If you need your Pesticide and Fertilizer License Re-certification this year, our final re-certification class in Knox County will be held on March 27, 9 a.m. in the conference room of Advantage Ag and Equipment, 1025 Harcourt Road, Mount Vernon. All categories will be offered. There is a $35 class fee.
Dr. Bob Hartzler and Meaghan Anderson, Integrated Crop Management News, and Iowa State University Extension and Outreach.
Waterhemp requires more than twice as many growing degree days to reach 50% emergence as giant foxtail or velvetleaf (Figure 1), resulting in much of the population emerging after mid-June.
The layered residual system is one of the best ways to reduce late-season waterhemp escapes in soybean. It involves a split application of herbicides with residual activity – the first application is made at or near planting, and then additional residual is included with the POST application (Figure 2). The additional residual herbicide extends activity later into the season than a single application, and is especially beneficial in years with heavy rains following planting.
And next year’s crop may be at risk as well. The fungus that produces the toxin can survive the winter, particularly if stalks or other plant material from the 2018 corn crop are left on the surface of the soil, said Pierce Paul, an Ohio State University Extension specialist in corn and small grain diseases. OSU Extension is the outreach arm of the College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES).
The extent of vomitoxin across Ohio and the rest of the Corn Belt led some farmers to receive a lower price for their crop, Paul said.
High moisture levels spur the spread of vomitoxin, which can cause people and animals to get sick. The rainy summer and fall in the state and across the Midwest not only left more moisture in fields, but also delayed some farmers from harvesting.
And any corn left standing in wet fields becomes more susceptible to vomitoxin, Paul said.
Gibberella ear rot, a fungal disease that produces vomitoxin, also sucks nutrients out of corn, leading to smaller and lighter kernels, which can reduce yields and what farmers earn for the grain.
“I know there were farmers who had problems with price discounts, and some had their grain completely rejected,” Paul said.
Vomitoxin can cause animals, particularly pigs, to vomit or simply refuse to eat the tainted corn. If contaminated grain or grain products are consumed, this toxin can also make people ill, which is why the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has set strict limits on the amount of vomitoxin allowed in grain for human and animal consumption.
Moldy corn still can be used to produce ethanol. But the byproduct of ethanol production, typically a rich source of nutrients for animals, cannot be given to them because it will have a high concentration of vomitoxin, Paul said.
Vomitoxin can also contaminate wheat and barley. However, in Ohio, both of these crops were harvested by the first few weeks of July and were out of the fields before the persistent rains came, Paul said.
Not every cornfield had a problem with vomitoxin, because rainfall amounts are never uniform across the state.
The fields that were tainted with vomitoxin could still be a problem next season if the same or another susceptible hybrid is planted, Paul said.
Gibberella ear rot can survive in a field through winter and potentially harm the new crop if wet weather occurs, and “there’s nothing you can do after the fact” to control the disease, Paul said.
As a result, it’s important for farmers to choose corn seed that’s resistant to the fungus, he said. No corn hybrid is totally immune to Gibberella ear rot.
So, buying a hybrid that resists the disease is akin to people getting a flu shot. The hybrid does not guarantee that the crop will not get the disease, but it reduces the odds of that happening. If the crop does get infected, the damage is less extensive.
In a field contaminated with vomitoxin, burying the stalks and other plant material that remain will help reduce, but won’t eliminate, the spread of the fungus in next year’s crop, Paul said.
Symptoms of Gibberella ear rot include pinkish mold. But it can be easy to overlook if a growing crop has been tarnished by the fungus because the husk covers up where the damage occurs, on the ear of the corn.
“A lot of farmers are caught off guard,” Paul said. “After you harvest the grain or when you take it into the grain elevator, that’s when you start seeing weird stuff and realize you have a problem.”
For more information on vomitoxin, see go.osu.edu/vomitoxinfacts
The Knox County Re-certification Dates are listed below
Pesticide & Fertilizer Re-Certification
January 29, 2019 – 5:30 p.m.
March 27, 2019 – 9:00 a.m.
Cost – $35, includes all materials & PIZZA
Conference Room – Advantage Ag & Equipment
1025 Harcourt Rd., Mount Vernon, Oh.
Check http://u.osu.edu/knoxcountyag for updates
If you are planning to use Engenia (BASF), XtendiMax (Monsanto) and FeXapan (DuPont) in 2019 there are major changes to the labels for the products that you need to be aware of. The biggest change is only license applicators can purchase, mix, load, apply or clean application equipment. Previously these tasks could have been completed by an unlicensed applicator if they were “supervision by a certified applicator”. Below is the ODA news release pertaining to the new regulations.
REYNOLDSBURG, Ohio (Jan. 16, 2019) – The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) is reminding farmers of revised labels and new training requirements for applicators who intend to use dicamba herbicide products this year. In October 2018, U.S. EPA approved revised labels for the three dicamba products that are labeled for use on soybeans: Engenia (BASF), XtendiMax (Monsanto) and FeXapan (DuPont).
“Like any other product, we want to ensure licensed applicators are properly following label directions as they get ready for this growing season,” said Matt Beal, chief of the ODA Division of Plant Health. “This not only helps ensure the safe use of pesticides, it also helps prevent misuse and mishandling.”
The manufacturers of these dicamba products also agreed to additional requirements for their products. Some of the requirements include:
- 2019 labels supersede all prior labels for these products. Applicators must obtain a copy of the new label and must have that label in their possession at the time of use
- Only certified applicators may purchase and apply the products
- Those operating under the supervision of a certified applicator may no longer purchase or apply.
- Anyone who mixes, loads or cleans dicamba application equipment must become licensed.
- ODA will host additional “Dicamba Ag Only” exams in February and March for those looking to become a certified applicator. Visit agri.ohio.gov for more details.
- Applicators must complete dicamba-specific training
- Increased recordkeeping requirements
- Wind speed restrictions
- Temperature inversion restrictions
- Sensitive/susceptible crop consultation
- Spray system equipment clean-out
More details on these revisions can be found in the attached fact sheet. Applicators looking for a list of ODA-approved trainings can visit www.agri.ohio.gov. For questions, applicators can contact the ODA Pesticide and Fertilizer Regulation Section at 614-728-6987 or email@example.com.
Source: Iowa State University, (Edited)
As the end of the year approaches and we reflect on the 2018 growing season we need to look at what changes or improvements we need to make in our production plans for 2019. Herbicide resistant weeds are continuing to create problems. New, very invasive and harmful weed species (Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp) are now prevalent in Knox County. Therefore, a review of the effectiveness of your herbicides program is definitely in order.
To effectively battle these new weed problems, creating a comprehensive, all-encompassing weed control strategy is essential in today production agriculture. Over the next 4 weeks I will share information developed by Meaghan Anderson and Dr. Bob Hartzler at Iowa State University on developing a long-term weed management system.
Last week’s post: Herbicide program development: Using multiple sites of action
This week’s post: Herbicide program development: Using effective herbicide groups
After you’ve started working on a program that contains multiple herbicide groups (sites of action), you need to make sure you’re using multiple herbicide groups that will be effective against your target weeds. For most people, the target weed will be waterhemp. Others may have problems with giant ragweed, horseweed/marestail, or other weeds. Waterhemp is the target weed in my example, but consider what your most problematic weeds are to run through this exercise for yourself.
Things to consider when determining whether a herbicide is effective against your target weed include (1) whether the herbicide is labeled to control the weed and (2) whether your target weed is resistant to the herbicide group.
Let’s look at herbicides as if waterhemp is the weed that causes us the most issues. Here’s a table of herbicide groups used in Iowa crops.