Forage Maturity Across Ohio

Jason Hartschuh, Dairy Management and Precision Livestock, Field Specialist

Warm weather this spring especially over the last couple of weeks has rapidly progressed forage maturity. Harvesting forages at the proper time for the livestock you are feeding is critical to farm profitability. Poor quality forages must be supplemented to maintain livestock. In the southern part of the state, many forage grasses are in head while in the northern part of the state, some varieties of Orchard grass and barnyard grass are in head but most are still in the vegetative stage but will be in head within a week.

 

 

 

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Forage Weeds: Fall Forgotten and Spring Startups

Alyssa Essman, OSU Extension State Specialist, Weed Science, Christine Gelley, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Noble County, Kyle Verhoff, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Defiance County

Spring means rapid forage growth, but it also means rapid weed growth. Due to the variability of spring weather, there are often only a few opportunities to control emerging summer annual weeds, winter annuals missed in the fall, and biennials that are small enough to effectively control. To manage weeds before they become a problem in forages, it is important to scout and plan accordingly. Forage is a broad category, and the spring weed control plan can look very different between species and operations. The problem weeds and whether control is necessary are going to be different between permanent pasture systems and alfalfa fields, and highly dependent on the consequences of specific weeds.

In established alfalfa, the decision for weed control of some winter annuals like henbit and field pennycress will depend on the severity of the weed presence, the age of the stand, and the end purpose of the forage. If the weed pressure is high, the stand is young, or the lower forage quality of the weeds interferes with the goal of producing dairy-quality hay, the weed control treatment may be worth the associated cost. In a grazing system, it may be more pertinent to control weeds in the spring to ensure weeds that aren’t grazed don’t go to seed. Numerous weeds can be a problem in forage systems. Reference the 2024 Weed Control Guide for specific recommendations following this general overview.

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There’s Potential for Poisoning During Fall Grazing

– Jordan Penrose, Ohio State University Extension Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator, Gallia County (previously published in Farm & Dairy)

With fall fast approaching, it may be time to assess potential problems that could arise when livestock are grazing, such as trees and grasses. A good practice of walking or driving through your pastures will help you know what is growing in or around them.

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What to do with Compacted Pastures?

Erika Lyon, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Jefferson and Harrison Counties

During the last couple of weeks in December and into early 2021, eastern Ohio saw warmer-than-usual temperatures and a lot of rain. What does this mean for our pastures and hay fields?

With rain comes the mud, and with mud often comes compaction. Compaction in forage crops often occurs within the top 3-4 inches of soil, but it can also appear at deeper levels, forming “hard pans” that restrict the movement of water.

Compacted soils mean reduced pore space to house water and air — two important components of healthy soils. Nearly half of soils should consist of pore space, whether macro- or micro-pores to allow roots to develop deeper and water to better infiltrate downwards.

Compaction can ultimately lead to increased drought and disease susceptibility of plants, even when it appears there is standing water in a field.

 

 

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Poisonous Pasture Weeds and Livestock

– Dwight Lingenfelter, Extension Associate, Weed Science, Penn State

Poisonous Pasture Weeds and Livestock

Horsenettle in a pasture setting. (Source: D. Lingenfelter, Penn State Weed Science)

During drought and other poor environmental conditions that reduce forage growth, there are concerns for poisonous weeds in pastures and hay. Livestock may be forced to graze on weeds that normally they would not, or they may eat weeds out of curiosity. Scout your pastures and remove these weeds before they cause livestock health problems. Keep in mind there are numerous poisonous plants that could invade an area or pasture. Many plants contain potentially poisonous substances that may be toxic to livestock if consumed. In addition, certain plants may be problematic because of mechanical irritation when eaten, photosensitization, and disagreeable tastes or odors in meat, milk or milk products. If you suspect livestock poisoning, call your local extension educator or veterinarian immediately. If death occurs, the stomach contents should be examined for consumed herbage. Identify the suspected plants and remove livestock from the grazing area until all poisonous plants have been removed or destroyed.

Continue reading at: https://extension.psu.edu/poisonous-pasture-weeds-and-livestock

Hay in May is a Big Deal!

 

– Christine Gelley, Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator, Noble County OSU Extension

Hay making requires a balance between nutritional value and when yield is maximized.

Hay season is officially underway!

In the years since I began working in Noble County there have been two years where conditions were right for making dry hay in May- 2020 and 2021. The smell of mowed hay drying in the warm sun and the sight of fresh round bales peppering fields this past week gave me a boost of much needed optimism. For people concerned with the quality of hay, this is exciting stuff.

 

 

 

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Cressleaf Groundsel (Packera glabella)

Source: Marcelo Zimmer and Bill Johnson, Purdue University

Every spring we receive several calls and e-mails about a certain 3-foot tall weed with yellow flowers (Figure 1). The most common yellow flowered weeds we have in Indiana are cressleaf groundsel, the buttercup species, and dandelion.  Occasionally we have some fields of canola or rapeseed in the state. But, by far the most prevalent specie we see in no-till corn and soybean fields, and occasionally pastures, is cressleaf groundsel.  I have only rarely observed wild mustard in Indiana.  Wild mustard is more common in the northern tier of states near the Canadian border.  This year, due to recent cooler weather, cressleaf groundsel is flowering later than it did last year.  This article is intended to provide information on the biology and life cycle of cressleaf groundsel, as well as how to control it in fields and pastures.

Biology and Identification

Cressleaf Groundsel is a winter annual weed that has become more prevalent in Indiana pastures and agronomic crop ground over the past 20 years.  The small seeds produced by this weed allow it to thrive in reduced and no-till systems as well as poorly established pastures.  Cool and wet springs of the past few years have also favored cressleaf groundsel, as it is a weed that prefers moist soils and typically struggles in hot and dry weather.

Much like most winter annual weeds, cressleaf groundsel emerges as a rosette in the fall then bolts, flowers, and produces seed in the spring.  Basal rosette leaves are deep pinnate serrations with roundly lobed leaf margins.  Leaves are typically 2 to 10 inches in length (Britton and Brown 1970).  Bolting stems are hollow and can reach up to three feet in height with inflorescences that contain six to twelve yellow ray flowers that are often compared to the flowers of common dandelion.  When looking for cressleaf groundsel in older weed id or taxonomic guides be aware that it has traditionally been placed in the Senecio genus and only recently was placed into the Packera genus.

Toxic Properties

The competitiveness of cressleaf groundsel with agronomic crops has not been researched, though its presence as a winter annual in no-till fields will have the same implications of slowing soil warming and drying as other winter annual weeds.  The presence of this weed in pastures and hay fields should be of more concern as it does contain toxic properties when ingested by livestock.  Leaves, flowers, and seeds of cressleaf groundsel contain alkaloids that will cause liver damage in livestock that is termed seneciosis and typically occurs on a chronic level (Kingsbury 1964).  Symptoms of seneciosis are loss of appetite, sluggish depressed behavioral patterns, and in extreme cases aimless walking without regard to fences or structures.  Although cressleaf groundsel is not as toxic as many of its relatives in the Packera genus, livestock producers encountering this weed in pastures or hay should take steps to avoid prolonged ingestion by animals.

Control

Herbicide applications for control of cressleaf groundsel are most effective when applied to plants in the rosette stage.  Plants that are larger, or bolting are very difficult to control with herbicides.  Infestations in pastures can be controlled with 2,4-D or a combination of 2,4-D and dicamba applied to rosettes in the fall or early spring prior to bolting.  Producers should be aware that applications of these herbicides will also kill favorable broadleaves (legumes) that are present in pastures.

Control recommendations for cressleaf groundsel in no-till agronomic crop fields has typically been to apply 2,4-D @ 1 qt/A to actively growing rosettes in the fall.  In fact, just about any broadleaf herbicide commonly applied in the fall in the eastern cornbelt will work well on controlling this weed.  However, we have observed that control of cressleaf groundsel with spring burndowns can be challenging if the plants are large and spray applications are made in cool weather.  In situations like this, we often observe severe injury and necrosis of leaves, but new growth will appear from live buds on the plant.  In some instances, resprays are needed to finish off the cressleaf groundsel. The best herbicide programs for spring burndowns are 2,4-D + dicamba, atrazine + paraquat + 2,4-D, something with chlorimuron in it, and Elevore + 2,4-D. for more information on spring burndown information, consult the burndown section in the Weed Control Guide for Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois (publication WS-16).

 

Perennial Weeds can Indicate Soil Health Problems in Pastures

 

Dean Kreager, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Licking County
(Previously published in Farm and Dairy: May 6, 2021)

If plants could talk, we could learn a lot, and our jobs as stewards of the land would be much easier. When we go to the doctor because we are sick, we do not sit quietly and expect the doctor to know how we feel and then tell us how to get better. We need to provide information that will help with the diagnosis.

But since plants cannot talk, our job is difficult when we try to locate the source of a problem, such as low productivity or an infestation of weeds.

 

 

 

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