Recognize and Mitigate Crop Heat Stress

Recent conditions in some areas (soaked soil, fog- and dew-filled mornings, high daytime humidity) can give a different impression about the season so far than weather data at https://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/weather1/ and various forecasts. Temperature, rainfall, and other data are collected around the clock at OSU vegetable (and other) research sites in Fremont, Celeryville, Wooster, and Piketon and have been for decades. So far in 2021, these four locations have accumulated less precipitation and more growing degree days (GDD) than their historical averages. Also, climate and weather authorities reported on June 11 that the Upper Midwest, including Ohio, is set to experience hot, droughty conditions. Most agree that a dry year is less problematic than a wet one — provided irrigation is possible. However, it can be difficult for vegetable growers to escape the unwanted effects of excessively high temperatures. A way to separate potentially minor, moderate, and severe heat stress, example effects of moderate-severe heat stress, and main strategies for mitigating heat stress during production are summarized below.

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Early Season Cucurbit Pests – Cucumber Beetles & Bacterial Wilt

In the next 2-3 weeks, pumpkin, squash, melon and cucumber growers looking for an early crop will start direct seeding in the field or preparing seed flats for later transplanting out in the field. One of the perennial pest’s growers run into is the striped cucumber beetle which can attack seedling plants and chew them nearly to the ground. In addition to the physical damage the beetles can inflict, there is also a chance that some can transmit bacterial wilt to the plant which will prevent it from setting mature fruit.

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New Strawberry Disease in Ohio?

A new strawberry disease has been found in Indiana and researchers are looking for samples to determine the extent of the problem. The disease, caused by a species of the fungus Neopestaltiopsis, has been reported in several southeastern states and other countries where it causes leafspots, fruit spots and a plant decline. In Indiana, the disease has been reported to cause a leafspot (Figure 1) and a plant decline. This disease resembles Phomopsis and upon further investigation may ultimately turn out to be Phomopsis.

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Maple Leaf Development and Heavy Seed Production

Author: Joe Boggs, OSU Extension, Previously published on Buckeye Yard and Garden onLine – May 5, 2021

 

Concerned Ohioans are reporting their maples have stunted leaves or no leaves at all; particularly towards the top of the tree.  Several issues can produce thinning maple canopies including poorMaple Seed site conditions, girdling roots, a vascular wilt disease, etc.  However, it’s unlikely one of these issues has become so common or multiple issues have converged to produce a general widespread maple malaise throughout Ohio.

It’s more likely the common condition of thin maple canopies is a condition common to maples.  Indeed, red (A. rubrum), silver (Acer saccharinum), and sugar maples (A. saccharum)  in many regions of Ohio, as well as Indiana and Kentucky, have produced loads of winged seeds (samaras).  The challenge is that the timing of the blooms and thus seed production varies widely between the three dominant maple species in Ohio with red maples usually the first to bloom and sugars the last.

 

 

 

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Roundup vs. Roundup vs. Roundup – REALLY??!

 

From a consumer standpoint this could quite possibly be the worst product marketing of ALL TIME!

 

 

Roundup has been around for a long time.  The active ingredient in “Roundup” is glyphosate.  Many of us know “Roundup” as a non-selective herbicide – i.e. it will kill all plants it contacts.

So what’s the problem?  With these products having a similar name, it’s quite possible to grab the wrong product from the shelf and thus risk harming or destroying the wrong (or all) plants.

The Solution.  Always read the label!  Products with similar names may have different active ingredients and therefore may not have the have the desired outcome.

Below is a general guide to the different Roundup products available to consumers.  Note that for many of these products there may be ready to use (RTU) and/or concentrate formulations available with different ratios or percentages of the same active ingredients.  Additional products are marketed for use in southern turfgrass.

Don’t be fooled by products that have a similar name . . . read the label!

 

NOW IS THE TIME TO FINE TUNE YOUR SPRAYER

This article was submitted by Dr. Erdal Ozkan
Dept. of Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering

Pesticides need to be applied accurately and uniformly. Too little pesticide results in poor pest control and reduced yields, while too much injures the crop, wastes chemicals and money, and increases the risk of polluting the environment. Achieving satisfactory results from pesticides depends heavily on five major factors:

  1. Positive identification of the pest.
  2. Choosing the least persistent and lowest toxicity pesticide that will work.
  3. Selecting the right equipment, particularly the right type and size of nozzle for the job.
  4. Applying pesticides accurately at the right time.
  5. Calibrating and maintaining equipment to make sure the amount recommended on the chemical label is applied.

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What’s the difference between Roundup and Roundup For Lawns?

Source: Kevin Frank, and Aaron Hathaway, Michigan State University Extension

These two different products are good examples of why understanding the difference between product names and herbicide active ingredients is critical.

The spring blitz of lawn care ads is in full swing as northerners emerge from their long winter slumber and begin to venture outside into the lawn. This year, a new product called Roundup For Lawns is gathering attention and has already generated questions from those wondering why they’d spray Roundup on their lawn—wouldn’t it kill the lawn?

The confusion originates from the name Roundup itself and that for most consumers, they don’t recognize Roundup is a product name such as Coke or Tylenol.

It turns out there is a lot in a name!

Roundup: The herbicide active ingredient in Roundup is glyphosate, which if sprayed on the lawn will kill not only the weeds but the lawn. This is a nonselective herbicide that controls any green plant on which it is applied.

Roundup For Lawns: The new Roundup For Lawns does not contain glyphosate. The herbicide active ingredients in Roundup For Lawns are MCPA, quinclorac, dicamba and sulfentrazone. These herbicides are effective on a broad range of weeds that might infest the lawn such as dandelion, crabgrass and nutsedge. When used properly it will not kill the desirable turfgrasses in the lawn. This is a selective herbicide that controls specific weeds, but not lawn grasses.

This is a good lesson in recognizing that product name is not the important information when selecting a herbicide—it’s the active ingredients that matter.

Reference to commercial products or trade names does not imply endorsement by Michigan State University Extension or bias against those not mentioned.