Shen Congwen’s ‘Travelogue of Alice in China.'” In Findeisen and Gassmann, eds., Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern: Peter Lang, 1997.

Stuckey, Andrew. “The Lyrical and the Local: Shen Congwen, Roots, and Temporality in the Lyrical Tradition.” In Stuckey, Old Stories Retold: Narrative and Vanishing Pasts in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010, 83-98.

Wang, Ban. “Nature and Critique of Modernity in Shen Congwen: An Ecocritical Reading.” Prism: Theory and Modern Chinese Literature 16, 1 (March 2019): 115-35. Rpt. in Carlos Yu-Kai Lin and Victor H. Mair, eds., Remembering May Fourth: The Movement and Its Legacy. Leiden: Brill, 2020, 159-82.

[Abstract: Contemporary environmental crises have their origin in the anthropocentric view of humans as separable from and superior to the natural world. Anthropocentrism also marks the realist author of modern Chinese fiction. Departing from that human-centered view, Shen Congwen’s work evinces a biological perspective and affirms an ecological understanding of life in which the writing self must trace its roots to and reciprocate with other organisms and all-encompassing nature. The animistic language of Shen’s writing delves into the ecological and bodily foundation of beauty and arts. Shen’s notion of the longue durée of biology and evolution debunks the transient zeitgeist of modern transformation and accelerations, propelled by the human domination of nature and alienation of the human body. Shen’s portrayal of sexuality reasserts the reciprocity and entwinement of inner nature with outer nature.

Wang, David. Fictional Realism in Twentieth-Century China: Mao Dun, Lao She, Shen Congwen. NY: Columbia UP, 1992.

—–. “Imaginary Nostalgia: Shen Congwen, Song Zelai, Mo Yan, and Li Yongping.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 107-132.

—–. “Lu Xun, Shen Congwen, and Decapitation.” In Xiaobing Tang and Kang Liu, eds. Politics, Ideology, and Literary Discourse in Modern China: Theoretical Interventions and Cultural Critique. Durham: Duke UP, 1993, 278-99.

—–. “The Three Epiphanies of Shen Congwen.” In Wang, The Lyrical in Epic Time: Modern Chinese Intellectuals and Artists through the 1949 Crisis. NY: Columbia University Press, 2015, 79-112.

Wang, Xiaojue. “From Asylum to Museum: The Discourse of Insanity and Schizophrenia in Shen Congwen’s 1949 Transition.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 133-68.

—–. “Fragments of Modernity: Shen Congwen’s Journey from Asylum to Museum.” In Wang, Modernity with a Cold War Face: Reimagining the Nation in Chinese Literature Across the 1949 Divide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013, 54-107. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jeffrey C. Kinkley]

—–. “Shen Congwen’s Journey: From Asylum to Museum.” In David Der-Wei Wang, ed., A New Literary History of Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2017, 544-49.

Wong, Yoon Wah. “Structure, Symbolism and Contrast in Shen Congwen’s The Border Town.” In Wong, Essays on Chinese Literature. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1988, 67-81.

—–. “‘Fin de siecle’ in Rural China: A Study of Shen Congwen’s Decadent Story ‘The Inn.'” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 16, 1 (2007): 102-12.

Xiao, Jiwei. “Something Rich and Strange: Lyricism, Violence, and Woman in Shen Congwen’s Fiction.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 35, 1 (March 2008).

[Abstract: Shen’s lyricism has long been regarded as a pastoralist’s expression of nostalgia for the “lost paradise” of his hometown and of a pre-industrialized China. However, critics have discerned a darker side in Shen’s lyricism, namely, his fascination with the motifs of violence and death. This paper is an attempt to continue the discussion on the complexity of Shen’s lyricism, but from a different perspective. I observe that this lyricism is not a mere therapeutic response to destruction and cruelty. It is precisely grounded in and shaped by the sea change that took place in the early 20th century China and in the writer’s own life. One discovers an intense lyrical tension in his writings that’s derived from a paradoxical impulse to both keep the details of past brutality alive and be rid of its haunting of the present. This tension gives rise to a lyricism of violence, with which the writer is able to withstand the pull of ideology and the congealment of nostalgia into sentimentalism. In the second part of the paper, I point out that the complexity of Shen’s lyricism is also reflected in his aesthetic transfiguration of the deadly into the erotic. More frequently than those anonymous decapitated corpses that haunted the writer’s memory, dead but still desirable female figures are placed at the center of many of Shen’s fiction. While she represents the life-affirming force of Eros for the male subject, the woman herself in these stories is turned into an uncanny being: neither alive nor dead, fantastic yet frozen under the objectifying male gaze. The ideological implication of the writer’s lyricism of violence therefore gets ambiguous here.]

—–. “Nature, Woman, and Lyrical Ambiguity in Shen Congwen’s Writing.” Rocky Mountain Review 68, 1 (Spring 2013): 41-60.

Yue, Gang. “Shen Congwen’s ‘Modest Proposal.'” In The Mouth that Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999, 101-44.

Zhou, Gang, Chen Sihe, Zhang Xinying, and Jeffrey Kinkely, eds. Routledge Companion to Shen Congwen. NY: Routledge, 2019.

[Abstract: This volume is about studies of Shen Congwen (1902–1988), one of the most important writers in modern China, but more importantly, it is about how Shen Congwen has been received in and beyond Mainland China. By presenting the best literary criticism on Shen Congwen in Mainland China over the past 80 years, and views of how Shen Congwen has been understood, interpreted, and appreciated in Japan, the US, and Europe, the editors propose a new way to approach the topics of canonic writers, modern Chinese literature, and world literature. This is itself a translated project. Its Chinese edition appeared in May 2017. The bilingual rendering of the best criticism of Shen Congwen from a global perspective intends to initiate and advance dialogues between Chinese- and English- language scholarly communities. We strive to explore the complexities of “worldwide” images and interpretations of Shen Congwen. By calling attention to the foreign spaces into which overseas Shen Congwens and modern Chinese literature are reborn as world literature, we acknowledge and celebrate the study of Shen Congwen and modern Chinese literature as ongoing and endless cross-cultural dialogues and manifestations. TOC: A Short Biography of Shen Congwen, by Ding Qianhan; The Study of Shen Congwen in China, by Yuan Yiyue; The Study of Shen Congwen in Japan, by Hisao KOJIMA; American Shen Congwens: A Search for Translators, by Gang ZHOU; The Translation and Reception of Shen Congwen in France and Elsewhere in Europe, by Isabelle Rabut and Angel Pino; Border Town and “Portrait of Eight Steeds,” by Liu Xiwei (Li Jianwu); The Loneliness of Shen Congwen, by Wang Zengqi; Looking at Shen Congwen from the Perspective of Cultures in Confrontation: Miao and Han; Chinese and Western, by Ling Yu; Shen Congwen and Chu Culture, by Liu Yiyou; Temporal Form in Shen Congwen’s Fiction, by Liu Hongtao; Code Words for Communications Media in Long River: Shen Congwen’s Imaginaries of the Nation and of the Modern, by Wu Xiaodong; From Enlightenment to the Folk: Border Town, by Chen Sihe; Shen Congwen and Twentieth Century China, by Zhang Xinying; Comparative Research on the Work of Shen Congwen and Nakagami Kenji, by Shiroya Takeo; “Dreams” and “Reality” in Shen Congwen’s Wartime Works, with Special Focus on “Dreams and Reality” (1940), “Plucking Stars” (1943), and “Gazing at Rainbows” (1943), by Imaizumi Hideto; How Shen Congwen Became a “Believer in Music”: Wandering among Sensory Descriptions in Nightmares of Seven Colors, by TSUMORI Aki; English Translations of Shen Congwen’s Masterwork, Bian cheng (Border town), by Jeffrey C. Kinkley; Freud in Hunan: Translating Shen Congwen’s “Xiaoxiao,” by Eugene Eoyang; The Transformations of Work and Life: On Shen Congwen’s Texts of Self-Explication, by Isabelle Rabut; Shen Congwen’s Literary Thought and the Development of Chinese Modern Literature, by Rosa Lombardi]

Zhu, Yanhong. Reconfiguring Chinese Modernism: The Poetics of Temporality in 1940s Fiction and Poetry. Ph. D. diss. Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 2009.

[Authors that are discussed in the dissertation include: Shen Congwen, Feng Zhi, Nine Leaves Poets (primarily Yuan Kejia and Mu Dan)].

Shen Haobo 沈浩波

Van Crevel, Maghiel. “Lower Body Poetry and Its Lineage: Disavowal, Bad Behavior and Social Concern,” in Jie Lu ed., China’s Literary and Cultural Scenes at the Turn of the 21st Century. Oxford: Routledge, 2008, 179-205. Revised as “The Lower Body: Yin Lichuan and Shen Haobo.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money, Leiden: Brill, 2008, 305-343.

Shen Rong 谌容

Larson, Wendy. “Women, Writers, Social Reform: Three Issues in Shen Rong’s Fiction.” In Michael S. Duke, ed., Modern Chinese Women Writers: Critical Appraisals. NY: M.E. Sharpe, Inc., 1989, 174-95.

Yang, Gladys. “Shen Rong and her Fiction.” In Yang Bian, ed., The Time is Not Ripe: Contemporary China’s Best Writers and Their Stories. Beijing: FLP, 1991, 185-92.

Sheng Keyi 盛可以

Picerni, Federico. “Fragile and Powerful: Chinese Migrant Women, Body and Violence in Sheng Keyi’s Bei mei.” In Nicoletta Pesaro and Alice Favaro, eds., Viajes y escrituras: migraciones y cartografias de la violencia, (Travels and Writings: Migrations and Cartographies of Violence). Paris: Colloquia, 2019, 145–64.

Schaffer, Kay and Xianlin Song. “Silence and the Silenced: Literary Renderings of Rural Women’s Lives in and Beyond China.” In Schaffer and Song, Women Writers in Postsocialist China. London: Routledge, 2014, 53-76.

Sun, Wanning. “‘Northern Girls’: Cultural Politics of Agency and South China’s Migrant Literature.” Asian Studies Review 38, 2 (2014): 168–85.

Tatlow, Didi Kirsten. “Author Tells the Story of Poor Chinese Women.” New York Times (April 13, 2011).

Shi Jimei 施济美

Huang, Nicole. “Garden of the Ruins: Shi Jimei’s Domestic Fiction.” In Huang, Women, War, Domesticity: Shanghai Literature and Popular Culture of the 1940s. Leiden: Brill, 2005, 191-208.

Shi Shuqing 施叔青

Jin, Yanyu. “Three Chinese Women Writers and the City in the 1990s.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 147-57. [deals with Wang Anyi, Shi Shuqing, and Zhu Tianxin]

The Shih Shu-ching Archive (Chung-hsing University, Humanities and Social Sciences Research Center)

Shi Tiesheng 史铁生

Chen, Luying. “The Solitary Writer in She Tiesheng’s Fragments Written at the Hiatus of Illness.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 1 (2017): 68-77.

Dauncey, Sarah. “Shi Tiesheng: Writing Disability into Modern Chinese Fiction.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 1 (2017): 48-55.

Scruggs, Bert M. “Shi Tiesheng.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 201-06.

Wang, Wensheng. “In and Out of Distress: A Survival Philosophy of Shi Tie-Sheng.” In Louis Hoffman, Mark Yang, Francis J. Kaklauskas, and Albert Chan, eds. Existential Psychology East-West. Colorado Springs: University of the Rockies Press, 2009, 245-74.

Xiao, Hui Faye. “Gendered Spirituality and Acoustic Imagination: ‘Life on a String’ from Fiction to Screen.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 1 (2017): 56-67.

Shi Tuo 师陀

Dušan Andrš. “Shi Tuo’s Narrator as Central Consciousness: Short-Story Cycle Records from Orchard Town.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Crossing between Tradition and Modernity: Essays in Commemoration of Milena Doleželová-Velingerová (1932-2012). Prague: Karolinum, 2016, 185-200.

Day, Steven P. “Shi Tuo (Lu Fen).” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 206-11.

Gunn, Edward.” Shih T’o.” In Gunn, Unwelcome Muse: Chinese Literature in Shanghai and Peking, 1937-1945. NY: Columbia UP, 1980, 77-102.

Hsia, C. T. “Shih T’o.” In Hsia, History of Modern Chinese Fiction, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, 461-68.

Huters, Theodore. “The Telling of Shi Tuo’s ‘The Kiss.'” In Huters, ed. Reading the Modern Chinese Short Story. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 74-91.

Slupski, Zbigniew. “The World of Shih T’o.” Asian and African Studies, 9 (1973): 11-28.

Zhang, Yingjin. The City in Modern Chinese Literature and Film: Configurations of Space, Time, and Gender. Stanford: SUP, 1996, 39-58. [treats Guoyuan cheng ji (the orchard town; 1946)]

Shi Zhecun 施蛰存

Chang, Kang-I Sun. “Poetry as Memoir: Shi Zhecun’s Miscellaneous Poems of a Floating Life.” Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture 3, 2 (Nov. 2016): 289-311.

[Abstract: At the age of eighty-five, writer Shi Zhecun 施蟄存 (1905–2003) recollected his long and difficult life journey in a poetic memoir, Fusheng zayong 浮生雜詠 (Miscellaneous Poems of a Floating Life). Comprising of eighty poems, this memoir focuses on the 1930s, when Shi experienced the first big storm of his life, a literary battle with the legendary writer Lu Xun 魯迅 (1881–1936). As a result, Shi lost his “space for survival” in the Shanghai literary world, but fortunately his background in both modern and traditional education provided him with resilience. Indeed, one of the appeals of Shi’s poetic memoir lies in the author’s deliberate fusing of subtle/classical sentiments with public/modern concerns. As this article demonstrates, while Shi’s poems embody an implicit metaphorical quality, his self-commentaries are often down-to-earth and self-referential, creating a tension between the two that allows the reader to have as much space for imagination as desired.

—–. “Shi Zhecun’s Wartime Poems: Yunnan, 1937-1940.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 12, 3 (2018): 449-84.

[Abstract: Shi Zhecun (1905–2003) was a modern Chinese literary superstar. In the early 1930s, he had already established a canonical position for himself in the sphere of modernist fiction writing. But starting in fall 1937 when the Anti-Japanese War began, Shi suddenly changed direction and devoted his efforts to writing classical style poetry. This paper argues that it was Shi’s wartime experiences, especially during his refugee’s journey to Yunnan, that triggered his poetic inspiration to write in the classical form. It also discusses how Shi’s poems, though written in the classical style, often expressed a kind of “modern” feeling. In other words, the poet utilized a complex, classical use of language to describe his own unique psychological impressions. In a way Shi was actually using his kind of “modernist” fictional writing style to write poetry. Like the many psychological stories he had written, his poems often used classical references, while describing extremely modern emotions. This kind of freshness in classicism is a very important feature of Shi’s Yunnan poems. Some of his poems exemplify his uses of synesthesia in poetry. On the other hand, Shi was undoubtedly influenced by the poetic technique of the Tang poet Li He (ca. 791–ca. 817), but his imagery has the unique quality of modernism, which touches upon the level of psychological/emotional truth. Moreover, to Shi, Kunming seemed to represent an inner haven. Had he not traveled to Yunnan in the year of 1937, the second half of his life would have been vastly different.]

Ge, Mai. “The Modern Writer Shi Zhecun.” Tr. Chen Haiyan. Chinese Literature 4 (Win 1991): 156-161.

Hidveghyova, Elena. “The Decadent Obsession: Eros versus Celibacy in the Work of Shi Zhecun and Anatole France.” Asian and African Studies (Bratislava) 4, 1 (1995): 47-70.

Jones, Andrew F. “The Violence of the Text: Reading Yu Hua and Shi Zhicun.” positions: east asia cultures critique 2, 3 (1994): 570-602.

Lang-tan, Goat Kuei. “The European Literature of The Décadence and the so-called Modernist Chinese Short Stories from the Twenties and Thirties: Interliterary and Intraliterary Studies of Arthur Schnitzler (1862-1931), Shi Zhecun (1905- ) and Ling Shuhua (1900-1990).” In Gálik, Marián, ed., Interliterary and Intraliterary Aspects of The May Fourth Movement 1919 in China. Proceeding of the International Sinological Symposium, Smolenice Castle, March 13-17. Bratislava: Veda Publishing House of the Slovak Academy of Science, 1989,139-154.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “The Erotic, The Fantastic, and the Uncanny: Shi Zhecun’s Experimental Stories.” In Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of a New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1999, 153-89.

Liu, Jianmei. “Shanghai Variations on ‘Revolution Plus Love.'” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 14, 1 (Spring 2002): 51-92. [deals with texts by Shi Zhecun, Liu Na’ou, Mu Shiying, Zhang Ziping, and Ye Lingfeng]

McGrath, Jason, “Patching the Void: Subjectivity and Anamorphic Bewitchment in Shi Zhecun’s Fiction.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 4, 2 (2001): 1-30.

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

—–. “Women Stereotypes in Shi Zhecun’s Short Stories.” Modern China 37 (2011): 44-68.

[Abstract: This article analyses the representation of women in two 1933 short story collections by Shi Zhecun: An Evening of Spring Rain and Exemplary Conduct of Virtuous Women. It discusses how the New Woman image was a site of contestation in Republican China, and argues that Shi Zhecun’s short stories contain four basic stereotypes: the enigmatic woman, the estranged wife, the prostitute, and the inhibited woman. Using these narratives of women and how they were perceived by men, Shi Zhecun deconstructed the New Woman image by subverting the various ways modernity was projected onto women.]

Schaefer, William. “Kumarajiva’s Foreign Tongue: Shi Zhecun’s Modernist Historical Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature 10, 1/2 (1998): 25-70.

—–. “Projected Pasts.” In Schaefer, Shadow Modernism: Photography, Writing, and Space in Shanghai, 1925-1937. Durham: Duke University Press, 2017, 113-44.

—–. “Shanghai Savage.” In Schaefer, Shadow Modernism: Photography, Writing, and Space in Shanghai, 1925-1937. Durham: Duke University Press, 2017, 180-220.

Shih, Shu-mei. “Capitalism and Interiority: Shi Zhecun’s Tales of the Erotic-Grotesque.” In Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001, 339-370.

Wang, Yiyan. “Venturing into Shanghai: The Flâneur in Two of Shi Zhecun’s Short Stories.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 34-70.

Xiao, Ying. “Criticism of the Contemporary Irrational Novel.” Tr. Qi Naizheng. rev. by Feng Shize and Bruce Doar [works by Mu Shiying, Shi Zhecun, Liu Na’ou, Li Jinming, Xu Xiacun and Hei Ying]. Social Sciences in China 3, 4 (Dec 1992): 63-74.

Zhang, Hongbing. “Writing ‘the Strange’ of the Chinese Modern: Sutured Body, Naturalized Beauty, and Shi Zhecun’s ‘Yaksha.'” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 5, 2 (2002): 29-54.

Shi Zhi 食指

Li, Hua. “Review of Winter Sun.” World Literature Today 87, no. 2 (March-April, 2013): 152-153.

Shi, Zhi. “To My American Readers.” Tr. Jonathan Stalling. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 6-12.

Zhang, Qinghua. “The Return of the Pioneer: On Shi Zhi and His Poetry.” Tr. Jonathan Stalling. Chinese Literature Today (Winter/Spring 2011): 6-12.

Shu Ting 舒婷

Chen, Zhongyi. “Afterword: Some Thoughts on Shu Ting’s Poetry.” In Shu Ting, Selected Poems. Hong Kong: Renditions Paperbacks, 1994, 131-134.

Kubin, Wolfgang. “Writing with your Body: Literature as a Wound – Remarks on the Poetry of Shu Ting.” MCL 4, 1/2 (1988): 149-62.

Swihart, De-an Wu. “Introduction.” In The Mist of My Heart: Selected Poems of Shu Ting. Tr. Gordon T. Osing and De-an Wu Swihart. Ed. William O’Donnell. Beijing: Panda Books, 1995, 5-17.

Zhang-Czirakova, Daniela. “Images of Nature and Its Symbolism in Shu Ting’s Poetry as a Rendering of Her Mind and Heart.” Asian and African Studies [Bratislava] 21, 2 (2012): 174-198.

Shui Jing 水晶

Cheng, Stephen. “The Jamesian Techniques in ‘Delirious Mutterings at Midnight.'” Tamkang Review 11, 1 (Fall 1980): 43-64.

Shuijing Zhulian 水晶珠琏

Shuijing Zhulian.” Poetry International.

Sima Zhongyuan 司马中原

Elvin, Mark. “The Punishment of Heaven: Sima Zhongyuan, The Bastard.” In Elvin, Changing Stories in the Chinese World. Stanford: SUP, 1997, 178-206.

—–. “Secular Karma: The Communist Revolution Understood in Traditional Terms.” In Mabel Lee, and A. D. Syrokomola-Stefanowska, eds., Modernization of the Chinese Past. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1993, 75-93.

Song Zelai 宋泽莱

Hillenbrand, Margaret. “Trauma and the Politics of Identity: Form and Function in the Fictional Narratives of the February 28th Incident.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 17, 2 (Fall 2005): 49-89. [deals in part with Song’s The City of Damao in Revolt]

Liao, Chaoyang. “Catastrophe and Hope: The Politics of “The Ancient Capital” and The City Where the Blood-Red Bat Descended.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 4, 1 (2000): 5-34.

Catastrophe and Hope: The Politics of The Ancient Capital and The City Where the Blood-Red Bat Descended.” On-line works of Liao Chaoyang.

Martin, Helmut. “The Future of China, Taiwan and Hongkong: Perspectives Explored by Contemporary Chinese Writers.” In King-yuh Chang, ed., Ideology and Politics in Twentieth Century China. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, 1988, 174-95.

Wang, David. “Imaginary Nostalgia: Shen Congwen, Song Zelai, Mo Yan, and Li Yongping.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 107-132.

Su Manshu 苏曼殊

Fong, Gilbert Chee Fun. Subjectivism in Xu Zhenya (1889-193?) and Su Manshu (1884- 1918): Chinese Fiction in Transition. Ph.D. Dissertation. Toronto: University of Toronto, 1982.

Hsu, C.Y. “Su Man-shu, Poet-Monk of Genius.” Asian Culture 18, 4 (1989): 29-66.

Hu, Ying. Tales of Translation: Composing the New Woman in China, 1899-1918. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2000, 98-103.

Ip, Hung-yok. “Buddhism, Literature, and Chinese Modernity: Su Manshu’s Imaginings of Love (1911-1916).” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973. [contains a chapter on Su]

Liu, Jane Qian. “The Making of Transcultural Lyricism in Su Manshu’s Fiction Writing.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 2  (Fall 2016): 43-89.

—–. “Transcultural Lyricism in Su Manshu’s Fictional Writing.” In Liu, Transcultural Lyricism: Translation, Intertextuality, and the Rise of Emotion in Modern Chinese Love Fiction, 1899-1925. Leiden: Brill, 2017, 118-64.

Liu Wu-chi. Su Man-shu. Boston: Twayne, 1972.

McAleavy, Henry. Su Manshu, a Sino-Japanese Genius. London: China Society, 1960.

Mori, Makiko. “Unfinished Revolution: A Paradox of Mourning Subjectivity in Su Manshu’s The Lone Swan.” Frontiers of Literary Study in China 9, 1 (2015): 104-30.

[Abstract: Su Manshu’s 苏曼殊 (1884–1918) The Lone Swan (断鸿零雁记, 1911, 1912) is best known for a sustained use of subjective voice and a thematic emphasis on tragic love. Critics have often credited the novella’s intensely tragic narrative for spearheading a new kind of literary subjectivity that became a cornerstone of modern Chinese literature as heralded by the May Fourth critics in the late 1910s and the 1920s. However, very few have examined this new subjectivity as an effect of Su’s critical engagement with a late Qing nationalist narrative. Su’s novella was an appropriation of the anti-Manchu revolutionary narrative of a nation, which hinged on a paradoxical mode of envisaging a new China through a temporal return to the past and by means of a tragic sacrifice of the individual. Following a brief analysis of Su’s early piece published in The People’s Journal (民报), this article demonstrates how The Lone Swan elaborated on an excess of individual sacrifice, while developing the new, mourning subjectivity as a witness to the unfinished revolutionary enterprise of forging a powerful nation. Su’s narrative of cultural devastation resonates with Lu Xun’s (1881–1936) late Qing work, but, in the May Fourth period that immediately followed, this sense of despair would become an unequivocal object for overcoming.]

Su Qing 苏青

Dooling, Amy. “Outwitting Patriarchy: Comic Narrative Strategies in the Works of Yang Jiang, Su Qing, and Zhang Ailing.” In Dooling, Women’s Literary Feminism in Twentieth-Century China. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2005, 137-70.

Huang, Nicole. “Ethnographies of Wartime: Autobiographic Fiction by Su Qing and Pan Liudai.” In Huang, Women, War, Domesticity: Shanghai Literature and Popular Culture of the 1940s. Leiden: Brill, 2005, 159-90.

Su Tong 苏童

Choy, Howard Y. F. “Gastrotext: Food and the Body in the Fictions of Mo Yan, Su Tong, and Liu Heng.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 188-201.

—–. “Typography and Topography: The Textual Body in the Works of Su Tong and Ge Fei.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 214-27.

—–. “Maple Village and Fagrant Cedar Street: Su Tong’s Southern Decadence.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 136-58.

Deppman, Hsiu-Chuang. “Body, Space, and Power: Reading the Cultural Images of Concubines in the Works of Su Tong and Zhang Yimou.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 15, 2 (Fall 2003): 121-53.

Knight, Deirdre Sabina. “Decadence, Revolution and Self-Determination in Su Tong’s Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature 10, 1/2 (1998): 91-112.

—–. “Absolute Career Change.” Review of My Life as Emperor by Su Tong. Tr. Howard Goldblatt. (NY: Hyperion East, 2005). PRI’s The World (June 4, 2008).

—–. “Review of Contemporary Chinese Fiction by Su Tong and Yu Hua: Coming of Age in Troubled Times, by Hua Li” (Brill, 2011).  Journal of Asian Studies 71, 2 (2012): 528-29. 

Lafirenza, Fiorenzo. “Il personaggio “Io” in La casa dei papaveri da oppio di Su Tong: un caso di serendipit.” Asiatic Venetiana 2 (1997): 81-92.

Leenhouts, Mark. “The Contented Smile of the Writer: An Interview with Su Tong.” China Information 11, 4 (Spring 1997): 70-80.

Li, Hua. Contemporary Chinese Fiction by Su Tong and Yu Hua: Coming of Age in Troubled Times. Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2011.

[Abstract: The book explores the coming-of-age fiction of two of the most critically acclaimed and frequently translated contemporary Chinese authors, Yu Hua and Su Tong; it is the first in-depth book-length treatise in English about the contemporary Chinese Bildungsroman. Although various individual contemporary Chinese novelists and individual works of Chinese fiction have previously been discussed under the rubric of the Bildungsroman, none of these efforts has approached the level of comprehensive and comparative analysis that this book brings to the genre and its social contexts in contemporary China. This book will pique the interests not only of scholars and students of Chinese and comparative literature, but also of historians and social scientists with an interest in the region.]

—–. “A Conversation with Su Tong.” Tr. Hua Li. Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013): 58-61.

—–. “Introduction to Su Tong.” Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013): 51.

Lu, Tonglin. “Femininity and Masculinity in Su Tong’s Trilogy.” In Lu, Misogyny, Cultural Nihilism and Oppositional Politics: Contemporary Chinese Experimental Fiction. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995, 129-54.

Meng Yue. “Su Tong de ‘jiashi’ yu ‘lishi’ xiezuo” (On Su Tong’s writing of ‘family genealogy’ and ‘history’). Jintian 2 (1990): 84-93.

Tang, Xiaobing. “The Mirror as History and History as Spectacle: Reflections on Hsiao Yeh and Su T’ung.” Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992): 203-20. Rpt. in Chinese Modernism: The Heroic and the Quotidian. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 225-44.

Visser, Robin. “Displacement of the Urban-Rural Confrontation in Su Tong’s Fiction.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 1 (1995): 113-38.

Xiao, Hui Faye. “Midlife Crisis and Misogynist Rhetoric in Male Intellectuals’ Divorce Narratives.” In Xiao, Family Revolution: Marital Strife in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Visual Culture. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2014, 52-84.

Xu, Jian. “Blush from Novella to Film: The Possibility of Critical Art in Commodity Culture.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 12, 1 (Spring 2000): 115-63.

Zhang, Xuexin. “Su Tong’s Aesthetics.” Tr. Hua Li. Chinese Literature Today 3, 1/2 (2013): 62-64.

Su Weizhen 苏伟贞

Xu, Gang Gary. “Doubled Configuration: Reading Su Weizhen’s Theatricality.” In David Der-wei Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 233-52.

Su Wen (Du Heng) 苏汶

Macdonald, Sean. ” ‘Modernism’ in Modern Chinese Literature: the ‘Third Type of Person’ as a Figure of Autonomy.” The Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 29, 2/3 (June/Sept. 2002): 289-315.

[Abstract: This paper is a discussion of the New Sensation School (Xin ganjuepai), a group of authors that included Liu Na’ou, Mu Shiying, Shi Zhecun, Ye Lingfeng, and Du Heng, and who were active in Shanghai in the 1920s and 30s. In 1933, Du Heng, writing as Su Wen, edited an anthology of essays based on the Debate on Literary and Artistic Freedom that took place within the Left League. This debate, especially arguments surrounding the so called “third type of person” (disanzhong ren), is read within the context of the historical theory of aesthetic autonomy and the recent reappearance of the term “modernism” in modern Chinese literature. The “third type of person” debate is rarely discussed in detail, if it is discussed at all, despite its historical and cultural significance. Indeed, it is suggested that this debate represented an important discussion of ideas that were in the air in 1930s Shanghai, and a very significant theoretical parallel to the emergence of New Sensationist and early modernist fiction in China.]

Su Xuelin 苏雪林

Gálik, Marián. “Echoes of the Biblical Shulamite and Wilde’s Salome in three Modern Chinese Plays.” Monumenta Serica 68, 1 (2020): 197-225.

[Abstract: Among European dramatists of the fin de siècle, Oscar Wilde was received enthusiastically in Chinese literary circles of the 1920s and 1930s, in particular his decadent drama Salome. Modern Chinese playwrights adapted the biblical figure of Salome, along with Shulamite of the Song of Songs. The present article offers three case studies of the reception of these two biblical figures in Chinese dramas of the Republican period, namely Xiang Peiliang’s 向培良 (1901–1965) one-act play Annen 暗嫩 (Amnon), Xu Baoyan’s 徐葆炎 three-act-play Da Ji 妲己 and Su Xuelin’s 蘇雪林 (1897–1999) tragedy Jiunaluo de yanjing 鳩那羅的眼睛 (Kunāla’s Eyes). Besides analyzing the impact of the Bible and of Western decadent literature on these works, the author of the present article also deals with their Chinese literary sources, e.g., the traditional novel Fengshen yanyi 封神演義 (The Investiture of the Gods) and Buddhist biographies of King Aśoka. Love, beauty, death, and violence are identified as the most important elements of the plays under discussion.]

Hoster, Barbara. Konversion zum Christentum in der modernen chinesischen Literatur: Su Xuelins Roman Jixin (Dornenherz, 1929). Deutsche Ostasienstudien 27. Gossenberg: Ostasien Verlag, 2017.

[Abstract:  Su Xuelin 蘇雪林 (1897–1999) belongs to the first generation of modern Chinese women writers. Her novel Jixin 棘心 (Heart of Thorns, 1929) is based on the author‘s experiences during her studies in Lyon, France, in the 1920s. The protagonist of this work, a young woman named Xingqiu, is torn between Chinese and French culture as well as traditional gender roles and the desire to lead a self-determined life. In the course of a personal crisis she adopts the Catholic faith. The present book analyses the multifaceted process of the conversion as depicted in the novel. It also introduces the life and work of Su Xuelin, who has been rather neglected in Western sinology.]

von Kowallis, Jon Eugene. “The Enigma of Su Xuelin and Lu Xun.” Literature and Philosophy (Wen yu zhe) 16 (June 2010): 493-527.

Ni, Zhange. “The Thorny Paths of Su Xuelin.” Harvard Divinity Bulletin 39, 3/4 (Spring/Summer 2011).

Sun Jingxuan 孙静轩

Yu, Yin. “A Critique of Sun Ching-hsuan’s Poetry.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 1213-20.

Sun Wenbo 孙文波

Crespi, John. “Poetic Memory: Recalling the Cultural Revolution in the Poems of Yu Jian and Sun Wenbo.” In Christopher Lupke ed., New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 165-183.

van Crevel, Maghiel. “Rhythm, Sound and Sense: Narrativity in Sun Wenbo’s Poetry: ” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 6, 1 (2005): 119-151. Revised as “Narrative Rhythm, Sound and Sense: Sun Wenbo.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 280-304.

Syman Rapongan (Xiaman Lanbo’an 夏曼-藍波安)

Tung, Shu-ming. “The Romantic Homecoming of Syman Rapongan.” Tr. Yingtsih Huang. Taiwan Literature: English Language Series 17 (July 2005): 135-64.


T

Tai Jingnong 台静农

Liu, Wenyue. “Through Upheaval and Bloodshed: A Short Biography of Professor Tai Jingnong.” Tr. Michelle Yeh. CLEAR 28 (2006): 213-25.

Wang, David Der-Wei. “And History Took a Calligraphic Turn: Tai Jingnong and the Art of Writing.” In Wang, The Lyrical in Epic Time: Modern Chinese Intellectuals and Artists through the 1949 Crisis. NY: Columbia University Press, 2015, 311-52.

Tashi Dawa, see Zhaxi dawa

 

Tan Sitong 谭嗣同

Chan, Sin-wai. T’an Ssu-t’ung, an annotated bibliography. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1980.

Chang, Hao. Chinese intellectuals in crisis: search for order and meaning (1890-1911). Berkeley: UCP, 1987.

Kwong, Luke S. K., Tan Ssu-tung, 1865-1898: Life and Thought of a Reformer. Leiden: New York: E.J. Brill, 1996.

Murthy, Viren. “Ontological Optimism, Cosmological Confusion, and Unstable Evolution: Tan Sitong’s Renxue and Zhang Taiyan’s Response.” In Viren Murthy and Axel Schneider, eds., The Challenge of Linear Time: Nationhood and the Politics of History in East Asia. Leiden: Brill, 2014, 49-82.

Oka, Takashi. “The Philosophy of T’an Ssu-t’ung.” Papers in China 9 (Aug. 1955): 1-47.

Schafer, Ingo. “Natural Philosophy, Physics and Metaphysics in the Discourse of Tan Sitong: The Concepts of Qi and Yitai.” In Lackner et al. eds., New Terms for New Ideas: Western Knowledge and Lexical China in Late Imperial China. Boston, Koln: Leiden, 2001, 257-69.

—–. “The People, People’s Rights, and Rebellion: The Development of Tan Sitong’s Political Thought.” In Joshua Fogel and Peter G. Zarrow, eds., Imagining the People: Chinese Intellectuals and the Concept of Citizenship, 1890-1920. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1997, 82-112.

Shek, Richard H. “Some Western Influences on T’an Ssu-t’ung’s Thought.” In Paul A. Cohen and John E. Schrecker, eds., Reform in Nineteenth-Century China. Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1976, 194-203.

Talbott, Nathan. “T’an Ssu-t’ung and the Ether.” In Robert K. Sakai, ed., Studies on Asia. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska, 1960, 20-30.

Tan Yunshan 谭云山

Tan, Chung, ed. In the Footsteps of Xuanzang: Tan Yun-shan and India. Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, 1999.

Tang Yihong

Xiao, Hui Faye. “Against the Proletarian Modernity: Retrotopic Journey and Precariat Subject in Alternative Youth Literature.” In Xiao, Youth Economy, Crisis, and Reinvention in Twenty-First Century ChinaMorning Sun in the Tiny Times. London: Routledge, 2020, 57–92. [With case studies of Lu Nei 陆内, Fang Fang 方方, Tang Yihong 唐亦洪, Guo Jinniu 郭金牛, and Xu Lizhi 许立志]

Tang Junyi 唐君毅

Chiu, King Pong. Thomé H. Fang, Tang Junyi and Huayan Thought: A Confucian Appropriation of Buddhist Ideas in Response to Scientism in Twentieth-Century China. Leiden: Brill, 2016.

[Abstract: Chiu discusses Thomé H. Fang and Tang Junyi, two of the most important Confucian thinkers in twentieth-century China, who appropriated aspects of the medieval Chinese Buddhist school of Huayan to develop a response to the challenges of ‘scientism’, the belief that quantitative natural science is the only valuable part of human learning and the only source of truth. As Chiu argues, Fang’s and Tang’s selective appropriations of Huayan thought paid heed to the hermeneutical importance of studying ancient texts in order to be more responsive to modern issues, and helped confirm the values of Confucianism under the challenge of ‘scientism’, a topic widely ignored in academia.]

Fröhlich, Thomas. Tang Junyi: Confucian Philosophy and the Challenge of Modernity. Leiden: Brill, 2017.

[Abstract: Tang Junyi’s modern Confucianism ranks among the most ambitious philosophical projects in 20th century China. In Tang Junyi: Confucian Philosophy and the Challenge of Modernity, Thomas Fröhlich examines Tang Junyi’s intellectual reaction to a time of cataclysmic change marked by two Chinese revolutions (1911 and 1949), two world wars, the Cold War period, rapid modernization in East Asia, and the experience of exile. The study fundamentally questions widespread interpretations that depict modern Confucianism as essentially traditionalist and nationalistic. Thomas Fröhlich shows that Tang Junyi actually challenges such interpretations with an insightful understanding of the modern individual’s vulnerability, as well as a groundbreaking reinterpretation of Confucianism as the civil-theological foundation for liberal democracy in China.]

Tao Jingsun 陶晶孙

Shih, Shu-mei. “Evolutionism and Experimentalism: Lu Xun and Tao Jingsun.” In Shi, The Lure of the Modern: Writing Modernism in Semicolonial China, 1917-1937. Berkeley: UC Press, 2001, 73-95.

Tian Han 田汉

Abjimanmudova, B. “Tian Han, the Honest Son of China.” Far Eastern Affairs 4 (1988): 86-97.

Bernard, Elizabeth. “T’ian Han’s ‘Reactionary Works’: 1956-1962.” In G. de la Lama, ed., 30th International Congress of Human Sciences in Asian and North Africa, China 1. Mexico City: Colegio de Mexico, 1982.

Chen, Xiaomei. “Reflections on theLegacy of Tian Han: ‘Proletarian Modernism’ and Its Traditional Roots.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 18, 1 (Spring 2006): 155-215.

—–. “Tian Han and the Southern Society Phenomenon: Networking the Personal, Communal, and Cultural.” In Kirk A. Denton and Michel Hockx, eds., Literary Societies in Republican China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008, 241-79.

Fu, Hu. “Tian Han and His Immense Contribution to Modern Chinese Drama.” Chinese Literature 10 (1979).

Guan, Tao. “The Difficulty of Balancing Art and Life: Examining the Influence of Salome on Tian Han’s Early Dramatic Works.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 4 (2013): 672-90.

Haringova, Jarmila. “The Development of Tian Han’s Dramatic Writing during the Years 1920-1937.” In Jaroslav Prusek, ed. Studies in Modern Chinese Literature. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1964.

Kaplan, Randy. The Pre-leftist One-act Dramas of Tian Han (1898-1968). Ph. D. diss. The Ohio State University, 1986.

—–. “Images of Subjugation and Defiance: Female Characters in the Early Dramas of Tian Han.” Modern Chinese Literature 4, 1/2 (1988): 87-98.

—–. “Planting the Seeds of Theatrical Realism in China: Tian Han’s Contributions to Modern Chinese Drama.” World Literature Today 62, 1 (Winter 1988).

Kasarello, Lidia. “Uber die Modernitat der fruhen Stucke von Tian Han.” In: Findeisen, Raoul D.; Gassmann, Robert H., eds. Autumn Floods: Essays in Honour of Marian Galik. Bern; Berlin: Peter Lang, 1998, 323-333.

Kuoshu, Harry H. “Visualizing Ah Q: An Allegory’s Resistance to Representation.” In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 17-49. [deals in part with Tian’s play The True Story of Ah Q]

Lee, Lily Hsiao Hung. “Local Colour in Two of T’ien Han’s Early Works.” The Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 15/16 (1983/84): 102-16.

Luo, Liang. “From Lovers to Volunteers: Tian Han and the National Anthem.” The China Beat (online), July 16, 2008. Reprinted as “From Lovers to Volunteers: China’s National Anthem.” In Jeffrey Wasserstrom, Ken Pomeranz, and Kate Merkel-Hess, eds., China in 2008: A Year of Great Significance. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2009, 186-187 (excerpts).

—–. “International Avant-garde and the Chinese National Anthem: Tian Han, Joris Ivens, and Paul Robeson.” The Ivens Magazine 16 (October 2010): 6-13.

—–. The Avant-garde and the Popular in Modern China: Tian Han and the Intersection of Performance and Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. [MCLC Resource Center review by Rossella Ferrari]

[Abstract: explores how an important group of Chinese performing artists invested in politics and the pursuit of the avant-garde came to terms with different ways of being “popular” in modern times. In particular, playwright and activist Tian Han (1898-1968) exemplified the instability of conventional delineations between the avant-garde, popular culture, and political propaganda. Liang Luo traces Tian’s trajectory through key moments in the evolution of twentieth-century Chinese national culture, from the Christian socialist cosmopolitanism of post–WWI Tokyo to the urban modernism of Shanghai in 1920s and 30s, then into the Chinese hinterland during the late 1930s and 40s, and finally to the Communist Beijing of the 1950s, revealing the dynamic interplay of art and politics throughout this period. Understanding Tian in his time sheds light upon a new generation of contemporary Chinese avant-gardists (Ai Wei Wei being the best known), who, half a century later, are similarly engaging national politics and popular culture.]

McDougall, Bonnie S. “The Search for Synthesis: T’ien Han and Mao Tun in 1920.” In A.R. Davis, ed., Search for Identity: Modern Literature and the Creative Arts in Asia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson, 1974, 225-54.

Tian Benxiang 田本相  et al., eds. Tian Han pingzhuan 田汉评传 (An critical biography of Tian Han). Chongqing: Chongqing, 1998.

Tung, Constantine. “T’ien Han and Romantic Ibsen.” Modern Drama 9, 4 (1967): 389-95.

—–. “Lonely Search into the Unknown: T’ien Han’s Early Plays, 1920-1930.” Comparative Drama 2 (Spring 1968): 44-54.

Wagner, Rudolf. “A Guide for the Perplexed and a Call to the Wavering: Tian Han’s Guan Hanqing (1958) and the New Historical Drama.” In Wagner, The Contemporary Chinese Historical Drama. Berkeley: UCP, 1990, 1-79.

—–. “Tian Han’s Peking Opera Xie Yaohuan (1961).” In Wagner, The Contemporary Chinese Historical Drama. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, 80-138.

Xin, Wentong. “One of Tian Han’s Anti-revolutionary Strategies–an examination of Tian Han’s crime in using a new historical play, Guan Han-qing, to rebel against the Party.” Tr. Kai-yu Hsu. In Hsu, ed. The Chinese Literary Scene: A Writers’ Visit to the People’s Republic. NY: Vintage Books, 1975, 43-50.

Tian Yage 田雅各

Liou, Liang-ya. “Autoethnographic Expression and Cultural Translation in Tian Yage’s Short Stories.” The China Quarterly 211 (Sept. 2012). 806-26.

[Abstract: This article explores how three short stories set in 1980s Taiwan by the Taiwanese aboriginal writer Tian Yage (Tuobasi Tamapima) can be read as autoethnographic fiction as well as modern fiction, portraying contemporary Taiwanese aboriginal society caught between indigenous folkways and colonial modernity, and how the narrators of the stories tackle cultural translation. I begin with a discussion of Sun Ta-chuan’s caution in 1991 as the Taiwan Aboriginal Movement was evolving into the Taiwan Aboriginal Cultural Revivalist Movement. After analysing anthropology’s relationship with aborigines and imperialism, I apply Mary Louise Pratt’s concept of autoethnography to the aboriginal activists’ ethnographic studies and personal narratives. I argue that, prior to the Taiwan Aboriginal Cultural Revivalist Movement, Tian sought to construct an aboriginal cultural identity vis-à-vis the metropolis and to envision a cultural revival within the indigenous community, while he also explored the dilemmas and difficulties that arose from these. In the last section, I apply Homi K. Bhabha’s theory of the untranslatable in cultural translation to further examine the language, the narrative voice and the form of both autoethnographic fiction and modern fiction in Tian’s stories. I argue that writing Chinese-language modern fiction is a tacit recognition on Tian’s part of the legacy of colonial modernity, but the purpose is to manoeuvre for a rethinking of the Taiwanese modern subject. As the narrative voice of his stories is one of an aboriginal speaking as a subject rather than an object, speaking with the backdrop of the aboriginal village as the locus of indigenous traditions vis-à-vis the dominant society, Tian is implicitly demanding aboriginal rights and a reconsideration of the Taiwanese modern subject as well as a shift in the paradigm of historiography on Taiwan.]

Sterk, Darryl. “The Hunter’s Gift in Ecorealist Indigenous Fiction from Taiwan.” Oriental Archive 81 (2013): 555-80.

Tie Ning 铁凝

Chen Xiaoming. “The Extrication of Memory in Tie Ning’s Woman Showering: Privacy and the Trap of History.” In Bonnie S. McDougall and Anders Hansson, eds., Chinese Concepts of Privacy. Leiden: Brill, 2002, 195-208.

Yip, Terry Siu-han. “Place, Gender and Identity: The Global-Local Interplay in Three Stories from China, Taiwan and Hong Kong.” In Kwok-kan Tam et al., eds., Sights of Contestation: Localism, Globalism and Cultural Production in Asia and the Pacific. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2002, 17-34. [deals with stories by Tie Ning, Zhang Xiguo (Chang Shi-kuo), and Ye Si]

Tong Enzheng 童恩正

Isaacson, Nathaniel. “Blurred Visions of Nation and State in Tong Enzheng’s Death Ray on a Coral Island.” In Simultaneous Worlds: Global Science Fiction Cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, forthcoming.

Topas Tamapima (see Tian Yage)


W

Wan Zhi

Noether, Roger. “Aspects of the Rural Relocation Program Through Underground Short Stories: A Look at Wan Zhi’s ‘City Lights’.” Modern Chinese Literature Newsletter 6, 1 (1980): 1-8.

Wang Anyi 王安忆

Bai, Di. “Wang Anyi.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 207-18.

Berry, Michael. “The Emergence of a Writer, the Evolution of a Literary Scene: In Conversation with Wang Anyi.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 22-28.

Chen, Helen H. “Gender, Subjectivity, Sexuality: Defining a Subversive Discourse in Wang Anyi’s Four Tales of Sexual Transgression.” In Yingjin Zhang, ed. China in a Polycentric World: Essays in Chinese Comparative Literature. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1999, 90-109.

Chen, Po-hsi. “Wang Anyi, Taiwan, and the World: The 1983 International Writing Program and Biblical Allusions in Utopian Verses.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 52-61.

[Abstract: Issues in Sino-American literary exchange during the Cold War is a growing field of study in recent years. Literary historians note that “cultural Cold War” institutions such as the International Writing Program have been funded by conservative organizations to inculcate core Western values like liberal democracy as a bid to counter communism. Hence, whether individual Chinese writers during the Cold War era gave in to or resisted ideological brainwashing has become a critical field for study. By focusing on Wang Anyi’s American experience and its influence as described in her 1983 Utopian Verses, this article argues that in addition to the analyses of institutional constituencies, the current cultural Cold War paradigm has to take into account the actual interaction between writers and the institutions, and among the writers themselves. I examine how Wang was skeptical of, yet deeply attracted to, the Taiwanese left-wing novelist Chen Yingzhen’s religious and socialist utopianism. Chen’s socialist ideals and his religious faith provided Wang with a concentric framework to first position China and Chinese literature within a worldly context, and next, within the concept of utopian idealism. Nonetheless, such idealized utopianism was conditioned by the Cold War backdrop of ideological conflict.]

Chong, W.L. “Love and Sexuality: Themes from a Lecture by Woman Writer Wang Anyi.” China Information 3, 3 (Win 1988-1989): 64-65.

Choy, Howard Y. F. “Bourgeois Shanghai: Wang Anyi’s Novel of Nostalgia.” China Beat (July 14, 2008).

—–. “From Pacific Ocean to Gobi Desert: Wang Anyi’s Migratory Mythology.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 67-79.

—–. “Shanghai Longtang Cityscape: Wang Anyi’s Descriptive Historiography.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 169-84.

—–. “Centering and Decentering Methodologies: Wang Anyi’s Migratory Mythology and Descriptive Historiography.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 10, 1 (Summer 2010).

Dai, Jinhua. “Wang Anyi.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 6-7.

Dai, Jinhua. “Writing as a Way of Life: Nomination of Wang Anyi for the Newman Prize for Chinese Literature.” Tr. Jennifer Feeley. Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 8-9.

Editors, Frontiers of Literary Studies in China. “Narrative and Representation in the Age of iPhone—A Dialogue Between Wang Anyi and Fredric Jameson on Shanghai, Urban Experience, and Technological Conditions of Possibility for Literature.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 7, 3 (2013): 494-510.

Fong, Ian Ho-yin. “(Re)-Reading Shanghai’s Futures in Ruins: Through the Legend of an (Extra-)Ordinary Woman in The Song of Everlasting Sorrow: A Novel of Shanghai.” Cultural Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research 4, 3 (2012): 229-48.

Jin, Yanyu. “Three Chinese Women Writers and the City in the 1990s.” In Kwok-kan Tam and Terry Siu-han Yip, eds., Gender, Discourse and the Self in Literature: Issues in Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. HK: The Chinese University Press, 2010, 147-57. [deals with Wang Anyi, Shi Shuqing, and Zhu Tianxin]

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “The Post-Modern ‘Search for Roots’ in Han Shaogong, Mo Yan, and Wang Anyi.” In Feuerwerker, Ideology, Power, Text: Self-Representation and the Peasant “Other” in Modern Chinese Literature. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998, 188-238.

Martin-Enebral, Elena. “From Nostalgia to Reflection: An Exploration of The Song of Everlasting Sorrow by Wang Anyi.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 43-51.

[Abstract: Wang Anyi is one of the most remarkable figures in the Chinese literary scene of recent decades. Her extensive writings, covering a rich variety of pieces, include the 1995 novel The Song of Everlasting Sorrow, which holds a unique place in Chinese literature as a magnificent portrait of life in Shanghai over four decades of the twentieth century. This masterpiece has generally been related to the nostalgia wave of the 1990s that has echoed in literary and other cultural spheres. However, this is not merely a journey to the past, but also, and notably, an exploration of China today and a lucid reflection on its future. Taking nostalgia as a reference point for analysis, the novel uncovers some of the more distinctive features of Wang Anyi’s particular literary universe. Wang’s view of history as a discourse in which time and memory are inextricably linked provides profound insights into the social evolution of China in the twentieth century, and her very singular evocation of the city of Shanghai reflects an outstanding writing style and exemplifies the luxuriance and diversity of contemporary Chinese literature.]

McDougall, Bonnie. “Self-Narrative as Group Discourse: Female Subjectivity in Wang Anyi’s Fiction.” Asian Studies Review 19, 2 (November 1995): 1-24. Rpt in McDougall, Fictional Authors, Imaginary Audiences: Modern Chinese Literature in the Twentieth Century. HK: Chinese University Press, 2003, 95-114.

Movius, Lisa. “Rewriting Old Shanghai Tragic Tales of Beautiful Young Girls Titillate Again.” Asian Wall Street Journal (May 16-18, 2003). [on Wang Anyi’s Song of Everlasting Sorrow and its dramatic adaptation]

Rojas, Carlos. “Mothers and Daughters: Orphanage as Method.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 35-42.

[Abstract: Published in 1986, one of Wang Anyi’s earliest books consists of the journals that she and her mother, Ru Zhijuan, kept during their stay at the Iowa International Writing Program in Fall of 1983. This essay uses Wang Anyi’s relationship with her mother as an entry point into a broader consideration of Wang Anyi’s oeuvre, arguing that Wang explores this relationship in a displaced manner in several of her subsequent works, in which she repeatedly characterizes both her mother and herself (and their respective fictional stand-ins) as figurative orphans. I propose that this “orphan” trope also offers a useful metaphor for understanding the metatextual turn that Wang’s literary efforts began to take a few years after she attended the Iowa International Writing Program.]

Sieber, Patricia. “Wang Anyi.” In Sieber, ed. Red Is Not the Only Color: Contemporary Chinese Fiction on Love and Sex between Women, Collected Stories. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001, 191-93.

Solmecke, Ulrike. Zwischen äußerer und innerer Welt. Erzählprosa der chinesischen Autorin Wang Anyi von 1980–1990. Dortmund 1995.

Stuckey, Andrew. “Back to the Future: Temporality and Cliche in Wang Anyi’s Song of Everlasting Sorrow.” In Stuckey, Old Stories Retold: Narrative and Vanishing Pasts in Modern China. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010, 113-32.

Swampitak, Ruttapon. “Female Sexuality and Subjectivity in Wang Anyi’s Fiction.” Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia 49 (2018).

Tang, Xiaobing. “Melancholy against the Grain: Approaching Postmodernity in Wang Anyi’s Tales of Sorrow.” Boundary 2 24, 3 (1997). Rpt. in Xudong Zhang and Arif Dirlik, eds., Postmodernism and China. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 358-78. Rpt in Chinese Modernism: The Heroic and the Quotidian. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 316-41.

Wang Anyi.” Kirjasto.sci.fi

Wang, Ban. “Love at Last Sight: Nostalgia, Commodity, and Temporailty in Wang Anyi’s Song of Unending Sorrow.” positions: east asia cultures critiques 10, 3 (Winter 2002): 669-94.

—–. “History in a Mythical Key: Temporality, Memory, and Tradition in Wang Anyi’s Fiction.” In Jie Lu, ed., China’s Literary and Cultural Scene at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 11-26.

—–. “Photographical History, Everyday Life, and Memory: Wang Anyi as A Storyteller.” Journal of Historical Sociology 25, 2 (June, 2012): 183-98.

—–. “Wang Anyi: The Storyteller as Thinker.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 12-13.

Wang, Lingzhen. “Wang Anyi.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 592-97. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 371-78.

Xiao, Jiwei. “Can She Say No to Zhang Ailing? Detail, Idealism, and Woman in Wang Anyi’s Fiction.” Journal of Contemporary China 56 (August 2008): 513-28.

[Abstract: This article is a study of aesthetic idealism that characterizes the fictional works written by the contemporary Chinese writer Wang Anyi during the 1990s. I start with a comparison of Wang Anyi with Zhang Ailing, arguing that Wang’s ambivalence towards Zhang’s aesthetics of details is translated into a dilemma the former faces in her own writing. On the one hand, Wang Anyi appreciates Zhang’s passion for life’s details. Wang’s own works show a high penchant for details. On the other hand, Wang is critical of Zhang’s aesthetic leap from the sensuous (detail) to the nihilistic (meaning). Wang’s anxiety over the ultimate value of detail can be attributed to her ideological allegiance to a May Fourth leftist tradition as well as to her awareness of the derogatory association of detail with women’s writing in China. So in what way can Wang Anyi say no to Zhang Ailing? How does she try to steer clear of the danger of ‘materialistic’ trivialization that she sees lurking in details? I observe that in Wang’s fiction there is neither a full embrace of idealism nor a total rejection of detailed realism a la Zhang Ailing. Instead, Wang Anyi treasures the use of details as a signifying practice to embrace her idealism. In her 1990s’ fictional works, Wang Anyi’s effort to circumvent the dichotomy between detail and idea is complicated by her attempt to use details to reconstruct pictures of the past. There are several aspects to this issue. First, although nostalgic details in Wang Anyi’s ‘memory stories’ help to give expression to idealistic longings of the author, they also tend to conspire with the official ban on the discourse of the traumatic socialist past. Second, while details are regarded as important in sum total, they are actually relegated by the writer to a secondary place as mere constructing materials to serve the function of bringing out the larger idea. In terms of actual narration, the highly ‘authoritative’ voice often suppresses the depth of individual subjects in her fiction. Third, Wang’s ambiguity with regards to details and ‘feminine materials’ affects her characterization of women. A reading of Wang’s two fictional works, The Song of Everlasting Sorrow (Changhen ge) and Fu Ping, demonstrates that the writer’s instrumental approach tends to render female characters stranded between allegorical figures and individual subjects.]

Ying, Hong. “Wang Anyi and her Fiction.” In Yang Bian, ed., The Time is Not Ripe: Contemporary China’s Best Writers and Their Stories. Beijing: FLP, 1991, 217-24.

Yue, Gang. “Embodied Spaces of Home: Xiao Hong, Wang Anyi, and Li Ang.” In The Mouth that Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999, 293-330.

Zhang, Xudong. “Shanghai Nostalgia: Postrevolutionary Allegories in Wang Anyi’s Literary Production in the 1990s.” positions: east asian cultures critique 8, 2 (2000) 349-387. Rpt. in Zhang, Postsocialism and Cultural Politics: China in the Last Decade of the Twentieth Century. Durham: Duke UP, 2008, 181-211.

—–. “In Light of Concreteness: Wang Anyi and the Bildungsroman of the Cultural Revolutionary Generation.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 6, 1 (2012): 112-37.

[Abstract: Based on detailed textual analysis, the article argues that Wang Anyi brings the abstract idealism of the second-generation of PRC into a productive collision with its concrete Other–from its parents’ generation to the resilient national bourgeoisie to quotidian sensuousness embodied by the world of its female counterpart. In so doing, as the author seeks to show, the novel presents a compelling narrative of the self-education, growth, and formation of the generation of the Cultural Revolution without reducing it to ideological stereotypes rampant in China after 1976. While delving into the structure and style of fiction, the article takes as its focus the confrontation between abstraction and concreteness; Self and Other; superstructure and infrastructure, or social consciousness and social existence, at a philosophical level in order to construct a phenomenology of the experience of post-revolutionary Subjectivity.]

Zhong, Xueping. “Sisterhood? Representations of Women’s Relationships in Two Contemporary Chinese Texts.” In Tonglin Lu, ed., Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth Century Chinese Literature and Society. Albany: SUNY Press, 1993, 157-73.

Zhu, Ping. “Seven Short Conservations with Wang Anyi, Dai Jinhua, and Wang Ban.” Chinese Literature Today 6, 2 (2017): 14-21.

Wang Changxiong 王昶雄

Lin, Pei-yin. “How to Become Japanese? Chen Huoquan, Wang Changxiong, and Zhou Libo.” In Lin, Colonial Taiwan: Negotiating Identities and Modernity through Literature. Leiden: Brill, 2017, 232-72.

Scruggs, Bert. “Identity and Free Will in Colonial Taiwan Fiction: Wu Zhuoliu’s ‘The Doctor’s Mother’ and Wang Changxiong’s ‘Torrent.'” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2 (Fall 2004): 160-83..

Wang Dulu 王度庐

Ma, Iris. “Imagining Female Heroism: Three Tales of the Female Knight-Errant in Republican China.” Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review 31: 183–204.

[Abstract: Invented largely for urban audiences and widely circulated across multiple media, the image of the female knight-errant attracted unprecedented attention among writers, readers, publishers, and officials in the first half of the twentieth century. This article focuses on three best-selling martial arts tales published in Republican China (1912–1949), paying particular attention to their martial heroines. It also explores what granted the female knight-errant character such enduring popularity and how the writers—Xiang Kairan, Gu Mingdao, and Wang Dulu—garnered the interest of their readers. As the author points out, martial arts novelists drew on a long and rich genre repertoire formulated before 1911 while taking into consideration contemporary debates regarding gender, thereby maintaining the female knight-errant figure as a relevant and compelling construct. More importantly, the author argues, through portraying their martial heroines in relation to family, courtship, and female subjectivity, martial arts novelists resisted the prevailing discourse on Chinese womanhood of their times while imagining female heroism.]

Sang, Tze-lan D. “Women’s Work and Boundary Transgression in Wang Dulu’s Popular Novels.” In Bryna Goodman and Wendy Larson, eds., Gender in Motion: Divisions of Labor and Cultural Change in Late Imperial and Modern China. Lanham, Md.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005, 287-308.

—–. “The Transgender Body in Wang Dulu’s Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.” In Martin and Larissa Heinrich, eds., Embodied Modernities: Corporeality, Representation, and Chinese Cultures. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2006, 98-112.

Wang Duqing 王独清

Galik, Marian. “Ten Venetian Poems by Wang Duqing: Chinese Entry into Literary Decadence.” Asiatica Venetiana 1 (1996).

Wang Gui 王贵

Conceison, Claire. “A Cruel World: Boundary-Crossing and Exile in the Great Going Abroad.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 121-40.

Wang Guilin 王桂林

Liu, Yan. “Inquiries and Confession before the Cross: An Interpretation of Wang Guilin’s My Jerusalem.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 9, 2 (2015): 318-36.

[Abstract: This essay employs the approach of New Criticism close reading to interpret My Jerusalem by a contemporary Chinese poet, Wang Guilin, from the dialogic perspective of “I and Thou.” From a dimension of faith beyond daily life, the poet narrates his astonishment, historical reflection and spiritual transformation during a visit to Jerusalem. For him, the journey to Jerusalem was also a pilgrimage to a spiritual homeland, self-achievement, and peace and love.]

Wang Guowei 王国维

Bonner, Joey. Wang Kuo-wei: An Intellectual Biography. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1986.

Galik, Marian. “Liang Ch’i-ch’ao and Wang Kuo-wei: the First Impact of Modern Foreign Ideas on Chinese Literary World.” In Galik, ed., Milestones in Sino-Western Literary Confrontation (1898-1979). Weisbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1986, 7-18.

He, Jinli. “Wang Guowei’s Application of Kant.” ASIANetwork Exchange 22, 1 (2015): 61-73. .

He, Yuming. “Wang Guowei and the Beginnings of Modern Chinese Drama Studies.” Late Imperial China 28, 2 (March 2008): 129-56.

Hu, Qiuhua. “Wang Guowei und Immanuel Kant: Zu den Anfangen der Interkulturalitat im China der spaten Qing Dynastie.” Monumenta Serica 53 (2005): 337-60.

Liu, Qingzhang. “Wang Guowei and Kant: A Dialogue on Chinese and Western Poetics.” In Mabel Lee and A. D. Syrokomla-Stefanowska, eds., Literary Intercrossings: East Asia and the West. Sydney: Wild Peony, 1998, 70-79.

Sun, Cecile Chu-chin. “Wang Guowei as Translator of Values.” In David Pollard, ed., Translation and Creation: Readings of Western Literature in Early Modern China. Amsterdan, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins, 1998, 253-82.

Tu, Ching-i. “A Group of Wang Kuo-wei’s Tz’u Poems: With an Introduction.” In David C. Buxbaum and Frederick W. Mote, eds., Transition and Permanence: Chinese History and Culture. HK: Cathay Press, 1972, 379-93.

Wang, Ban. The Sublime Figure of History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997. [one chapter deals with Wang Guowei’s aesthetics]

Yeh, Florence Chia-Ying. “Wang Kuo-wei’s Song Lyrics in Light of His Own Theories.” In James R. Hightower and Florence Chia-ying Yeh, Studies in Chinese Poetry. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center,1998, 465-96.

—–. “Practice and Principle in Wang Kuo-wei’s Criticism.” In James R. Hightower and Florence Chia-ying Yeh, Studies in Chinese Poetry. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center,1998, 497-505.

—–. “Wang Kuo-wei’s Character.” In James R. Hightower and Florence Chia-ying Yeh, Studies in Chinese Poetry. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center,1998, 506-18.

—–. “An Interpretation of a Poem by Wang Kuo-wei.” In James R. Hightower and Florence Chia-ying Yeh, Studies in Chinese Poetry. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center,1998, 519-22.

Wang Jiaxin 王家新

Crespi, John. “Traveling Poetry and the Presence of Soul: An Interview with Wang Jiaxin.” Chinese Literature Today 2, 1 (2011): 78-82.

Van Crevel, Maghiel. “Exile: Yang Lian, Wang Jiaxin and Bei Dao.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money, Leiden: Brill, 2008, 137-186.

Wang Jiaxiang (Wang Chia-hsiang) 王家祥

Tsai, Shu-fen. “Taiwan Is a Whale: The Emergining Oneness of Dark Blue and Human Identity in Wang Chia-hsiang’s Historical Fiction.” In Chia-ju Chang and Scott Slovic, eds., Ecocriticism in Taiwan: Identity, Environment, and the Arts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2016, 41-54.

Wang Jinkang 王晉康

Song, Mingwei. “Variations on Utopia in Contemporary Chinese Science Fiction.” Science Fiction Studies 40 (2013): 86-102.

[Abstract: This essay focuses on the variations of utopian narrative in contemporary Chinese sf, with a view toward appreciating the genre’s historical development since the late Qing. Through analyzing the writings of three writers, Han Song, Wang Jinkang, and Liu Cixin, this essay examines three themes that characterize China’s current new wave of science fiction: China’s rise, the myth of development, and posthumanity. Deeply entangled with the politics of a changing China, science fiction today both strengthens and complicates the utopian vision of a new and powerful China: it mingles nationalism with utopianism/dystopianism, sharpens social criticism with an acute awareness of China’s potential for further reform, and wraps political consciousness in scientific discourse about the powers of technology and the technologies of power.]

Wang Jingwei 汪精衛

Wangjingwei.org [a site run by the Wang Jingwei Irrevocable Trust that is dedicated to the “collection, preservation, and presentation of original writings, historical materials, calligraphy, artworks, and private artifacts created by, or for, Wang Jingwei, his wife Chen Bijun, and their associates. It was created by Ho Mang Hang and his wife Wong Chorfu (Wang Wenxing, Wang Jingwei’s eldest daughter)…”

Barrett, David P. “The Wang Jingwei Regime, 1940-1945: Continuities and Disjunctures with Nationalist China.” In David Barrett and Larry Shyu, eds., Chinese Collaboration with Japan, 1932-1945: The Limits of Accommodation. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002, 102-15.

Boorman, Howard L, Richard C. Howard, and Joseph K.H. Cheng, eds. Biographical Dictionary of Modern China. Vol. 3. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970.

—–. “Wang Ching-wei: A Political Profile.” In Chun-tu Hsueh, ed., Revolutionary Leaders of Modern China. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971, 295-391.

—–. “Wang Ching-wei: China’s Romantic Radical.” Political Science Quarterly 79, 4 (Dec. 1964).

Boyle, John Hunter. “The Road to Sino-Japanese Collaboration: The Background to the Defection of Wang Ching-wei.” Monumenta Nipponica 25, 3-4 (1970).

—–. China and Japan at War, 1937-1945: The Politics of Collaboration. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972.

Brook, Timothy. Collaboration: Japanese Agents and Local Elites in Wartime China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005.

—–. “Collaborationist Nationalism in Occupied Wartime China,” in Timothy Brook and Andre Schmid, eds., Nation Work: Asian Elites and National Identities. University of Michigan Press, 2000, 159-90.

Bunker, Gerald E. The Peace Conspiracy: Wang Ching-wei and the China War, 1937-1941. Cambridge: Harvard East Asia Series 67, 1972.

Cai, Dejin. “Relations between Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Ching-wei during the War Against Japan: An Examination of Some Problems.” Tr. Lloyd Eastman. Republican China 14, no. 2 (April 1989).

Chiu, Lawrence M.W. “The South China Daily News and Wang Jingwei’s Peace Movement,1939-41.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch 50 (2010).

Feng, Chongyi. “Betrayal or Loyalty? A Comment on Roy’s Revealing a Secret Comintern Message to Wang Jingwei.” China Report 24, no.1 (Jan-Mar 1988).

Henriot, Christian and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds. In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Jiang, Yongjing. “Hu Shi and Wang Jingwei: Discussions on Sino-Japanese Issues before and after the War of Resistance against Japan.” Trans. Sylvia Chia. Chinese Studies in History 42, no.1 (Fall 2008).

Jordan, Donald A. “Shifts in Wang Ching-wei’s Japan Policy during the Kuomintang Factional Struggle of 1931-1932.” Asian Profile 12, no.3 (1984).

Kobayashi, Motohiro and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi. “An Opium Tug-of-War: Japan versus the Wang Jingwei Regime.” Tr. Aaron Skabelun. In Timothy Brook and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi, eds., Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000, 344-359.

Lin, Han-sheng. “A New Look at Chinese Nationalist ‘Appeasers.’” In Alvin D. Coox and Hilary Conroy, eds., China and Japan: Search for Balance Since World War I. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 1978, 211-241.

—–. “Wang Ching-wei and Chinese Collaboration.” Peace and Change 1, 1 (Fall 1972): 17-35.

Hwang, Dongyoun. “Wartime Collaboration in Question: An Examination of the Postwar Trials of the Chinese Collaborators.” Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 6, no.1 (March 2005).

Martin, Brian G. “In My Heart I Opposed Opium: Opium and the Politics of the Wang Jingwei Government, 1940-45.” European Journal of East Asian Studies 2, no.2 (2003).

Musgrove, Charles D. “Cheering the Traitor: The Post-War Trial of Chen Bijun, April 1946 [widow of Wang Jingwei].” Twentieth-Century China 30, no.2 (April 2005).

Roux, Alain. “From Revenge to Treason: Political Ambivalence among Wang Jingwei’s Labor Union Supporters.” In Christian Henriot and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds., In the Shadow of the Rising Sun: Shanghai under Japanese Occupation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004, 209-228.

So, Wai Chor, “The Making of the Guomindang’s Japan Policy, 1923-1937: The Roles of Chiang Kai-shek and Wang Jingwei.” Modern China 28 no.2 (April 2002).

—–. “Race, Culture, and the Anglo-American Powers: The Views of Chinese Collaborators.” Modern China 37, no. 1 (Jan. 2011).

—–. “National Identity, Nation and Race: Wang Jingwei’s Early Revolutionary Ideas, 1905- 1911.” Journal of Modern Chinese History 4, no.1 (June 2010).

Tang, Leang-li. Wang Ching-wei: A Political Biography. China United Press, 1931.

Taylor, Jeremy. “From Traitor to Martyr: Drawing Lessons form the Death and Burial of Wang Jingwei, 1944.” Journal of Chinese History 3, 1 (Jan. 2019): 137-58.

[Abstract: Based on recently reopened files and publications in Nanjing, as well as published and newsreel accounts from the 1940s, this paper represents the first scholarly analysis of the rituals surrounding the death and burial of Wang Jingwei in Japanese-occupied China. Rather than locating this analysis purely in the literature on the history of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45), however, this paper asks what Wang Jingwei’s Re-organized National Government might tell us about personality cults in the political culture of modern China. While Wang’s burial drew heavily on the precedent of Sun Yat-sen’s funerals of the 1920s, it also presaged later spectacles of public mourning and posthumous commemoration, such as Chiang Kai-shek’s funeral in 1975 in Taipei. In focusing on this one specific event in the life of a “puppet government,” this paper hopes to reignite scholarly interest in the study of “dead leaders” and their posthumous lives in modern Chinese history more generally.]

Wang, Ke-wen. “After the United Front: Wang Jingwei and the Left Guomindang.” Republican China 18, no.2 (April 1993).

—–. “Sun Yatsen, Wang Jingwei, and the Guangzhou Regimes, 1917-1925.” Republican China 22, no.1 (November 1996).

—–. “Wang Jingwei and the 1911 Revolution.” In Cindy Yik-Yi and Ricardo K. S. Mak, eds., China Reconstructs. University Press of America, 2003, 63-81.

—–. “Wang Jingwei and the Policy Origins of the ‘Peace Movement,’ 1932-1937.” In David Barrett and Larry Shyu, eds., Chinese Collaboration with Japan, 1932-1945: The Limits of Accommodation. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002.

Yang, Zhiyi. “Site: The Impossibility of Remembering the Past at Nanjing.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 32, 1  (Spring 2020): 233-78.

Wang Jingzhi 王敬之

Hockx, Michel. “Born Poet and Born Lover: Wang Jingzhi’s Love Poetry within the May Fourth Context.” Modern Chinese Literature 9, 2 (1996): 261-96.

Findiesen, Raoul. “Wang Jingzhi’s “Yesu de fenfu” (The Instructions by Jesus): A Christian Novel?” In Irene Eber, Sze-kar Wang, and Knut Walf, eds., Bible in Modern China. Nettetal: Steyler Verlag, 1999, 279-300.

Wang Lan 王藍

Ching, Eugene. “Wang Lan: Chinese Writers in Taiwan and Their Works.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 15, 3 (1980): 81-86.

Wang Lili 王丽丽

Dooling, Amy. “Representing Dagongmei (Female Migrant Workers) in Contemporary China.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 11, 1 (2017): 133–56. (With case studies on Wang Lili 王丽丽 and Zheng Xiaoqiong 郑小琼.)

Wang Lixiong 王力雄

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Modernity and Apocalypse in Chinese Novels from the End of the Twentieth Century.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernities in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 101-20. [deals with Wang Lixiong’s Yellow Peril, Lu Tianming’s Heaven Above, Zhang Ping’s Choice, and Mo Yan’s Liquorland].

Veg, Sebastien. “Chinese Intellectuals and the Problem of Xinjiang.” China Perspectives 3 (2008): 143-50. [deals largely with Wang Lixiong and his book Wo de xiyu, ni de dong tu]

Wang, Chaohua. “Dreamers and Nightmares: Political Novels by Wang Lixiong and Chan Koonchung.” China Perspectives 1 (2015): 23-32.

[Abstract: Wang Lixiong’s Yellow Peril (1991) represents the return of political fiction of the future not seen in China for decades. Chan Koonchung’s The Fat Years (2009) brings the imagination to a full dystopian vision. Reading the two novels side by side, this paper argues that Chinese fiction of the future in the early 1990s responded to the country’s struggle for direction when the bloody crackdown of the Tiananmen protest wiped out collective idealism in society. In the twenty-first century, such fiction is written in response to China’s rapid rise as one of the world’s superpowers, bringing to domestic society a seemingly stabilised order that has deprived it of intellectual vision.]

Wang Lin 王林

Yang, Lianfen. “The Red Classic That Never Was: Wang Lin’s Hinterland [腹地].” Trs. Ping Qiu and Richard King. In Rosemary Roberts and Li Li, eds., The Making and Remaking of China’s “Red Classics”: Politics, Aesthetics and Mass Culture. HK: Hong Kong University Press, 2017, 3-21.

Wang Luyan 王鲁彦

Haddon, Rosemary. “Chinese Nativist Literature of the 1920s: The Sojourner-Narrator.” Modern Chinese Literature 8 (1994): 97-124. [deals partly with Wang’s fiction]

Wang Meng 王蒙

Arkush, R. David. “One of the Hundred Flowers: Wang Meng’s ‘Young Newcomer.'” Papers on China 18 (1964): 155-86.

Barme, Geremie. “A Storm in a Rice Bowl: Wang Meng and Fictional Chinese Politics.” China Information 7, 2 (Autumn 1992): 12-19.

Ch’a, Ling. “Wang Meng’s Rustication and Advancement.” Issues and Studies 22.9 (1986): 50-61.

Chang, Tze-chang. “Isolation and Self-Estrangement: Wang Meng’s Alienated World.” Issues and Studies 24, 1 (Jan. 1988): 140-54.

Ch’in, Chao-yang. “Hits and Misses.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 518-22.

Feuerwerker, Yi-tsi Mei. “Text, Intertext, and the Representation of the Writing Self in Lu Xun, Yu Dafu, and Wang Meng.” In Ellen Widmer and David Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentiety-Century China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1993, 167-93.

Iovene, Paula. “Why Is There a Poem in this Story? Li Shangyin’s Poetry, Contemporary Chinese Literature, and the Futures of the Past.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 19, 2 (Fall 2007): 71-116.

—–. “Futures en Abyme: Poetry in Strange Loops.” In Iovene, Tales of Future Past: Anticipation and the Ends of Literature in Contemporary China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2014, 107-34.

K’ang, Cho. “A Contradictory Story.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 545-63.

Keyser, Anne Sytske. “Wang Meng’s Story ‘Hard Thin Gruel’: A Socio-Political Satire.” China Information 7, 2 (Autumn 1992): 1-11.

King, Richard. “The Hundred Flowers: Qin Zhaoyang, Wang Meng, and Liu Binyan.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 245-49.

Larson, Wendy. “Wang Meng’s Buli (Bolshevik salute): Chinese Modernism and Negative Intellectual Identity.” In Bolshevik Salute: A Modernist Chinese Novel. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1989, 133-54.

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. “Wang Meng’s ‘Hard Porridge’ and the Paradox of Reform in China.” In Min Lin and Maria Galikowski, The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1999, 71-88.

Liu, Shao-t’ang and Ts’ung Wei-hsi. “Writing the Truth: The Essence of Socialist Realism.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 523-26.

Martin, Helmut. “Painful Encounter: Wang Meng’s Novel Hsiang chien shih nan and the ‘Foreign Theme’ in Contemporary Chinese Literature.” In Yu-ming Shaw, ed., China and Europe in the Twentieth Century. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University 1986, 32-42.

Rahav, Shakhar. “Having One’s Porridge and Eating It Too: Wang Meng as Intellectual and Bureaucrat in Late 20th-Century China.” The China Quarterly 212 (Dec. 2012).

[Abstract: This article examines the “porridge incident,” in which the renowned Chinese author, critic and former minister of culture Wang Meng sued a Communist Party literary journal for attacking him and his story “Hard Porridge” (“Jianying de xizhou”). The incident straddled the transitional period between 1989 and 1992 and illuminates the ramifications of structural changes in China’s literary sphere. I frame the affair within two contexts: Wang Meng’s tortuous career, which challenges dichotomies of bureaucrat vs. dissident, and the transition from a centralized literary sphere to a market-driven one. I argue that Wang’s responses to the attack on him stemmed from a political and cultural standing that was the product of a Party-controlled cultural sphere, along with the opportunities offered by expanding reforms. The Deng-era reforms produced a divide between culture, markets and bureaucracy that would preclude cultural figures like Wang from holding such high bureaucratic positions anymore.]

Shao, Yen-hsiang. “Curing Sickness with Bitter Medicine.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 527-32.

Song, Mingwei. “The Taming of the Youth: Discourse, Politics, and Fictional Representation in the Early PRC.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 9, 2 (July 2009): 108-38. [deals in part with Long Live Youth]

Tay, William. “Wang Meng, Stream-of-consciousness, and the Controversy over Modernism.” Modern Chinese Literature 1, 1 (1984): 7-24.

—–. “Modernism and Socialist Realism: The Case of Wang Meng.” World Literature Today 65, 3 (1991): 411-13.

Tung, Timothy. “Porridge and the Law: Wang Meng Sues.” Human Rights Tribune 3, 1 (Spring 1992).

Wanger, Rudolf. Inside the Service Trade: Studies in Contemporary Chinese Prose. Cambridge: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1992, 193-212, 481-531. [deals with “A Young Man Who Only Recently Joined the Organization Dept.” and “The Loyal Heart”]

Williams, Philip. “Stylistic Variety in a PRC Writer: Wang Meng’s Fiction of the 1979-1980 Cultural Thaw.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 11 (1984): 59-80.

Yang, Gladys. “Wang Meng and his Fiction.” In Yang Bian, ed., The Time is Not Ripe: Contemporary China’s Best Writers and Their Stories. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1991, 238-45.

Zha, Jingying. “Servant of the State: Is China’s Most Eminent Writer a Reformer or an Apologist?The New Yorker (Nov. 1, 2010).

Zha, Peide. “Stream of Consciousness Narration in Contemporary Chinese Fiction: A Case Study of Wang Meng.” B.C. Asian Review 3/4 (1990).

Zhang Dening and Jing Yi. “Open Our Hearts to the Panoramic World: An Interview with Wang Meng.” Chinese Literature (Spring 1999): 5-24.

Zhang, Zhen. “Reimagining the Soviet Union in Contemporary Chinese Literature: Soviet Ji in Wang Meng’s In Remembrance of the Soviet Union and Feng Jicai’s Listening to Russia.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 4 (2014): 598-616.

[Abstract: An examination of Soviet nostalgia—nostalgia for the times when the People’s Republic of China (PRC) had a close relationship with the Soviet Union, as it appears in contemporary discourses that reimagine the Soviet Union, is essential to understand the quotidian aspect and cultural history of the PRC in the 1950s, as well as cultural attitudes in contemporary China. Wang Meng’s In Remembrance of the Soviet Union (2007) and Feng Jicai’s Listening to Russia (2005) are characterized by nostalgia for the lost Soviet Union, which exerted a strong influence on the PRC during the 1950s. In contemporary China, where the market economy is the dominant mode of production, Wang and Feng’s Soviet nostalgia is a gesture of yearning for a type of historical temporality that has seemingly been lost. Their works express the desire to reclaim the historical past of the 1950s, which they portray as having been completely erased by the developmental logic of late-capitalism—the authentic cultural experiences in the 1950s, especially the everyday life along with the revolutionary ideals are rendered unreal within the post-revolutionary logic. The concept of Soviet “ji” (祭, “remembrance”) provides a theoretical framework through which to understand the way in which the phenomenon of Chinese nostalgia has the potential to shift contemporary social reality.]

Wang Peigong 王培公

Conceison, Claire. “A Cruel World: Boundary-Crossing and Exile in the Great Going Abroad.” In Charles Laughlin, ed., Contested Modernity in Chinese Literature. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005, 121-40.

Moran, Thomas. “Down from the Mountains, Back from the Villages; Wang Peigong’s WM.” MA Thesis. Cornell University, 1988.

Vittinghoff, Natascha. “China’s Generation X: Rusticated Red Guards in Controversial Contemporary Plays.” In Woei Lian Chong, ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 285-318. [discusses Sha Yexin’s New Sprouts from the Borderlands, Wang Peigong’s We, and Xun Pinli’s Yesterday’s Longan Trees]

Wang Ping 王屏

Yang, Xin. “Married to Rivers: An Interview with Wang Ping.” Chinese Literature Today 7, 1 (2018): 64-69.

[Abstract: Wang Ping talks to Xin Yang about her life as a writer, poet, artist, photographer, and professor. In their conversation, Wang Ping discusses her most recent award-winning book and Kinship of Rivers, the interdisciplinary art project she initiated. She reflects on her own connection with rivers and mountains, on human-nature relationships, on ecological crisis, and on social engagement. She explores the ways writing and art could cross geographical, disciplinary, cultural, and spiritual boundaries, and reconnect humans with nature, the present with the past, and individuals with people around the world.]

Wang Qimei 汪其楣

Liu, Joyce C. “Re-staging Cultural Memories in Contemporary Theatre in Taiwan: Wang Qimei, Stanley Lai, and Lin Huaimin.” In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay, eds., East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society, Culture and Literatures. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 267-78.

Wang Ruoshui 王若水

Transcript of the Symposium in Honor of Wang Ruoshui (Fairbank Center, Harvard University, May 16, 2002)

Wang Ruoshui [website devoted to the late writer; includes a resume, obituary, writings in English and Chinese, photographs, etc.]

Wang Ruowang 王若望

Chou Yu-sun. “Liu Pin-yen and Wang Jo-wang.” Issues and Studies 23, 5 (May 1987): 48-62.

I, Ch’uen. “Wang Jo-wang’s Tactics in Attacking the Party and Socialism.” In Hualing Nieh, ed. and co-trans., Literature of the Hundred Flowers Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia University Press, 1981, 380-88.

Mahoney, Alysoun. “The Story of Wang Ruowang.” Human Rights Tribune 2, 6 (Feb. 1991): 16-17.

Rubin, Kyna. “An Interview with Wang Ruowang.” The China Quarterly 87 (Spet. 1981): 25-40.

—–. “Keeper of the Flame: Wang Ruowang as Moral Critic of the State.” In Merle Goldman, Timothy Cheek, Carol Lee Hamrin, eds., China’s Intellectuals and The State: In Search of a New Relationship. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1987, 233-52.

Schnell, Orville. Discos and Democracy. NY: Pantheon, 1988, 162-76.

Wang Shiwei 王实味

Cheek, Timothy. “The Fading of Wild Lilies: Wang Shiwei and Mao Zedong’s Yan’an Talks in the First CCP Rectification Movement.” Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 11 (1984): 25-58.

Dai, Qing. Wang Shiwei and ‘Wild Lilies’: Rectification and Purges in the Chinese Communist Party, 1942-1944. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1994.

Wei, Louisa, director. Wang Shiwei: The Buried Writers. 2016.

Wang Shuo 王朔

Barme, Geremie. “Wang Shuo and Liumang (‘Hooligan’) Culture.” The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 28 (1992): 23-66.

—–. “The Apotheosis of the Liumang.” In Barme, In the Red: On Contemporary Chinese Culture. NY: Columbia UP, 1999, 62-98.

Braester, Yomi. “Memory at a Standstill: From Maohistory to Hooligan History.” In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 192-205.

Chen, Helen H. “From Sentimental Trilogy to Gangster Trilogy: Moral Dilemmas in a Cultural Crisis.” American Journal of Chinese Studies 8, 1 (April 2001): 57-90.

Choy, Howard Y. F. “Beijing Military Compound: Wang Shuo’s Rootless Homesickness.” In Choy, Remapping the Past: Fictions of History in Deng’s China, 1979-1997. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 159-69.

Gee, Alison Dakota and Anne Naham. “Wang Shuo: The Outsider.” Asiaweek (Aug. 8, 1996).

Huang, Yibing. “‘Vicious Animals’: Wang Shuo and Negotiated Nostalgia for History.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 5, 2 (2002): 81-102.

—–. “Wang Shuo: Playing for Thrills in the Era of Reform, or, A Genealogy of the Present.” In Huang, Contemporary Chinese Literature: From the Cultural Revolution to the Future. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Huot, Claire. “Away from Literature I: Words Turned On.” In Huot, China’s New Cultural Scene: A Handbook of Changes. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000, 49-71.

James, Jamie. “Bad Boy: Why China’s Most Popular Novelist Won’t Go Away.” New Yorker (Apr. 21, 1997): 50-53.

Kuoshu, Harry H. “Filming Marginal Youth: The ‘Beyond’ Syndrome in the Postsocialist City.” In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 123-52. [deals in part with film adaptations of Wang’s novels]

Lombardi, Rosa. “Wang Shuo.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 228-34.

McClellan, Tommy. “Urban Alienation and Urban Culture in the Fiction of Wang Shuo and Chi Li.” In Papers from the XIII EACS Conference: The Spirit of the Metropolis, Universitá degli Studi di Torino, 2000. Turin, 2002 [CD-ROM, ISBN 88-900888-0-X].

Noble, Jonathan. “Wang Shuo and the Commercialization of Literature.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 598-603. Rpt as “Wang Shuo.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 379-85.

Rojas, Carlos. “Wang Shuo and the Chinese Image/inary: Visual Simulacra and the Writing of History.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 1 (July 1999): 23-57.

—–. “Wang Shuo and Historical Portraiture.” In Rojas, The Naked Gaze: Reflections on Chinese Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2008, 244-73.

—–. “Authorial Afterlives and Apocrypha in 1990s Chinese Fiction.” In Carlos Rojas and Eileen Cheng-yin Chow, eds., Rethinking Chinese Popular Culture: Cannibalizations of the Canon. NY: Routledge, 2009, 262-82.

Shu, Yunzhong. “Different Strategies of Self-Confirmation: Wang Shuo’s Appeal to His Readers.” Tamkang Review 29, 3 (Spring 1999): 111-26.

Wang, Jing. “Wang Shuo: Pop Goes the Culture.” In Wang, High Culture Fever: Politics, Aesthetics, and Ideology in Deng’s China. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997, 261-86.

Wu, Jin. The Voices of Revolt: Zhang Chengzhi, Wang Shuo and Wang Xiaobo. Ph.D. diss. Eugene: University of Oregon, 2005.

Yao, Yusheng. “The Elite Class Background of Wang Shuo and His Hooligan Characters.” Modern China 30, 4 (Oct. 2004): 431-469.

[Abstract: The Cultural Revolution provided a unique environment for children of the political elite to develop a new kind of hooliganism and a youth counterculture that contradicted Mao’s aim to empower them for making revolution. The author challenges a view commonly held by Western commentators and scholars that Wang Shuo is a writer of common man fiction by highlighting the aristocratic background of his Cultural Revolution-era hooligan characters. In the post-Mao era, these former aristocratic youth hooligans tried to adapt to the new environment of growing commercialism and materialism. Some successfully joined the new elite through legal or illegal means, while those who failed to do so became marginalized and even impoverished. The author argues that it was the latter who felt the need to develop to perfection the skill of fast talk and an irreverent, knowing, and playful attitude, which helped them to maintain a sense of superiority. Glorified byWang Shuo in his stories and commentary, the hooligan characters captured the imagination of many Chinese, especially the younger generations who feel marginalized and alienated, by legitimizing their desires and frustrations and by subverting the dominant ideology and culture.]

Wang Tao 王韜

Cohen, Paul A. Between Tradition and Modernity: Wang T’ao and Reform in Late Qing China. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1974.

Lu, Hsiao-peng. “Waking to Modernity: The Classical Tale in Late-Qing China.” New Literary History 34, 4 (Autumn 2003): 745-760.

McAleavy, Henry. Wang T’ao. The Life and Writings of a Displaced Person. London: The China Society, 1953.  [a lecture delivered at The China Society of London on 22 May 1952; includes a translation of ‘Mei-Li Hsiao Chuan’, a Short Story by Wang T’ao]

Yeh, Catherine Vance. “The Life-Style of Four Wenren in Late Qing Shanghai.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 57, 1 (1997): 419-70. [deals with Wang Tao, Chen Jitong, Zeng Pu, and Jin Songcen]

Wang Tongzhao 王统照

Fu, Po-shek. “Wang Tongzhao and the Idea of Resistance Enlightenment: Symbolic Resistance in Occupied China, 1937-1945.” Modern Chinese Literature 5, 2 (1989): 219-46.

—–. “Passivity: Wang Tongzhao and the Ideal of Resistance Enlightenment.” In Fu, Passivity, Resistance, and Collaboration: Intellectual Choices in Occupied Shanghai, 1937-1945. Stanford: SUP, 1993, 21-67.

Wang Wenxing 王文兴

“Bibliography of Wang Wen-hsing’s Works.” In Shu-ning Sciban and Fred Edwards, eds., Endless War: Fiction and Essays by Wang Wen-hsing. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asian Program, Cornell University, 2011.

Chang, Han-liang. “Graphemics and Novel Interpretation: The Case of Wang Wen-hsing.” Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992): 133-56.

Chang, Yvonne Sung-Sheng. “Language, Narrative and Stream of Consciousness: The two novels of Wang Wen-hsing.” Modern Chinese Literature 1, 1 (1984): 43-56.

—–. “Wang Wenxing’s Backed Against the Sea, Parts I and II: The Meaning of Modernism in Taiwang’s Contemporary Literature.” In David Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 156-79.

Chen, Li-fen. Fictionality and Reality in Narrative Discourse: A Reading of Four Contemporary Taiwanese Writers. Ph. D. diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 2000.[chapters on Ch’en Ying-chen, Ch’i-Teng Sheng, Wang Chen-ho, and Wang Wen-hsing; available through Dissertation.com]

—–. “Author as Performer: The Making of Authorship in The Man behind the Book.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 31, 1  (Spring 2019): 161-191.

Cheung, Sally J.S. Kao. “Chia-Pien: A ‘Revolutionary’ Chinese Novel of Today.” Fu Jen Studies 11 (1978): 1-12.

“Chronology of Wang Wen-hsing’s Life.” In Shu-ning Sciban and Fred Edwards, eds., Endless War: Fiction and Essays by Wang Wen-hsing. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asian Program, Cornell University, 2011.

Findieson, Raoul. “An Enquiry into Interventions on Two Manuscript Stages of Jiabian (1966-72) by Wang Wenxing.” Studia Orientalia Slovaca 11, 1 (2012).

Gunn, Edward. “The Process of Wang Wen-hsing’s Art.” Modern Chinese Literature 1, 1 (1984): 29-42.

Lupke, Christopher. “Wang Wenxing and the ‘Loss’ of China.” Boundary 2. Special Issue ed. Rey Chow. 25, 2 (Fall 1998): 97-128.

Prado-Fonts, Carles. “Wang Wenxing.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 235-44.

Sciban, Shu-ning. Wang Wenxing’s Poetic Language. Ph.d. diss. University of Toronto, 1995.

—–. “Introduction: Wang Wen-hsing’s Life and Works.” In Shu-ning Sciban and Fred Edwards, eds., Endless War: Fiction and Essays by Wang Wen-hsing. Ithaca, NY: Cornell East Asian Program, Cornell University, 2011.

—–. “How to Do Thngs with Neolgisms: A Study of Wang Wenxing’s Language.” In Kirk A. Denton, ed., Crossing between Tradition and Modernity: Essays in Commemoration of Milena Doleželová-Velingerová (1932-2012). Prague: Karolinum, 2016, 47-60.

Shan, Te-hsing. “Wang Wen-hsing on Wang Wen-hsing.” Modern Chinese Literature 1, 1 (1984): 57-66.

—–. “The Stream of Consciousness Technique in Wang Wen-hsing’s Fiction.” Tamkang Review 15, 1-4 (1984-85): 523-45.

Shu, James C.T. “Iconoclasm in Wang Wen-hsing’s Chia-pien.” In Jeannette L. Faurot, ed., Chinese Fiction from Taiwan: Critical Perspectives. Bloomington: IUP, 1980, 179-93.

—–. “Iconoclasm in Taiwan Literature: ‘A Change in the Family.'” Chinese Literature Essays Articles and Reviews 2, 1 (1980): 73-85.

So, Francis K. H. “Wang Wen-hsing’s Religious Dimension: A Catholic Perspective.” In Francis K.H. So, Beatrice K.F. Leung, and Ellen Mary Mylod, eds., The Catholic Church in Taiwan: Problems and Prospects. Singapore: Pagrave Macmillan, 2018, 175-94.

The Wang Wen-hsing Archive (Chung-hsing University, Humanities and Social Sciences Research Center)

Wang Xiaobo 王小波

Chen, Wenye. “Blending Past and Present: Wang Xiaobo’s The Bronze Age.” In Arthur K. Wardega, ed., Belief, History and the Individual in Modern Chinese Literary Culture. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009, 42-58.

Huang, Yibing. “Wang Xiaobo: From “Golden Age” to “Silver Age,” or, Writing Against the Gravity of History.” In Huang, Contemporary Chinese Literature: From the Cultural Revolution to the Future. NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Larson, Wendy. “Okay, Whatever: Intellectuals, Sex, and Time in Wang Xiaobo’s The Golden Years,” The China Review: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Greater China 3, 1 (Spring 2003), 29-56. Also published as “L’indifférance, les intellectuals, le sexe et le temps dans L’Âge d’or de Wang Xiaobo,” Écrit au présent: Débats littéraires franco-chinois, ed. Annie Curien, Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme, Paris, 2004.

[Abstract: Wang Xiaobo’s fiction has amazed and impressed critics, who find in it a powerful if sometimes bizarre model of the intellectual under state power. This kind of intellectual is high-lighted in Wang’s award-winning novel The Golden Years, where the ubiquitous Wang Er is living as an educated youth who like many others has been sent down to the countryside. Central to his character is an unemotional emphasis on sexual pleasure that through sensitive appreciation, slight melancholy, and a sense of fatefulness differentiates itself from the more cynical and alienated hedonism common in fiction that overtly criticizes capitalist consumerism. Also part of this stance is a rejection of ordinary ways of understanding history, and a focus on time as experienced subjectively and through reflective memory. Wang Er emerges neither as an example of collective socialist identity, nor as a contemporary capitalist subject formed through a psychologized, angst-laden personality. Overall, Wang Xiaobo’s writing avoids revolutionary passion while disregarding market enthusiasm, in the process gently mocking revolutionary strategies of self-identity such as confession and personal accounting and putting in their place a covertly philosophical and aesthetic approach to life.]

—–. “The Spirit of the Countryside: Mang Ke’s Wild Things and Wang Xiaobo’s The Golden Years.” In Larson, From Ah Q to Lei Feng: Freud and Revolutionary Spirit in 20th Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2009, 115-54.

—–. “Review of Wang in Love and Bondage: Three Novellas by Wang Xiaobo.” Trs. Hongling Zhang and Jason Sommer. (Albany: SUNY Press, 2007). MCLC Resource Center (Dec. 2007).

Lin, Qingxin. “History, Fiction, and Metafiction.” In Brushing History Against the Grain: Reading the Chinese New Historical. Fiction (1986-1999). HK: Hong Kong UP, 2005, 175-205.

Ma, Yue. “Wang Xiaobo: The Double Temptation of Revolution and Sexual Allurement.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 31, 2 (July 2005): 201-25.

Qin, Liyan. “The Sublime and the Profane: A Comparative Analysis of Two Fictional Narratives about Sent-down Youth.” In Joseph Esherick, Paul Pickowicz, Andrew Walder, eds., The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006, 240-66. [compares Liang Xiaosheng’s Snowstorm Tonight and Wang Xiaobo’s The Golden Age]

Shi, Anbin. “Body Writing and Corporeal Feminism: Reconstructing Gender Identity in Contemporary China.” In Shi, A Comparative Approach to Redefining Chinese-ness in the Era of Globalization. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2003, 129-206. [part of this chapter deals with Wang’s story “East Palace, West Palace,” which was the basis for Zhang Yuan’s film of the same name]

Veg, Sebastian. “Utopian Fiction and Critical Examination: The Cultural Revolution in Wang Xiaobo’s The Golden Age.” China Perpectives 4 (2007): 75-87. Rpt. in Arthur K. Wardega, ed., Belief, History and the Individual in Modern Chinese Literary Culture. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009, 19-41.

—–. “The Subversive ‘Pleasure of Thinking.'” China Perspectives 1 (2008): 109-113.

—–. “Wang Xiaobo and the No Longer Silent Majority.” In Jean-Philippe Beja, ed., The Impact of China’s 1989 Tiananmen Massacre. NY: Routledge, 2011, 49-65.

—–. “Commemorating an Anti-Authoritarian Provocateur: Reflections on Wang Xiaobo.” LA Review of Books, China Blog (April 11, 2017).

Wang Xiaobo.com [website devoted to the writer Wang Xiaobo, with texts, etc.]

Wu, Jin. The Voices of Revolt: Zhang Chengzhi, Wang Shuo and Wang Xiaobo. Ph.D. diss. Eugene: University of Oregon, 2005.

Wang Xiaoni 王小妮

Goodman, Eleanor. “Poetry, Translation, and Labor.” In Maghiel van Crevel and Lucas Klein, eds., Chinese Poetry and Translation: Rights and Wrongs. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2019, 45-68. (With case studies of Wang Xiaoni 王小妮, Zang Di 藏棣, Zheng Xiaoqiong 郑小琼.)

Wang Xiezhu 王颉竹

Wagner, Rudolf. The Contemporary Chinese Historical Drama. Berkeley: UCP, 1990, 314-17. [deals with “Tang Wang na jian” (Tang Emperor Accepts Remonstrance)]

Wang Xindi 王辛笛

Xia, Zhongyi and Brian Skerratt. “Against the Grain of History: In Search of Humanity in the Mao Era: The Contemporary Classical Poetry of Chen Yinke, Nie Gannu, and Wang Xindi.” Journal of Chinese Literature and Culture 3, 2 (Nov. 2016): 429-47.

[Abstract: This article argues that the classical verse of three twentieth-century writers, Chen Yinke 陳寅恪 (1890–1969), Nie Gannu 聶紺弩 (1903–86), and Wang Xindi 王辛笛 (1912–2004), is significant to the canon of contemporary Chinese literature. The literary historical merit of their poetry is due not only to its aesthetic accomplishments but even more to the poets’ specific responses to the challenges posed to human dignity during the thought reform campaigns of the 1950s and the Cultural Revolution. Whereas Chen Yinke’s last twenty years demonstrate the faith and hauteur of a scholar who wore the mantle of the entire classical tradition, Nie Gannu expresses the deepest despair through deceptively humorous rustic topics, and Wang Xindi’s grief over separation and loss recall Du Fu’s poetry of the An Lushan Rebellion. Although the thirty years between the establishment of the People’s Republic of China through the end of the Cultural Revolution may have been a time when intellectuals were intimidated into conformity or silence, these three poets show that such hardship created an opportunity to exalt the spirit of individual dignity, if only through poetry.

Wang Yuewen 王跃文

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Anticorruption by Indirection: Wang Yuewen’s National Portrait.” In In Kinkley, Corruption and Realism in Late Socialist China. Palo Alto: Stanford UP, 2007, 104-24. [Publisher’s blurb]

Wang Zengqi 汪曾祺

Curien, Annie. “Traditions d’actualité dan l’oeuvre de Wang Zengqi.” In La Littèrature chinoise contemporaine, tradition et modernité: colloque d’Aix-en-Provence, le 8 juin 1988. Aix-en-Provence: Publications de l’Université de Provence, 1989, 19-22.

Day, Steven. “Wang Zengqi.” In Thomas Moran and Ye (Dianna) Xu, eds., Chinese Fiction Writers, 1950-2000. Dictionary of Literature Biography, vol. 370. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2013, 245-54.

FitzGerald, Carolyn. “Imaginary Sites of Memory: Wang Zengqi and Post-Mao Reconstructions of the Native Land.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 1 (Spring 2008): 72-128.

—–. “Wang Zengqi’s Collection of Chance Encounters: The Shifting Essence of the Wartime Short Story.” In Fitzgerald, Fragmenting Modernisms: Chinese Wartime Literature, Art, and Film, 1937-49. Leiden: Brill, 2013, 125-67.

Wang Zhenhe 王祯和

Chen, Li-fen. Fictionality and Reality in Narrative Discourse: A Reading of Four Contemporary Taiwanese Writers. Ph. D. diss. Seattle: University of Washington, 2000.[chapters on Ch’en Ying-chen, Ch’i-Teng Sheng, Wang Chen-ho, and Wang Wen-hsing; available through Dissertation.com]

Chen, Ya-chen. “Taiwan Rose, I Love You: A Dialogue with Japan and Vietnam.” In Christina Neder and Ines Susanne Schilling, eds., Transformation! Innovation? Perspectives on Taiwan Culture.Wiesbaden, Germany: Harrassowitz, 2003, 196-202.

Huang, I-min. “A Postmodern Reading of Rose, Rose I Love You.Tamkang Review 17, 1 (1986): 27-45.

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Mandarin Kitsch and Taiwanese Kitsch in the Fiction of Wang Chen-ho.” Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992): 85-114.

Yang, Robert Yi. “Form and Tone in Wang Chen-ho’s Satires.” In Jeannette L. Faurot, ed., Chinese Fiction from Taiwan. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1980, 134-47.

Wei An 苇岸

Wei Qingqi and Kyhl Lyndgaard. “Wei An (1960-1999): A Storyteller of Mother Earth.” Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment 15, 1 (Winter 2008): 189-94.

Zhou, Yulin. “All That Happens on Earth: On Wei An’s Deep Ecological View.” MA thesis. Victoria: University of Victoria, 2008.

Wei Hui 卫慧

Cowley, Jason. “Bridget Jones with Blow Jobs.” (interview with Chinese novelist Zhou Wei Hui). New Statesman (July 23, 2001).

Hillenbrand, Margaret. “Murakami Haruki in Greater China: Creative Responses and the Quest for Cosmopolitanism.” Journal of Asian Studies 68, 3 (2009): 715-747. [deals in part with Wei Hui’s fiction]

Knight, Sabina. “Self-Ownership and Capitalist Values in 1990s Chinese Fiction.” In Knight, The Heart of Time: Moral Agency in Twentieth-Century Chinese Fiction. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2006, 222-58. [deals in part with Shanghai Baby]

—–. “Shanghai Cosmopolitan: Class, Gender and Cultural Citizenship in Weihui’s Shanghai Babe.” Journal of Contemporary China 12.37 (2003): 639-653. Rpt. in Jie Lu, ed., China’s Literary and Cultural Scene at the Turn of the 21st Century. NY: Routledge, 2008, 43-58.

—–. “Residual Romanticism in a Contemporary Shanghai Novel.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 11, 1 (2017): 106-32.

[Abstract: Through a close reading of Wei Hui’s bestseller Shanghai Baby (1999), this article highlights five elements to delimit a post‐romantic neoliberal literary sensibility and its ruptures: (1) a “melotraumatic” quest for exuberance, (2) denial of dependency, (3) a celebration of individual choice and market rationalities, (4) disillusionment and disappointment, and (5) a quest for intelligibility through narrative. Along the way I probe the narrator’s residual romanticism as a little‐addressed foundation of the novel’s testimony to a generational sensibility. By examining the relationship between Coco the narrator and Coco the protagonist, I contend that the narrator’s sustained self‐remembering evokes her growing unease with neoliberal values. The tension between post‐romantic cynicism and residual romanticism suggests the extent to which a supposedly dissident novel may entice precisely for the ways its deep structure reinforces dominant discourses. Whereas Coco the protagonist follows a logic of consumerism, Coco the narrator gestures to non‐commercial values—loyalty, care, empathy, trust, and solidarity. Appreciating the novel’s residual romanticism alongside its post‐romantic cynicism sheds new light on the story, its context, ambiguous feminism, and reception.]

Kuoshu, Harry. “Shanghai Baby, Chinese Xiaozi, and ‘Pirated’ Lifestyels in the Age of Globalization.” Concentric: Literary and Cultural Studies 31, 2 (July 2005): 85-100.

Lu, Hongwei. “Body-Writing: Shanghai Baby‘s Love Affair with Transnational Capitalism.” Chinese Literature Today (Summer 2010): 39-44.

Lyne, Sandra. “Consuming Madame Chrysanthème: Loti’s ‘dolls’ to Shanghai Baby.Intersections 8 (Oct. 2002).

Schaffer, Kay and Xianlin Song. “‘Beauty Writers,’ Consumer Culture and Global China: Wei Hui’s Shanghai Baby, Mian Mian’s Candy and the Internet Generation.” In Schaffer and Song, Women Writers in Postsocialist China. London: Routledge, 2014, 77-102.

Shang Baby website [with interviews and short essays)

Shao Yanjun. “A Study of the Phenomenon of ‘Pretty Women’s Writing’: Weihui, Mianmian, Chunshu.” Wasafiri 55 (2008): 13-18.

Shen, Yuanfang. “Sexuality in East-West Encounters: Shanghai Baby and Mistaken Love.” HECATE, an interdisciplinary journal of women’s liberation 27, 2 (2001): 97-105.

Shi, Anbin. “Body Writing and Corporeal Feminism: Reconstructing Gender Identity in Contemporary China.” In Shi, A Comparative Approach to Redefining Chinese-ness in the Era of Globalization. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press, 2003, 129-206. [much of this chapter deals with Shanghai Baby (aka Shanghai Jewel)]

Weber, Ian. “Shanghai Baby: Negotiating Youth Self-Identity in Urban China.” Social Identities 8, 2 (2002): 347-368.

Zhong, Xueping. “Who Is a Feminist? Understanding the Ambivalence towards Shanghai Baby, ‘Body Writing’ and Feminism in Post-Women’s Liberation China.” Gender & History 18, 3 (Nov. 2006): 635-660.

Wei Minglun 魏明伦

Braester, Yomi. “Rewriting Tradition, Misreading History: Twentieth-Century (Sub)versions of Pan Jinlian’s Story.” In Braester, Witness Against History: Literature, Film, and Public Discourse in Twentieth-Century China. Stanford: Stanford UP, 2003, 56-80. [deals with Wei Minglun’s Pan Jinlian, as well as Ouyang Yuqian’s play of the same title]

Wen Yiduo 闻一多

Hoffmann, Peter, ed. Poet, Scholar, Patriot: In Honour of Wen Yiduo’s 100th Anniversary. Bochum / Freiburg: Projektverlag, 2004.

Hsu, Kai-yu. “The Life and Poetry of Wen I-to.” Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies 21. (Dec., 1958): 134-79.

—–. Wen I-to. Boston: Twayne, 1980.

McClellan, T. M. “Wen Yiduo’s ‘Sishui’ Metre: Themes, Variations and a Classic Variation.” Chinese Literature: Essays, Articles, Reviews 21 (1999): 151-67 . [available on Project MUSE]

Meng, Liansu. “From Tsinghua to Chicago: Wen Yiduo’s Transnational Conception of an Eco-poetics.” Korea Journal of Chinese Language and Literature 58 (2014): 53-104.

Olney, Charles V. “The Chinese Poet Wen I-to.” Journal of Oriental Literature, 7 (1966); 8-17.

Uberoi, Patricia. “Rhythmic Techniques in the Poetry of Wen I-to.” United College Journal 6 (1967-68): 1-25.

van Crevel, Maghiel. “Who Needs Form? Wen Yiduo’s Poetics and Post-Mao Poetry.” In Peter Hoffmann, ed, Poet, Scholar, Patriot: In Honour of Wen Yiduo’s 100th Anniversary. Bochum / Freiburg: Projektverlag, 2004, 81-110.

Wong, Wang-chi. “‘I am a Prisoner in Exile’: Wen Yiduo in the United States.” In Gregory Lee, ed., Chinese Writing and Exile. Chicago: Center for East Asian Studies, The University of Chicago, 1993, 19-34.

Weng Nao 翁鬧

Lin, Pei-yin. “Stylistic Innovation and Reorientation: Lu Heruo, Long Yingzong, and Weng Nao.” In Lin, Colonial Taiwan: Negotiating Identities and Modernity through Literature. Leiden: Brill, 2017, 130-82.

Wong Bikwan

(See Huang Biyun)

Wu Han 吴晗

Ansley, Clive.The Heresy of Wu Han: His Play ‘Hai Rui’s Dismissal and its Role in China’s Cultural Revolution. Toronto: UT Press, 1971.

Fisher, Tom. “‘The Play’s the Thing’: Wu Han and Hai Rui Revisited.” In J. Unger, ed., Using the Past to Serve the Present: Historiography and Politics in Contemporary China. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1993, 9-45. Originally published: Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 7 (1982).

—–. “Wu Han, the Cultural Revolution, and the Biography of Zhu Yuanzhang: An Introduction.” Ming Studies 11 (1980): 33-43.

Mazur, Mary Gale. “Studying Wu Han: The Political Academic.” Republican China 15, 2 (1990): 17-39.

—–. Wu Han, Historian: Son of China’s Times. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2009.

[Abstract: This biography spotlights the life of a key Chinese intellectual, Wu Han, well known in China as a major twentieth-century historian and democratic political figure. World attention was drawn to Wu in the mid-1960s as the first of Mao Zedong’s targets in the Cultural Revolution. The biography locates Wu in the rapid changes in the social and political environment of his times, from the early years of the twentieth century until his death in prison in 1969. With Wu Han’s life as the focus, the narrative deals with the momentous changes in Chinese society and government during the last century. Mazur bases the biographical account on extensive interviewing in China, and penetrates a great deal deeper than the conventional conception of the shift from Nationalist to Communist regimes in the PRC. ]

Pusey, James Reeve. Wu Han: Attacking the Present Through the Past. Cambridge: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1969.

Wagner, Rudolf. The Contemporary Chinese Historical Drama. Berkeley: UCP, 1990, 289-302. [deals with “Hai Rui baguan”]

Wu He 舞鹤 (see Wuhe)

Wu Jiwen 吳繼文

Rojas, Carlos. “The Ruins of Representation in the Fiction of Wu Jiwen.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 5, 1 (2001): 29-64.

Sang, Tze-lan Deborah. “From Flowers to Boys: Queer Adaptation in Wu Jiwen’s The Fin-de-siècle Boy Love Reader.” In Howard Chiang and Ari Larissa  Heinrich, eds., Queer Sinophone Cultures. NY: Routledge, 2014, 67-83.

Wu Jinfa 吳錦發

Berg, Daria. “Wu Jinfa and the Melancholy Mountain Forests of China’s Border Cultures: New Voices in Taiwanese Literature.” In David Faure, ed., Search of the Hunters and their Tribes. Taipei: Shung Ye Museum, 2001, 202-240.

Wu Mansha 吳漫沙

Lin, Pei-yin. “Popular Romances and Their Alternative Modernities: Xu Kunquan and Wu Mansha.” In Lin, Colonial Taiwan: Negotiating Identities and Modernity through Literature. Leiden: Brill, 2017, 98-128.

Wu Mi 吴宓

Ong, Chang Woei. “On Wu Mi’s Conservativism.” Humanitas 12, 1 (1999). 9).

Wang, Songlin. “I.A. Richards and Wu Mi: Basic English, Vernacular Chinese, and Chung Yung.” The Cambridge Quarterly 41, 1 (March 2012): 66-81.

Wu Mingshi (Pu Ning 卜寧) 无名氏

Bu Shaofu, ed. Wumingshi yanjiu (Research on Wumingshi). HK: Xinwen tiandi, 1981.

Rojas, Carlos. “Wu Mingshi (Bu Baonan).” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 228-34.

—–. “Wumingshi and Pictorial Fetishism.” In Rojas, The Naked Gaze: Reflections on Chinese Modernity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2008, 111-35.

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

—–. On the Margins of Modernism: Xu Xu, Wumingshi and Popular Chinese Literature in the 1940s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017.

[Abstract: Xu Xu and Wumingshi were among the most widely read authors in China during and after the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), but although they were an integral part of the Chinese literary scene their bestselling fiction has been given scant attention in histories of Chinese writing. This groundbreaking book, the first book-length study of Xu Xu and Wumingshi in English or any other western language, re-establishes their importance within the popular Chinese literature of the 1940s. With in-depth analyses of their innovative short stories and novels, Christopher Rosenmeier demonstrates how these important writers incorporated and adapted narrative techniques from Shanghai modernist writers like Shi Zhecun and Mu Shiying, contesting the view that modernism had little lasting impact in China and firmly positioning these two figures within the literature of their times.]

Wang, Xiaoping. “An Alienated Mind Dreaming for Integration: Constrained Cosmopolitanism in Wumingshi’s ‘Modern Literati Novel.'” Journal of Australian Popular Culture 2, 3 (Sept. 2012).

[Abstract: Mainstream scholarship on Wumingshi – a marginal figure in modern Chinese literary history, but a very popular writer in the 1940s – interprets his writings as ‘neo-romanticism’, ‘late romanticism’ or ‘popular modernism’. This study, through the practice of political hermeneutics, contends that his works are in fact an example of ‘modern literati fiction’ or ‘fiction of ideas’ – a sort of middlebrow fiction for the popular culture market of modern China.]

Wu Mingshi. “Prologue: The Secret of the Cave.” In Pu Ning, Red in Tooth and Claw: Twenty-Six Years in Communist Chinese Prisons. Tr. Tung Chung-hsuan. NY: Grove, 1994, xxv-xxvii.

Wu Mingyi 吳明益

Byrnes, Corey. “Review of The Man with the Compound Eyes.” MCLC Resource Center (Oct. 2014.

Chang, Yalan Kathryn. 2016. “If Nature Had a Voice: A Material-Oriented Environmental Reading of Fuyanren (The man with the compound eyes).” In Chia-ju Chang and Scott Slovic, eds., Ecocriticism in Taiwan: Identity, Environment, and the Arts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 95–110.

Chou, Shiuhhuah Serena. “Sense of Wilderness, Sense of Time: Mingyi Wu’s Nature Writing and the Aesthetics of Change.” In Simon C. Estok and Won-Chung Kim, eds., East Asian Ecocriticisms: A Critical Reader. NY: Palgrave MacMillan, 2013.

—–. “The Man with the Compound Eyes and the Worlding of Environmental Literature.” In Simon C. Estok and Murali Sivaramakrishnan, eds., CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 16, no. 4 (2014).

Gaffric, Gwennaël. Taïwan, écriture et écologie: explorations écocritiques autour des oeuvres de Wu Ming-Yi (Taiwan, writing, and ecology: ecocritical explorations around the works of Wu Ming-Yi). Ph.D. diss. Lyon: Université Lyon III – Jean Moulin, 2014.

——. La Littérature à l’ère de l’Anthropocène. Une étude écocritique autour des œuvres de l’écrivain taïwanais Wu Ming-yi [Literature at the Age of Anthropocene: An Ecocritical Reading of Wu Ming-yi’s Works]. Paris: L’Asiatèque, 2019.

Juan, Rose Hsiu-li. 2016. “Imagining the Pacific Trash Vortex and the Spectacle of Environmental Disaster: Environmental Entanglement and Literary Entanglement in Wu Ming-Yi’s Fuyanren (The man with the compound eyes).” In Chia-ju Chang and Scott Slovic, eds., Ecocriticism in Taiwan: Identity, Environment, and the Arts. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 79–94.

Sterk, Darryl. “The Apotheosis of Montage: The Videomosaic Gaze of The Man with the Compound Eyes as Postmodern Ecological Sublime.”  Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 28, 2  (Fall 2016): 183-222.

Wu Qiang 吳強

Li, Peter. “War and Modernity in Chinese Military Fiction.” Society 34, 5 (July 1997): 77-89. [deals in part with Du Pengcheng’s Defend Yan’an and Wu Qiang’s Red Sun]

Wu Ruozeng 吴若增

Xiao, Hui Faye. “Midlife Crisis and Misogynist Rhetoric in Male Intellectuals’ Divorce Narratives.” In Xiao, Family Revolution: Marital Strife in Contemporary Chinese Literature and Visual Culture. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press, 2014, 52-84.

Wu Sheng 吳晟

Lin, Julia. “Wu Sheng: A Poet of the Soul.” In Lin, Essays on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1985, 134-49.

Wu Shutian 吴曙天

Findeisen, Raoul. “Un couple de ‘litteratuers’: Wu Shutian et Zhang Yiping.” In Jean-Louis Boully, ed., Ouvrages en langue chinoise de l’Institut franco-chinois de Lyon, 1921-1946. Lyon: Bibliotheque municipale de Lyon, nd., xxlii-lx.

Wu Wenguang 吴文光

Salter, Denis. “China’s Theatre of Dissent: A Conversation with Mou Sen and Wu Wenguang.” Asian Theatre Journal 13, 2 (1996): 218-22.

Wu Woyao (or Wu Jianren) 吴沃尧

Egan, Michael. “Characterization in Sea of Woe.” In Milena Dolezelova-Velingerova, ed., The Chinese Novel at the Turn of the Century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980, 165-76.

Hanan, Patrick. “Introduction.” In The Sea of Regret: Two Turn of the Century Chinese Romantic Novels. Trs. Patrick Hanan. Honolulu: University of Hawii Press, 1995, 1-17.

—–. “Wu Jianren and the Narrator.” In Hanan, Chinese Fiction of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

—–. “Specific Literary Relations of Sea of Regret.” In Hanan, Chinese Fiction of the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. NY: Columbia UP, 2004.

Huters, Theodore. “The Shattered Mirror: Wu Jianren and the Reflection of Strange Events.” In Huters, et. al., eds., Culture and State in Chinese History: Conventions, Accomodations, and Critiques. Stanford: Stanford UP, 277-99.

—–. “Wu Jianren: Engaging the World.” In Huters, Bringing the World Home: Appropriating the West in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005, 123-50.

—–. “Melding East and West: Wu Jianren’s New Story of the Stone.” In Huters, Bringing the World Home: Appropriating the West in Late Qing and Early Republican China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2005, 151-73.

—–. “Creating Subjectivity in Wu Jianren’s The Sea of Regret.” I n David Wang and Shang Wei, eds., Dynastic Crisis and Cultural Innovation: From the Late Ming to the Late Qing and Beyond. Cambridge: Harvard Asia Center, 2005, 451-477.

—–. “Wu Jianren (Wo Foshanren).” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 212-19.

Isaacson, Nathaniel. “Wu Jianren and Late Qing SF.” In Isaacson, Celestial Empire: The Emergence of Chinese Science Fiction. Middleton, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2017, 60-92.

Tang, Xiaobing. “Trauma and Passion in The Sea of Regret: The Ambiguous Beginnings of Modern Chinese Literature.” In Tang, Chinese Modern: The Heroic and the Quotidian. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 11-48.

Wei Shaochang, ed. Wu Jianren yanjiu ziliao (Research materials on Wu Jianren). Shanghai: Shanghai guji, 1980.

Wu Xinghua 吴兴华

Hockx, Michel. “Wu Xinghua, the Poetics of new Poetry, and the Taiwanese Poetry Scene of the 1950s.” In Christina Neder et al. eds., China in Seinen Biographischen Dimension: Gedenkscrift fur Helmut Martin. Weisbaden: Harrossowitz Verlag, 2001, 313-30.

Wu Ying 吴瑛

Smith, Norman. “Regulating Chinese Women’s Sexuality During the Japanese Occupation of Manchuria: Between the Lines of Wu Ying’s “Yu” (Lust) and Yang Xu’s Wo de Riji (My Diary).” Journal of the History of Sexuality 13, 1 (Jan. 2004): 49-70.

Wu Yu 吴虞

Stapelton, Kristin. “Generational and Cultural Fissures in the May Fourth Movement: Wu Yu (1872-1949) and the Politics of Family Reform.” In Kai-wing Chow, Tze-ki Hon, Hung-yok Ip, and Don Price, eds., Beyond the May Fourth Paradigm: In Search of Chinese Modernity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2008.

Wu Zhuoliu (Wu Cho-liu) 吳濁流

Chien, I-ming. “The Eyes of an Orphan: Gazing at the Self and Imagining the Other in the Travel Diaries of Wu Choliu.” Taiwan Literature, English Translation Series 15 (2004): 199-239.

Chu Yuzhi 禇昱志. 2010. Wu Zhuoliu ji qi xiaoshuo zhi yanjiu 吳濁流及其小說之研究 (A study on Wu Zhuoliu and his fictions). Taipei: Xiuwei zixun keji.

Gescher, Christa. ‘Taiwanbewusstsein’ versus ‘Chinabewusstsein’: Der Taiwanische Schrifsteller Wu Choliu (1900-1976) in Speiger der Literaturkritik. Dortmund: Projekt Verlag, 1997.

Liao, Ping-hui. “Travel in Early-Twentieth-Century Asia: On Wu Zhuoliu’s “Nanking Journals” and His Notion of Taiwan’s Alternative Modernity.” In David Der-wei Wang and Carlos Rojas eds., Writing Taiwan: A New Literary History. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2006, 285-300.

Lin, Pei-yin. “The Lure of China: Zhong Lihe and Wu Zhuoliu.” In Lin, Colonial Taiwan: Negotiating Identities and Modernity through Literature. Leiden: Brill, 2017, 232-72.

Mori, Makiko. “Performativity in Colonial Taiwan Literature: From Ria to Madman in Wu Zhuoliu’s Ko Shimei.Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 26, 2 (Fall 2014): 142-76.

Scruggs, Bert. “Identity and Free Will in Colonial Taiwan Fiction: Wu Zhuoliu’s ‘The Doctor’s Mother’ and Wang Changxiong’s ‘Torrent.'” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 2 (Fall 2004): 160-83.

Shi Yining 石一寧. 2006. Wu Zhuoliu: miandui xin yujing 吳濁流:面對新語境 (Wu Zhuoliu: in the face of the new context). Beijing: Zuojia.

Tsai, Chien-hsin. 2013. “At the Crossroads: Orphan of Asia, Postloyalism, and Sinophone Studies.” Sun Yat-sen Journal of Humanities 35 (July): 27–46.

—–. “Orphans of Asia.” In David Der-Wei Wang, ed., A New Literary History of Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2017, 607-12.

—–. “Wu Zhuoliu and Orphan as Metaphor.” In Tsai, A Passage to China: Literature, Loyalism, and Colonial Taiwan. Cambridge: Harvard University Asia Center, 2017, 251-80.

Tu, K. C.. “Foreword: Lai Ho, Wu Cho-liu, and Taiwan Literature.” Taiwan Literature English Translation Series 15 (2004): xix-xxx.

Wang, Xiaojue. “Wu Zhuoliu, Orphanization, and Colonial Modernity in Taiwan.” In Wang, Modernity with a Cold War Face: Reimagining the Nation in Chinese Literature Across the 1949 Divide. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013, 155-201. [MCLC Resource Center review by Jeffrey C. Kinkley]

Wu, Chien-heng. “‘Tiger’s Leap into the Past’: Comparative Temporality and the Politics of Redemption in The Orphan of Asia.” In Shu-mei Shih and Ping-hui Liao, eds., Comparatizing Taiwan. London: Routledge, 2015, 33-58.

The Wu Zhuoliu Archive (Chung-hsing University, Humanities and Social Sciences Research Center)

Wu Zuguang 吴祖光

Wu Zuguang: A Disaffected Gentleman.” China Heritage Quarterly 25 (March 2011).

Wu Zuxiang 吴组缃

Campbell, Catherine. “Political Transformation in Wu Zuxiang’s Wartime Novel Shanhong.” Modern Chinese Literature 5, 2 (1989): 293-324.

Hsia, C.T. “Wu Tsu-hsiang.” In C.T. Hsia. A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, 281-87.

Tang Yuan 唐沅. Wu Zuxiang zuopin xinshang 吴组缃作品欣赏 (An appreciation of the works of Wu Zuxiang). Nanning: Guangxi renmin, 1986.

Williams, Philip. Village Echoes: The Fiction of Wu Zuxiang. Boulder: Westview, 1993.

Williams, Philip F. “20th-Century Iconoclasm in a Classical Tragedy: Wu Zuxiang’s ‘Fan Hamlet.'” Republican China 18, 1 (1993): 1-22.

—–. “Wu Zuxiang.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 220-27.

Wuhe 舞鹤

Bachner, Andrea. “Graphic Germs: Mediality, Virulence, Chinese Writing.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 1 (Spring 2011): 197-225.

Berry, Michael. “Fiction and Fieldwork: In Conversation with Wu He on Remains of Life.” Chinese Literature Today 9, 1 (2020): 98-102.

Payne, Christopher Neil. “Opening Doors: Countermemory in Wuhe’s Early Short Stories.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 1 (Spring 2008): 173-217.

—–. “Queer Otherwise: Anti-Sociality in Wuhe’s Gui’er and Ayao.” Archiv orientální 81, 3 (2013): 539-554.

—–. “Wushe, Literature, and Melodic Black Metal: The ‘Nonpolitics’ of Wuhe and the ‘Political’ ChthoniC.” positions: asia critique 22, 2 (spring 2014): 403-28.

Veg, Sebastian. “Surviving Civilization: Rereading the History of Taiwan and Modernity” [review of Wu He, Les Survivants (The Survivors), trans. Esther Lin-Rosolato and Emmanuelle Péchenart (Arles, Actes Sud, 2011).] China Perspectives 1 (2012): 69-72.

Wu, Chia-rong. “Spatial Politics and Cultural Landscapes.” In Wu, Supernatural Sinophone Taiwan and Beyond. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2016


X

Xi Chuan 西川

van Crevel, Maghiel. “Xi Chuan’s ‘Salute’: Avante-Garde Poetry in a Changing China.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 11, 2 (Fall 1999): 107-49. Expanded and revised as “Mind over Matter, Matter over Mind: Xi Chuan.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 187-221.

—–. “Fringe Poetry, But Not Prose: Works by Xi Chuan and Yu Jian.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 3, 2 (Jan. 2000): 7-42. Revised as “Fringe Poetry, But Not Prose: Xi Chuan and Yu Jian.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money. Leiden: Brill, 2008, 223-246.

—–. “Mind Over Matter: On Xi Chuan’s Poetry.” The Drunken Boat (Spring/Summer 2006).

—–. ” Not at Face Value: Xi Chuan’s Explicit Poetics.”Iin Olga Lomova ed., Recarving the Dragon: Understanding Chinese Poetics. Prague: Karolinum Press, Charles University, 327-346. Revised as “Not at Face Value: Xi Chuan’s Explicit Poetics.” In van Crevel, Chinese Poetry in Times of Mind, Mayhem and Money, Leiden: Brill, 2008, 345-363.

Hass, Robert. “Two Poets: A Generation after the ‘Misty School,’ Chinese Poetry Has Come Alive Again.” Believer (June 2010).

Klein, Lucas. “Poetry of the Anti-Lyric.” Cerise Press 3, 7 (Summer 2011).

—–. Notes on the Mosquito: A Blog on Xi Chuan and Chinese Poetry in English Translation.

—–. “On Xi Chuan and Translating ‘Written at Thirty.'” Poetry Society of America.

—–. “Same Difference: Xi Chuan’s Notes on the Mosquito and the Translation of Poetry, Prose Poetry, and Prose.” Translation Review 93, 1 (2015): 41-50.

—–. “Annotating the Aporias of History: The ‘International Style,’ Chinese Modernism, and World Literature in Xi Chuan’s Poetry.” In Paul Manfredi and Christopher Lupke, eds., Chinese Poetic Modernisms. Leiden: Brill, 2019, 304-35.

Xi Dan 喜蛋

Sim, Wai Chew. “Super-Diversity and Its Implications in Two Singapore Texts.” In Singapore Literature and Culture: Current Directions in Local and Global Contexts, edited by Angelia Poon and Angus Whitehead, 181–97. New York: Routledge, 2017. [On Claire Tham and Xi Dan 喜蛋]

Xi Xi 西西

Chan, Stephen C. K. “The Cultural Imaginary of a City: Reading Hong Kong Through Xi Xi.” In Pang-yuan Chi and David Wang, eds., Chinese Literature in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century: A Critical Survey. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2000, 180-92.

Chen, Li-fen. “The Discourse of Naivete: Xi Xi’s ‘Mourning Breasts’ and Women’s Writings.” In Zhang Meichu and Zhu Yiaowei, eds., Hong Kong Literature as/and Cultural Studies. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 517-530

Choy,  Howard Y. F. “Narrative as Therapy: Stories of Breast Cancer by Bi Shumin and Xi Xi.” In Howard Y. F. Choy, ed., Discourses of DiseaseWriting Illness, the Mind and Body in Modern China. Leiden: Brill, 2016, 151-76.

Feeley, Jennifer. “Can We Say an Ear of Cabbage: On Translating Wordplay in Xi Xi’s Poetry.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 14,2/15,1 (Winter 2017/Summer 2018): 45-72.

[Abstract: This article reflects on the translation of wordplay in the poetry of Hong Kong author Xi Xi. Xi Xi is a highly imaginative poet: much of her poetry hinges upon specificities of the Chinese language, and one might well ask if this makes her work “untranslatable.” This article identifies various techniques for translating Xi Xi’s wordplay, detailing how I mine the potential of English for ways to recreate Xi Xi’s puns, puzzles, and playful subversion of language in a new linguistic and cultural environment. It encourages readers and translators to become unshackled from rules, assumptions, and conventions as they reflect on the malleability and potential of poetry and of language itself.]

Ho, Tammy Lai-Ming. “Xi Xi, the Poet of Hong Kong: Nomination of Xi Xi for the 2019 Newman Prize for Chinese Literature.” Chinese Literature Today 8, 1 (2019): 6-9.

Menkus, Wei Yang. “Unraveling the Urban Myth: History, City, and Literature in Xi Xi’s Fiction.” Chinese Literature Today 8, 1 (2019): 58-67.

[Abstract: The lack of a viable urbanism in most Chinese literature from the first two-thirds of the twentieth century has confined the urban imagination to two essentialist templates: one that exploits the spectacles of urban woes for nationalist discourse, and one that reduces the wealth of urban experience into worn and simplified platitudes. Against this background, this essay considers Xi Xi (b. 1937) to be a rising literary self-consciousness that is remarkably urban and independent from traditional aesthetic and intellectual parameters. Examining a broad range of literary devices in Xi Xi’s fiction, including magic realism, multipoint narratives, defamiliarization, and atonality, I argue that Xi Xi’s writing has modified the Chinese modernist tradition of urbanism by turning the once mystified urban world into an open, habitual space. Xi Xi’s alternative urban visions respond to the ultimate criticism in classical urban studies through suggesting the potential for a city to free people from an alienating existence, returning to the legacies of human communities. Meanwhile, by embedding her narratives within a thinly veiled twentieth-century Hong Kong history, Xi Xi underscores the strength of the Hong Kong public in critical moments, elevating the qualities of conventional neighborhood life to a point of local allegiance.]

Ng, Daisy S. Y. “Xi Xi and Tales of Hong Kong.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 578-83. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 355-62.

Shen, Shuang. “Hong Kong Literary History and the Construction of the Local in Xi Xi’s I City.” Modern Language Quarterly 73, 4 (Dec. 2012): 569-595.

Soong, Stephen C. “Made in Hong Kong: A Writer Like Hsi Hsi.” Tr. Kwok-kan Tam. Asian Culture Quarterly 14, 4 (Winter 1986): 43-60.

Szeto, Mirana May. “Intra-Local and Inter-Local Sinophone: Rhizomatic Politics of Hong Kong Writers Saisai and Wong Bik-wan.” In Shu-mei Shih and Chien-hsin Tsai eds. Sinophone Studies: A Critical Reader. NY: Columbia University Press, 2013, 191-206.

Tse, Dorothy Hiu Hung. “The Flâneur/Flâneuse and the Multiple “I”s of the “Local” in Xi Xi’s I City.” Chinese Literature Today 8, 1 (2019): 50-57.

[Abstract: Since its publication in the mid-1970s, Xi Xi’s novel I City (Wo cheng) has become a classic of Hong Kong literature and the focus of considerable scholarly attention. Since 1997, this attention has shifted away from aesthetic concerns, such as language and structure, toward a discussion of the local. This article continues that discussion, proposing interpretations of the local that go beyond notions of collective identity. The “I” in I City is often understood as a collective “we,” and the optimistic tone and vision of the novel as reflections of the social conditions and political reforms experienced under the British Hong Kong government of the 1970s. Here, in contrast, I suggest that I City deconstructs the imaginary of a linear, continuous historical narrative, and presents the local as fluid and constantly in flux. This is evident in the figure of the flâneur/flâneuse, whose behaviour implies both their detachment from the capitalist city in which they live and their rejection of the ideology of the family and nation-state. I argue that the flâneur/flâneuse participates in the creation of the local through their everyday practice, rather than by submitting themselves to a collective identity.]

Wong, Kai-chee. “Xi Xi’s Serialized Writings: Reminiscences and Rereadings.” The Ba-Fang Journal for Literary Arts 12 (1990): 68-80.

Xia Yan 夏衍

Kuoshu, Harry. “Dramatizing Xianglin Sao: Light Cast on an Opage Figure.” In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 51-70. [in part about Xia Yan’s film adaptation of “Zhufu”]

Xia Yu [Hsia Yu] 夏宇

Galik, Marian. “Three Modern Taiwanese Poetesses (Ronzi, Xia Yu, and Siren) on Three Wisdom Books of the Bible.” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 5, 2 (1996): 113-31.

Lee, Tong King. “Translational (de)construction in Contemporary Chinese Poetics: A Case Study of Hsia Yü’s Pink Noise.” The Translator: Studies in Intercultural Communication 17, 1 (2011): 1-24.

—–. Experimental Chinese Literature: Translation, Technology, Poetics. Leiden: Brill, 2015.

[Abstract: the first theoretical account of material poetics from the dual perspectives of translation and technology. Focusing on a range of works by contemporary Chinese authors including Hsia Yü, Chen Li, and Xu Bing, Tong King Lee explores how experimental writers engage their readers in multimodal reading experiences by turning translation into a method and by exploiting various technologies. The key innovation of this book rests with its conceptualisation of translation and technology as spectrums that interact in different ways to create sensuous, embodied texts. Drawing on a broad range of fields such as literary criticism, multimodal studies, and translation, Tong King Lee advances the notion of the translational text, which features transculturality and intersemioticity in its production and reception.]

—–. “Cybertext: A Typology of Reading.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 1  (Spring 2017): 172-203.

Lingenfelter, Andrea. “Opposition and Adaptation in the Poetry of Zhai Yongming and Xia Yu.” In Christopher Lupke ed., New Perspectives on Contemporary Chinese Poetry. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 105-120.

Manfredi, Paul. “Xia Yu: Global Collage.” In Manfredi, Modern Poetry in China: A Verbal-Visual Dynamic. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2014, 101-133.

Marijnissen, Silvia. “‘Made Things’: Serial Form in Modern Poetry from Taiwan.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 13, 2 (Fall 2001): 172-206.

Parry, Amie Elizabeth. Interventions into Modernist Cultures: Poetry from Beyond the Empty Screen. Durham, NC: Duke UP, 2007. [MCLC Resource Center review by Paul Manfredi]

[Abstract: A comparative analysis of the cultural politics of modernist writing in the United States and Taiwan. Parry argues that the two sites of modernism are linked by their representation or suppression of histories of U.S. imperialist expansion, Cold War neocolonial military presence, and economic influence in Asia. Focusing on poetry, a genre often overlooked in postcolonial theory, she contends that the radically fragmented form of modernist poetic texts is particularly well suited to representing U.S. imperialism and neocolonial modernities.]

Yeh, Michelle. “The Feminist Poetic of Xia Yu.” Modern Chinese Literature 7, 1 (Spring 1993): 33-60.

—–. “Xia Yu and the Modernist Tradition in Taiwan.” In Paul Manfredi and Christopher Lupke, eds., Chinese Poetic Modernisms. Leiden: Brill, 2019, 107-31.

Xiang Kairan 向恺然

Altenburger, Roland. “Xiang Kairan (Pingjiang Buxiaosheng; Buxiaosheng).” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 235-40.

Hamm, John Christopher. “Genre in Modern Chinese Fiction: Righteous Heroes of Modern Times.” In Carlos Rojas and Andrea Bachner, eds., The Oxford Handbook of Modern Chinese Literatures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016, 531-45.

—–. “Xiang Kairan’s Monkey.” In David Der-Wei Wang, ed., A New Literary History of Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2017, 282-88.

—–. The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang: Republican-Era Martial Arts Fiction. NY: Columbia University Press, 2019. [MCLC Resource Center review by Roland Altenburger]

[Abstract: Xiang Kairan, who wrote under the pen name “The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang,” is remembered as the father of modern Chinese martial arts fiction, one of the most distinctive forms of twentieth-century Chinese culture and the inspiration for China’s globally popular martial arts cinema. Hamm shows how Xiang Kairan’s work and career offer a new lens on the transformations of fiction and popular culture in early twentieth-century China. The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang situates Xiang Kairan’s career in the larger contexts of Republican-era China’s publishing industry, literary debates, and political and social history. Writing at a time when writers associated with the New Culture movement promoted an aggressively modernizing vision of literature, Xiang Kairan consciously cultivated his debt to homegrown narrative traditions. Through careful readings of Xiang Kairan’s work, Hamm demonstrates that his writings, far from being the formally fossilized and ideologically regressive relics their critics denounced, represent a creative engagement with contemporary social and political currents and the demands and possibilities of an emerging cultural marketplace. Hamm takes martial arts fiction beyond the confines of genre studies to situate it within a broader reexamination of Chinese literary modernity. The first monograph on Xiang Kairan’s fiction in any language, The Unworthy Scholar from Pingjiang rewrites the history of early-twentieth-century Chinese literature from the standpoints of genre fiction and commercial publishing.]

Ma, Iris. “Between Historicity and Fictionality: Xiang Kairan, Martial Arts Fiction, and Chinese Narrative Tradition.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 31, 1  (Spring 2019): 229-264.

—–. “Imagining Female Heroism: Three Tales of the Female Knight-Errant in Republican China.” Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review 31 (2019): 183–204.

[Abstract: Invented largely for urban audiences and widely circulated across multiple media, the image of the female knight-errant attracted unprecedented attention among writers, readers, publishers, and officials in the first half of the twentieth century. This article focuses on three best-selling martial arts tales published in Republican China (1912–1949), paying particular attention to their martial heroines. It also explores what granted the female knight-errant character such enduring popularity and how the writers—Xiang Kairan, Gu Mingdao, and Wang Dulu—garnered the interest of their readers. As the author points out, martial arts novelists drew on a long and rich genre repertoire formulated before 1911 while taking into consideration contemporary debates regarding gender, thereby maintaining the female knight-errant figure as a relevant and compelling construct. More importantly, the author argues, through portraying their martial heroines in relation to family, courtship, and female subjectivity, martial arts novelists resisted the prevailing discourse on Chinese womanhood of their times while imagining female heroism.]

Xiang Peiliang 向培良

Gálik, Marián. “Echoes of the Biblical Shulamite and Wilde’s Salome in three Modern Chinese Plays.” Monumenta Serica 68, 1 (2020): 197-225.

[Abstract: Among European dramatists of the fin de siècle, Oscar Wilde was received enthusiastically in Chinese literary circles of the 1920s and 1930s, in particular his decadent drama Salome. Modern Chinese playwrights adapted the biblical figure of Salome, along with Shulamite of the Song of Songs. The present article offers three case studies of the reception of these two biblical figures in Chinese dramas of the Republican period, namely Xiang Peiliang’s 向培良 (1901–1965) one-act play Annen 暗嫩 (Amnon), Xu Baoyan’s 徐葆炎 three-act-play Da Ji 妲己 and Su Xuelin’s 蘇雪林 (1897–1999) tragedy Jiunaluo de yanjing 鳩那羅的眼睛 (Kunāla’s Eyes). Besides analyzing the impact of the Bible and of Western decadent literature on these works, the author of the present article also deals with their Chinese literary sources, e.g., the traditional novel Fengshen yanyi 封神演義 (The Investiture of the Gods) and Buddhist biographies of King Aśoka. Love, beauty, death, and violence are identified as the most important elements of the plays under discussion.]

Xiaohai 小海

Van Crevel, Maghiel. “Poëzie van de lopende band: Xiaohai” (Poetry of the Assembly Line: Xiaohai). China2025.nl (June 1, 2020).

———. “Battlers Poetry and Picun Literature: Chinese Poet Xiaohai.” Web lecture, Lyrik in Transition project, Trier University (May 27, 2020).

Xu, Ming. “Migrant Workers Use Poetry, Rock ’n’ Roll to Uplift Spirits amid Evictions.” Global Times (Dec. 13, 2017). [On the Picun Migrant Workers Home, with special attention to Xiaohai 小海]

Xiao Hong 萧红

Dooling, Amy D. “Xiao Hong’s Field of Life and Death.” In Joshua Mostow, ed, and Kirk A. Denton, China section, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern East Asian Literatures. NY: Columbia UP, 2003, 431-36. Rpt in Kirk A. Denton, ed., Columbia Companion to Modern Chinese Literature. NY: Columbia University Press, 2016, 189-194.

Foley, Todd. “A New Vision of Life in Xiao Hong’s The Field of Life and Death.” In Carlos Yu-Kai Lin and Victor H. Mair, eds., Remembering May Fourth: The Movement and Its Legacy. Leiden: Brill, 2020, 183-206.

Goldblatt, Howard. Hsiao Hung. Boston: Twayne, 1976.

—–. “Life as Art: Xiao Hong and Autobiography.” In Anna Gerstlacher ed., Woman and Literature in China. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1985, 345-63.

Ho, Felicia Jiawen. Full Spectrum of Selves in Modern Chinese Literature: From Lu Xun to Xiao Hong. Ph.d. diss. Los Angeles: University of California Lo Angeles, 2012.

Huang, Nicole. “Xiao Hong.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 241-49.

Iwasaki, Clara. 2019. “Homeless in the Fatherland: Xiao Hong’s Migrant Geographies.” CrossCurrents: East Asian History and Culture Review 31: 162–182.

Jiang, Jing. “From Foot Fetish to Hand Fetish: Hygiene, Class, and the New Woman.” positions: asia critique 22, 1 (winter 2014): 131-59.

Kalinauskas, Lynn. “The Conflation of Missing Remembrances in Xiao Hong’s Fiction.” In Steven Totosy de Zepetnek and Jennifer W. Jay, eds., East Asian Cultural and Historical Perspectives: Histories and Society, Culture and Literatures. Edmonton: Research Institute for Comparative Literature and Cross-Cultural Studies, University of Alberta, 1997, 221-39.

Liu, Lydia. “The Female Body and Nationalist Discourse: Manchuria in Xiao Hong’s Field of Life and Death.” In Angela Zito and T. Barlow, eds. Body, Subject and Power in China. Chicago: UCP, 1994, 157-77.

Luo Binji 骆宾基. Xiao Hong xiao zhuan 萧红小传 (Short biography of Xiao Hong). Shanghai: Jianwen shudian, 1947.

Xiao Hong Biography (Pegasos Website, Findland)

Xiao Hong yanjiu (Research on Xiao Hong). Haerbin: Beifang luncong, 1983.

Xiao, Si. “Loneliness among the Mountain Flowers–Xiao Hong in Hong Kong.” Tr. Janice Wickeri. Renditions 29/30 (Spring/Aut. 1988): 177-81.

Xu, Jian. “Retrieving the Working Body in Modern Chinese Fiction: The Question of the Ethical in Representation.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 16, 1 (Spring 2004): 115-52. [deals with stories by Lu Xun, Mao Dun, Lao She, and Xiao Hong]

Yue, Gang. “Embodied Spaces of Home: Xiao Hong, Wang Anyi, and Li Ang.” In Yue, The Mouth that Begs: Hunger, Cannibalism, and the Politics of Eating in Modern China. Durham: Duke University Press, 1999, 293-330.

Xiao Jun 萧军

Anderson, Marsten. “The Barred View: On the Enigmatic Narrator in Xiao Jun’s ‘Goats.'” In Theodore Huters, ed., Reading the Modern Chinese Short Story. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1990, 37-50.

Hsia, C.T. “Communist Fiction, I.” In C.T. Hsia, A History of Modern Chinese Fiction. 2nd ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971, 257-80.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. “Hsiao Chun.” In Leo Ou-fan Lee. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973, 222-24.

Liu, Chih-ming. “A Criticism of the Errors of Hsiao Chun and the Cultural Gazette.” In Hualing Nieh, ed., Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Fiction. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 294-306.

Wagner, Rudolf G. “Xiao Jun’s Novel Countryside in August and the Tradition of ‘Proletarian Literature’.” In La litterature chinoise au temps de la guerre de resistance contre le Japon (de 1937 a 1945). Paris: Editions de la Fondation Singer- Polignac, 1982, 57-66.

Xiao Qian 蕭乾

Huangfu, Jenny. “Roads to Salvation: Shen Congwen, Xiao Qian, and the Problem of Non-Communist Celebrity Writers, 1948-1957.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 22, 2 (Fall 2010): 39-87.

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. “Xiao Qian: Autobiography as Therapy.” In Christina Neder et al. eds., China in Seinen Biographischen Dimension: Gedenkscrift fur Helmut Martin. Weisbaden: Harrossowitz Verlag, 2001, 157-66.

Laurence, Patricia. “In Memorian: Xiao Qian and Dadie Rylands.” Virginia Woolf Miscellany (Spring 1999): 2.

Xiao Sa 蕭颯

Wu, Fatima. “From a Dead End to a New Road of Life: Xiao Sa’s Abandoned Women.” World Literature Today 65, 3 (1991): 427-31.

Xiao Ye (Hsiao Yeh) 小野

Tang, Xiaobing. “The Mirror as History and History as Spectacle: Reflections on Hsiao Yeh and Su T’ung.” Modern Chinese Literature 6, 1/2 (1992): 203-20. Rpt. in Chinese Modernism: The Heroic and the Quotidian. Durham: Duke UP, 2000, 225-44.

Xie Bingying (Hsieh Ping-ying) 谢冰莹

Fruhauf, Manfred W. “Betrachtunge zu Xie Bingying und ihrer ‘Autobiographie einer Soldatin.'” In Christina Neder et al. eds., China in Seinen Biographischen Dimension: Gedenkscrift fur Helmut Martin. Weisbaden: Harrossowitz Verlag, 2001, 141-56.

Xinran 欣然 (Xue Xinran 薛欣然)

Schaffer, Kay and Xianlin Song. “Silence and the Silenced: Literary Renderings of Rural Women’s Lives in and Beyond China.” In Schaffer and Song, Women Writers in Postsocialist China. London: Routledge, 2014, 53-76.

Xiong Foxi 熊佛西

Liu, Siyuan. “‘A Mixed-Blooded Child, Neither Western Nor Eastern’-Sinicization of Western-Style Theatre in Rural China in the 1930s.” Asian Theatre Journal 25, no. 2 (2008): 272-97.

Zhang, Yu. “Visual and Theatrical Constructs of a Modern Life in the Countryside: James Yen, Xiong Foxi, and the Rural Reconstruction Movement in Ding County (1920s-1930s).” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 25, 1 (Spring 2013): 47-95.

Xu Baoyan 徐葆炎

Gálik, Marián. “Echoes of the Biblical Shulamite and Wilde’s Salome in three Modern Chinese Plays.” Monumenta Serica 68, 1 (2020): 197-225.

[Abstract: Among European dramatists of the fin de siècle, Oscar Wilde was received enthusiastically in Chinese literary circles of the 1920s and 1930s, in particular his decadent drama Salome. Modern Chinese playwrights adapted the biblical figure of Salome, along with Shulamite of the Song of Songs. The present article offers three case studies of the reception of these two biblical figures in Chinese dramas of the Republican period, namely Xiang Peiliang’s 向培良 (1901–1965) one-act play Annen 暗嫩 (Amnon), Xu Baoyan’s 徐葆炎 three-act-play Da Ji 妲己 and Su Xuelin’s 蘇雪林 (1897–1999) tragedy Jiunaluo de yanjing 鳩那羅的眼睛 (Kunāla’s Eyes). Besides analyzing the impact of the Bible and of Western decadent literature on these works, the author of the present article also deals with their Chinese literary sources, e.g., the traditional novel Fengshen yanyi 封神演義 (The Investiture of the Gods) and Buddhist biographies of King Aśoka. Love, beauty, death, and violence are identified as the most important elements of the plays under discussion.]

Xu Dishan 许地山

Galik, Marian. “Xu Dishan’s Chuntao (Spring Peach) and Lao She’s Ye Shi Sanjiao (Also a Triangle): ‘Fraternal Polyandry’ in the Chinese Fashion?” Asian and African Studies [Brataslava] 18, 2 (2009): 95-113.

Hsia, C. T. “Lo Hua-sheng (1893-1941).” In Hsia, History of Modern Chinese Fiction. Third edition. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1999, 84-92.

McComber, Douglas Adran. Hsu Ti-shan and the Search for Identity: Individuals and Families in the Short Stories of Luo Hua-sheng (1894-1941). Ph. D. diss. Berkeley: University of California, 1980.

Riep, Steven. “Religion Reconsidered: Redemption and Women’s Emancipation in Xu Dishan’s ‘The Merchant’s Wife’ and ‘Yuguan.'” Literature and Belief 24, 1-2 (2004): 101-15.

—–. “Xu Dishan (Luo Huasheng).” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 250-56.

Robinson, Lewis. “The Stories of Hsi-Ti-shan: Literature and Life.” MA thesis. Berkeley: University of California, 1977.

—–. “Yu-kuan: The Spiritual Testament of Hsu Ti-shan.” Tamkang Review 8, 2 (1977): 147-68.

Xu Fuguan 徐復觀

Complete Works of Xu Fuguan (徐復觀全集)

Xu Gang 徐刚

Guo, Li. “From the Margins to the Hearth: A Study of Xu Gang’s Environmental Reportage.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 31, 2  (Fall 2019): 162-206.

Xu Huaizhong 徐怀中

Li, Peter. “War and Modernity in Chinese Military Fiction.” Society 34, 5 (July 1997): 77-89. [deals in part with Li Cunbao’s Wreath at the Foot of the Mountain and Xu Huaizhong’s Anecdotes on the Western Front]

Xu Jinglei 徐静蕾

Xu Jinglei’s Blog (Sina.com)

Xu Kunquan 徐坤泉

Lin, Pei-yin. “Popular Romances and Their Alternative Modernities: Xu Kunquan and Wu Mansha.” In Lin, Colonial Taiwan: Negotiating Identities and Modernity through Literature. Leiden: Brill, 2017, 98-128.

Xu Lizhi 許立志

Rauhala, Emily. “The Poet Who Died for Your Phone.” Time (June 2015).

Sheng Yun. “Accidental Death of a Poet.” London Review of Books  (Nov. 11, 2014).

Strittmatter, Kai. “Der Sprung” (The Jump). Süddeutsche Zeitung (June 21, 2015).

Tharoor, Ishaan. “The haunting poetry of a Chinese factory worker who committed suicide.” The Washington Post (Nov. 12, 2014).

van Crevel, Maghiel. “Misfit: Xu Lizhi and Battlers Poetry (Dagong shige).” Prism: Theory and Modern Chinese Literature 16, 1 (March 2019): 85-114.

[Abstract: Battlers poetry (dagong shige 打工詩歌), a genre whose name has mostly been rendered in English as “migrant worker poetry” to date, presents an important development in Chinese literature since the 2000s. Written by members of a new precariat that plays a key role in China’s economic growth, this poetry speaks to the plight of its constituency. Xu Lizhi 許立志 (1990–2014) is one of its best-known authors, whose rise to fame was triggered if not caused by his suicide. While it is impossible to conduct a real discussion of Xu’s work without referring to his suicide and the story of the migrant workers, his status as a figurehead of battlers poetry at large raises questions because what he wrote is arguably not very representative of the genre at all. These observations lead to a discussion of the way battlers poetry has been framed in Chinese critical discourse, where it is often said to have high social significance but low aesthetic value. This convenient dyad is unsatisfying in that it simplifies the text’s relation to reality—which is more highly charged for battlers poetry than for many other literary genres.]

———. “Tegen het overzicht: de sappelverzen van Xu Lizhi” (Against the Well-Ordered: The Battlers Poetry of Xu Lizhi). Terras 13 (2017): 38-51.

Xiao, Hui Faye. “Against the Proletarian Modernity: Retrotopic Journey and Precariat Subject in Alternative Youth Literature.” In Xiao, Youth Economy, Crisis, and Reinvention in Twenty-First Century ChinaMorning Sun in the Tiny Times. London: Routledge, 2020, 57–92. (With case studies of Lu Nei 陆内, Fang Fang 方方, Tang Yihong 唐亦洪, Guo Jinniu 郭金牛, and Xu Lizhi 许立志.)

Xu Maoyong 徐懋庸

Chang, Ch’ing. “Criticism of Hsu Mou-yong’s Tsa-wen.” In Hualing Nieh, ed. Literature of the Hundred Flowers, Volume II: Poetry and Prose. NY: Columbia UP, 1981, 332-36.

Xu Rongzhe 許榮哲 (Hsu Jung-che)

Wu, Chia-rong. “Magical Nativism in Sinophone Taiwan.” In Wu, Supernatural Sinophone Taiwan and Beyond. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press, 2016.

Xu Xi 許 素 細

Li, Melody Yunzi. “At Home in the World”: Hong Kong as a Cosmopolitan City in Xu Xi’s The Unwalled City.” Telos  180 (Fall 2017): 66-87.

Xu Xiao

Berry, Michael. “A Conversation with Xu Xiao: Author of ‘A May That Will Last Forever.” Persimmon 2, 3 (Winter 2002): 56-59.

Xu Xiaobin 徐小斌

Schaffer, Kay and Xianlin Song. “Epic Re-envisionings: Xu Xiaobin’s Fabulist Tale Feathered Serpent.” In Schaffer and Song, Women Writers in Postsocialist China. London: Routledge, 2014, 131-44.

Xu Xiaohe 徐晓鹤

Yang, Xiaobin. “Xu Xiaohe: Laughter from Despair.” In Yang, The Chinese Postmodern: Trauma and Irony in Chinese Avant-garde Fiction. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002, 111-28.

Xu Xing 徐星

Lin, Min and Maria Galikowski. “Absurdity, Senselessness, and Alienation: Xu Xing’s Literary Reflections on the Conemporary Human Condition.” In Min Lin and Maria Galikowski, The Search for Modernity: Chinese Intellectuals and Cultural Discourse in the Post-Mao Era. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1999, 103-22.

Zha, Peide. “Chinese Modernity in Xu Xing’s Prose Fiction.” B.C. Asian Review 6 (1992).

Xu Xingzhi 许幸之

Kuoshu, Harry H. “Visualizing Ah Q: An Allegory’s Resistance to Representation.” In Harry Kuoshu, Lightness of Being in China: Adaptation and Discursive Figuration in Cinema and Theater. NY: Peter Lang, 1999, 17-49. [deals in part with Xu’s play The True Story of Ah Q]

Xu Xu 徐訏

Chau, Angie. “Defining the Modern Wenren and the Role of the White Female Body in Modern Chinese Literature and Art.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 29, 1  (Spring 2017): 1-54.

Chen Xuanbo. Shi yu guang: 20 shiji Zhongguo wenxue shi gejuzhong de Xu Xu (Time and brightness–Xu Xu and twentieth century literary history). Nanchang: Baihuazhou wenyi, 2004.

Green, Frederik H. A Chinese Romantic’s Journey through Time and Space: Cosmopolitanism, Nationalism, and Nostalgia in the Work of Xu Xu (1908-1980). Ph. D. diss. New Haven: Yale University, 2009.

[Abstract: This dissertation explores in four topical chapters Xu Xu’s pre-war and wartime essays, fiction and drama, as well as his post-war fiction and literary criticism from Hong Kong. Through my reading of Xu Xu’s oeuvre, I demonstrate how our understanding of certain aspects central to Chinese modernity is greatly expanded if read within the conceptual framework of literary Romanticism.]

—–. “The Making of a Chinese Romantic: Cosmopolitan Nationalism and Lyrical Exoticism in Xu Xu’s Early Travel Writings.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 23, 2 (Fall 2011): 64-99.

—–. “Rescuing Love from the Nation: Love, Nation, and Self in Xu Xu’s Alternative Wartime Fiction and Drama.” Frontiers of Literary Studies in China 8, 1 (March 2014): 126-53.

[Abstract: This essay explores the wartime fiction and drama of Xu Xu (徐訏, 1908–80), one of China’s most widely read authors of the Republican-period (1912–49). By placing Xu Xu’s popular spy fiction into the context of literary production during the war years, the essay illustrates that Xu Xu’s oeuvre protested against an ideology of moral collectivism in which the individual had to submit self to a higher political authority that professed to represent the will of the nation. Through a literary aesthetic that largely defied the demands for a literature of resistance that subjugated the individual self to the national collective, Xu’s ostensibly autobiographical I-novels brought comfort to urban readers whose personal salvation was rarely addressed in official wartime narratives depicting the nation in peril and calling for collective sacrifice. At the same time, Xu’s confident cosmopolitan heroes satisfied urban readers’ desire for political agency in the raging international conflict. Furthermore, this paper explores Xu Xu’s wartime drama through which Xu attempted to piece together a quasi-existentialist vision of the individual and human experience that was revealed only under the extreme condition of war.]

—–. “The Torment of Exile and the Aesthetics of Nostalgia: Transnational Chinese Neo-Romanticism in Xu Xu’s Post-War Fiction.” Journal of Modern Literature in Chinese 5, 2 (Winter 2018): 74-98.

—–. “Xu Xu’s Literary Journey through Twentieth-Century China” and “A Chinese Romantic’s Journey through Time and Space: Xu Xu and Transnational Chinese Romanticism.” In Green, Bird Talk and Other Stories by Xu Xu: Modern Tales of a Chinese Romantic. Berkeley: Stone Bridge Press, 2020, 11-33; 195-219.

Linder, Birgit. “Psyhic Threesomes: Madness and Psychotherapy in Xu Xu’s Novel Elegy of a Psychotic (Jingshengbing huanzhe de beige).” International Communication of Chinese Culture 3, 3 (2016): 495-511.

[Abstract: Although Xu Xu’s (1908–1980) writing has garnered increasing attention in scholarly criticism and literary histories, his insightful novella Jingshenbing huanzhe de beige (Elegy for a Psychotic, 1943) has not attracted the same attention as his other writing. Elegy is a rare example of a literary engagement with psychological theories and clinical approaches. Central to the novel is the triangular relationship between a psychiatric assistant, a patient, and the patient’s live-in nurse, framed from beginning to end by the mentoring of the assistant by a famous French psychiatrist. This narrative set-up creates a dynamic that captures the representation of abnormal psychology and the reception of psychological idea. This paper argues that the narrative format and the psycho-ethical engagement of Elegy offer a rare cross-cultural examination of psychological ideas and psychotherapy in literary representation. As a coming of age story that takes place in 1930s Paris rather than in China and draws on Xu Xu’s neo-Romanticism, it points to a universally shared trauma derived from social repression and high idealism. In addition, it is a rare piece of writing that draws extensively on the nexus between medicine and literature and thus offers an interesting contribution to the field of Medical Humanities.]

Rosenmeier, Christopher John. Shanghai Avant-garde: The Fiction of Shi Zhecun, Mu Shiying, Xu Xu, and Wumingshi. Ph. D. diss. London: University of London, 2006.

—–. On the Margins of Modernism: Xu Xu, Wumingshi and Popular Chinese Literature in the 1940s. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2017.

[Abstract: Xu Xu and Wumingshi were among the most widely read authors in China during and after the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), but although they were an integral part of the Chinese literary scene their bestselling fiction has been given scant attention in histories of Chinese writing. This groundbreaking book, the first book-length study of Xu Xu and Wumingshi in English or any other western language, re-establishes their importance within the popular Chinese literature of the 1940s. With in-depth analyses of their innovative short stories and novels, Christopher Rosenmeier demonstrates how these important writers incorporated and adapted narrative techniques from Shanghai modernist writers like Shi Zhecun and Mu Shiying, contesting the view that modernism had little lasting impact in China and firmly positioning these two figures within the literature of their times.]

Wang Pu. Yige gudu de jiang gushi ren–Xu Xu xiaoshuo yanjiu (A lonely storyteller: a study of Xu Xu’s fiction). Hong Kong: Libo, 2003.

Wang Xiaoping. “Cosmopolitanism in Ordeal: Cultural Reveries and Political Anxieties in Xu Xu’s ‘Modern Tales of the Strange.'” Telos 180 (Fall 2017): 147-165.

Xu Yunuo 徐玉诺

Hockx, Michel. “Art for whose sake? The poetry of Xu Yunuo and the esthetic principles of Ye Shengtao.” In Lloyd Haft, ed., Words from the West: western texts in Chinese literary context: essays to honor Erik Zurcher on his sixty-fifth birthday. Leiden: CNWS Publications, 1993, 5-25.

Xu Zechen 徐则臣

Fan, Yingchun. “I Persist, I Believe, and I Shall Save: On Xu Zechen.” Tr. Yingying Huang. Chinese Literature Today 9, 1 (2020): 41-51.

[Abstract: This essay discusses Xu Zechen’s works of fiction to understand the writer’s literary construction of life’s predicaments and their solutions. It surveys several reoccurring themes: the search for a way out of the hometown in Xu’s Flower Street stories, the vision of a utopia in the Beijing drifter series, death as the extreme darkness and ultimate means, the rediscovery of history, and so on. With “going to the world” as both a problem and a solution, Xu depicts his characters’ hard journeys toward the utopia, believing that through trials and a transcendental salvation, easy wandering will be made possible.]

Hunt, Pamela. “Drifting through the Capital: ‘Floating’ Migrants and Masculinity in Xu Zechen’s Fiction.” Journal of the British Association for Chinese Studies 6 (Dec. 2016): 1-34.

Picerni, Federico. “A Journey into the City: Migrant Workers’ Relation with the Urban Space and Struggle for Existence in Xu Zechen’s Early jingpiao Fiction.” Annali di Ca’ Foscari. Serie orientale 55 (2019): 449–72.

Zhang, Yanmei. “Our Ferocious Self-Doubt: An Interview with Xu Zechen.” Tr. Yingying Huang. Chinese Literature Today 9, 1 (2020): 33-40.

[Abstract: Xu Zechen has been acclaimed as the “best writer born in the 1970s” in China. In this interview by literary critic Zhang Xiumei, Xu talks about his works, in particular his novel Jerusalem, the fiction writing of other ’70s generation Chinese writers, and his view of literature in general. Some key concepts in his fiction, such as the “world” and the hometown, are discussed in connection with notions about history, religion, spiritual search, and growth. Xu conceives of his fiction writing as a means to answer questions, and one central question he seeks to answer concerns the origin and destination of life as a never-ending journey.]

Xu Zhenya 徐枕亚

Chen, Jianhua. “Xu Zhenya.” In Dictionary of Literary Biography–Chinese Fiction Writers, 1900-1949. Ed. Thomas Moran. NY: Thomson Gale, 2007, 257-63.

Hsia, C. T. “Hsu Chen-ya’s Yu-li hun: An Essay in Literary History and Criticism.” In Ts’un-yan Liu and John Minford eds., Middlebrow Fiction from the Ch’ing and Early Republican Era. HK: Chinese UP, 1984, 199-240.

Xu Zhimo 徐志摩

Birch, Cyril. “English and Chinese Meters in Hsu Chih-mo.” Asia Major 8 (1960): 258-93.

—–. “Hsu Chih-mo’s Debt to Thomas Hardy.” Tamkang Review 8, 1 (1977): 1-24.

Chang, Pang-Mei Natasha. Bound Feet and Western Dress. NY: Doubleday, 1996. [the story of Chang Ruyi, Xu Zhimo’s first wife, as told by her great niece]

Cheung, King-Kok. “Self-Critique Prompted by Immersion in (An)Other Culture: Goldsworthy, Lowes Dickinson, Xu Zhimo, and Pearl S. Buck.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 44, 3 (Sept. 2017): 607-619.

Findeisen, Raoul David. “Xu Zhimo Dreaming in Sawston (England) – on the Sources of a Venice Poem.” Asiatica Venetiana 1 (1996).

—–. “Two Aviators: Gabriele d’Annunzio and Xu Zhimo.” In Mabel Lee and Meng Hua, eds., Cultural Dialogue and Misreadings. Sydney: Wild Peony 1997, 75-85.

Lee, Leo Ou-fan. The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1973.

Päusch, Ricarda. Fliegen und Fliehen: Literarische Motive im Werk Hsü Chih-mos. Dortmund 1995,

Schirach, Richard von. Hsu Chih-mo und die Hsin-Yueh Gesellschaft: ein Beitrag zur neuen Literatur Chinas. Munich: Thesis, 1971.

Wang, Yiyan. “Xu Zhimo: The Public Intellectual and Art Reform in China.” New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 20, 2 (Dec. 2018): 63-88.

Xu Zhuodai 徐卓呆

Rea, Christopher G. “Comedy and Cultural Entrepreneurship in Xu Zhuodai’s Huaji Shanghai.” Modern Chinese Literature and Culture 20, 2 (Fall 2008): 40-91.

Xue Mo 雪漠

Duzan, Brigitte. “Chen Kaihong 陈开红 (nom de plume Xue Mo 雪漠) Présentation 介绍.” La nouvelle dans la littérature chinoise contemporaine (2010).

Xue Shaohui 薛绍徽

Qian, Nanxiu. “Borrowing Foreign Mirrors and Candles to Illuminate Chinese Civilization’: Xue Shaohui’s Moral Vision in the Biographies of Foreign Women.” Nan Nu: Men, Women and Gender in China 6, 1 (2004).

—–. Politics, Poetics, and Gender in Late Qing China: Xue Shaohui and the Era of Reform. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015.

[Abstract: In 1898, Qing dynasty emperor Guangxu ordered a series of reforms to correct the political, economic, cultural, and educational weaknesses exposed by China’s defeat by Japan in the First Sino-Japanese War. The “Hundred Day’s Reform” has received a great deal of attention from historians who have focused on the well-known male historical actors, but until now the Qing women reformers have received almost no consideration. In this book, historian Nanxiu Qian reveals the contributions of the active, optimistic, and self-sufficient women reformers of the late Qing Dynasty. Qian examines the late Qing reforms from the perspective of Xue Shaohui, a leading woman writer who openly argued against male reformers’ approach that subordinated women’s issues to larger national concerns, instead prioritizing women’s self-improvement over national empowerment. Drawing upon intellectual and spiritual resources from the freewheeling, xianyuan(worthy ladies) model of the Wei-Jin period of Chinese history (220–420) and the culture of women writers of late imperial China, and open to Western ideas and knowledge, Xue and the reform-minded members of her social and intellectual networks went beyond the inherited Confucian pattern in their quest for an ideal womanhood and an ideal social order. Demanding equal political and educational rights with men, women reformers challenged leading male reformers’ purpose of achieving national “wealth and power,” intending instead to unite women of all nations in an effort to create a just and harmonious new world.]

Xue Yiwei 薛忆沩

Chu, Dongwei, “Xue Yiwei: The Road Not Taken.” In Chu, Xue Yiwei and His War Stories: A Collection of Translations and Commentaries. Westbury, NY: IntLingo; Guangzhou: Zilin, 2016, 6-8.

Hawkins, Amy. “A Writer Living in a Strange Land: An Interview with Xue Yiwei.” LARB Blog (June 14, 2017).

Jeffrey Wasserstrom. “Xue Yiwei: In Search of Universal Values.” China Channel, LARB (April 25, 2020).

Xun Pinli

Vittinghoff, Natascha. “China’s Generation X: Rusticated Red Guards in Controversial Contemporary Plays.” In Woei Lian Chong, ed., China’s Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Master Narratives and Post-Mao Counternarratives. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 2002, 285-318. [discusses Sha Yexin’s New Sprouts from the Borderlands, Wang Peigong’s We, and Xun Pinli’s Yesterday’s Longan Trees]