Biennial and Perennial Weed Control is Best in the Fall

Dwight Lingenfelter, Extension Associate, Weed Science, Penn State University
William S. Curran,Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Weed Science, Penn State University

Fall is an excellent time to manage biennial and perennial weeds. In particular, biennials such as common burdock, wild carrot, and bull, musk, and plumeless thistles are much easier to kill while they are in the rosette stage of growth, prior to surviving a winter. Once biennials start growth in the spring they rapidly develop with the goal of reproducing and it becomes more difficult to control them.

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Changes Made to Ohio’s Prohibited Noxious Weeds List

Source: Peggy Kirk Hall, Associate Professor, Agricultural & Resource Law (edited)

Palmer Amaranth

New changes to Ohio’s prohibited noxious weeds list took effect Friday, September 14th.  The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) added 13 new species to the list, and removed 3 species.

On this blog, throughout the spring and summer I posted information and identification tips on each of the 21 Ohio noxious weeds.  This information can be easily found by typing “noxious weeds” in the Search this blog… box found on any page within our blog.  In the upcoming weeks, I will add similar posts for each of the new weeds added to this list.

Added to the list of prohibited noxious weeds are:

  • Yellow Groove Bamboo (Phyllostachys aureasculata), when the plant has spread from its original premise of planting and is not being maintained.
  • Field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis).
  • Heart-podded hoary cress (Lepidium draba sub. draba).
  • Hairy whitetop or ballcress (Lepidium appelianum).
  • Perennial sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis).
  • Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens).
  • Leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula).
  • Hedge bindweed (Calystegia sepium).
  • Serrated tussock (Nassella trichotoma).
  • Columbus grass (Sorghum x almum).
  • Musk thistle (Carduus nutans).
  • Forage Kochia (Bassia prostrata).
  • Water Hemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus).

Removed from the list are:

  • Wild carrot (Queen Anne’s lace) (Daucus carota L.).
  • Oxeye daisy (Chrysanthermum leucanthemum var. pinnatifidum).
  • Wild mustard (Brassica kaber var. pinnatifida).

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Biennial and Perennial Weed Control is Best in the Fall

– Dwight Lingenfelter, Extension Associate, Weed Science, Penn State and William S. Curran,Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Weed Science, Penn State

Fall is an excellent time to manage biennial and perennial weeds. In particular, biennials such as common burdock, wild carrot, and bull, musk, and plumeless thistles are much easier to kill while they are in the rosette stage of growth, prior to surviving a winter. Once biennials start growth in the spring they rapidly develop with the goal of reproducing and it becomes more difficult to control them.

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Buying Hay the Smart Way

Kassidy Buse, Hay and Forage Grower summer editorial intern
(Previously published in Hay & Forage Grower: September 18, 2018)

Purchasing hay, as simple as it seems, can be rather tricky. Knowing what and how much you need as well as trying to compare multiple feedstuffs on a level playing field can sometimes make hay buying a challenge.

“When hay supply is abundant, prices are lower and ranchers may not see the benefit in taking the time to price hay based on quality,” explains Adele Harty, extension cow/calf field specialist with South Dakota State University (SDSU), in an iGrow livestock newsletter. “Taking time to do this in a year with ample supply will help one be comfortable with the process when supplies are short.”

She provides the following four steps to help make the process of purchasing hay less taxing.

1. Determine feed quantity needs.

The first step is to calculate how many pounds of feed are needed to meet the nutritional demands of your [livestock] throughout the feeding period. Include hay waste in the pounds fed per head per day since storage and environmental losses can easily accumulate.

The following calculation can be used to determine this amount:

Days on feed x number of head x pounds fed per head per day

Be sure in include a minimum of 10% waste in your calculations.

2. Complete a Feed Inventory.

Create a list of resources that includes not only the quantity, but also the quality. “This will allow for determining quantity and quality of feed that needs to be purchased,” Harty notes.

If your resources meet the needs of your [livestock], then the process can end here. But, depending on the cost of feedstuffs, the potential to buy higher quality feedstuffs to enlarge your inventory could be present.

3. Determine shortfalls.

Once you know the quality of your feedstuffs, you will be able to determine the limiting nutrients. But, knowing what nutrients are needed can be challenging, so cost and convenience need to be considered.

“Working with a nutrition consultant can be helpful through this process,” Harty advises.

4. Find options and compare prices on a per unit of nutrient basis.

Before you make any hay purchase, make sure that a nutrient analysis has been completed. There are several options available for testing that can provide total digestible nutrients (TDN), crude protein, and mineral concentrations for your sample.

If the seller hasn’t done a test, Harty encourages buyers to request one or do one themselves. “By ‘guessing’ at quality, one could be making a serious mistake and end up compromising [livestock] performance or costing much more than it should,” she explains.

When comparing to other feedstuffs, the comparison needs to be done on a dry matter (DM) basis. To find the price per ton of DM, take the as-is price and divide by the percent of dry matter (as a decimal). Next, take the DM price and divide that number by the percent of the nutrient on a DM basis (as a decimal) to get the price per unit of nutrient.

All of this can be summed up in the following equation:

(As-is Price ÷ Percent Dry Matter) ÷ Percent Nutrient on a DM basis

Harty offers an example of a price comparison of two hays priced at $95 per ton delivered.

In this situation, whether additional protein or energy is needed, Hay A is the best option on a cost per unit of nutrient basis.

SDSU extension provides a calculator to help determine the cost of nutrient and compare multiple feedstuffs on the iGrow website.

Autumn Grazing Tips for Extending the Growing Season

Originally Posted in the Sheep Newsletter- Victor Shelton, NRCS State Agronomist/Grazing Specialist

The older I get, the more I tend to philosophize about things. I’ve been asked a few times why I am such an advocate for sound grazing practices. Best management grazing practices, just like conservation practices for reducing or preventing soil erosion on cropland, help preserve and or regenerate resources not only for present generation, but also for future generations.                         

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Ohio Quarterly Climate Summary: Jun – Aug 2018

Source: Aaron Wilson
  • The 2018 summer season ranks as the 17th warmest in Ohio since 1895*. June 2018 ranks as the 4th warmest.
  • Temperatures averaged 0 to 4°F above normal across the state, with the largest differences across the northern counties (Fig. 1).
  • The warmth was driven by overnight lows that were well above average (Fig. 2).

Click Here to Read Full Summary

 

Ensuring Quality Silage After Excessive Rains and Flooding

Source: Penn State University

Corn that will be harvested as silage, and was previously in standing water during the growing season can be of concern when it comes to forage quality and palatability. Bacterial contaminants and silt can lead to animal health and fermentation problems.

According to a Cornell University publication by Paul Cerosaletti and Dale Dewing, silt deposition on standing corn can result in greater risk for clostridial contamination, as the primary source of clostridium bacteria is found in soil. If silage does not undergo the desired lactate fermentation and undergoes clostridial fermentation, moisture levels can reach greater than 70%, the pH is typically greater than 5.0, and a rank odor can be detected. This type of fermentation also causes deadly botulism toxins. Soil-contaminated forage can also contain coliform and listeria bacteria.

Corn that has been flooded and has a large amount of silt deposition on the standing forage could be of less risk to animal health and improper fermentation if it dried down and is harvested for grain. If the silt is found only on the portion of the plant near the ground, consider raising the chopping height so soil particles are not integrated into the chopped forage.

A publication from Cornell University goes more in depth on what to look for with flood damaged corn and management factors to consider.

Good Management Practices for Fall Grazing

Ted Wiseman, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Perry County
(Previously published in Farm and Dairy: August 9, 2018)

 

Fall pasture management is a critical period for pastures. For many of us we have had adequate rainfall up until recently and pastures have done well to this point.

As we transition into late summer and early fall it is critical to pay close attention to your forages. Some pastures may be stockpiled, but those intended to be grazed this fall still need time to rest.

It’s very tempting to use those forages that green up late in the fall. Management decisions made this fall will greatly impact forage growth next year.

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…At Least One Good Rain Event Per Week for the Rest of August…

by: Jim Noel, NOAA

Summer rainfall has been on a wild swing. We have been going back and forth from wet to dry and now we are looking toward a bit wetter pattern again.

The outlook for the rest of August calls for slightly above normal temperatures (about 1-2F). Rainfall will likely average 2-4 inches with normal being near 3 inches inches. Isolated totals could reach 5 inches through the end of August.

Going into harvest season things have been changing. Current climate models are continue the trends of temperatures 1-3 F above normal through November. However, trends are also gradually wetting up in fall. Rainfall goes from near normal in September to above normal by October into November. We will continue to monitor this trend but early harvest conditions look pretty good but later harvest conditions look more questionable.

Check back for future posts with more detail on crop water requirements through maturity.

 

Palmer Amaranth – Remain Vigilant!

As weeds continue to rear their ugly heads above the soybean canopy, it is important to remain vigilant and continue scouting your corn and bean fields on a regular basis.  We are seeing many weeds, Palmer Amaranth, Marestail, Waterhemp, Pigweed, Ragweed (Giant & Common), and various grassed, just to name a few.

Marestail, Palmer Amaranth and 19 other weeds are on the Ohio Noxious weed list. This designation requires that the landowner Public or Private MUST control these evasive weeds.  See earlier posts in this blog for more information on each of the 21 noxious weeds in Ohio.

Need help to identify weeds? As you scout your fields and you come across a weed that you’re not sure about; Is it Pigweed, Is it Waterhemp, Or is it Palmer.  If you are not sure call me at 740-397-0401 and I will be happy to help you with the identification. Visit our Knox County Extension YouTube channel (Click Here) for locally produced videos an how to identify and control this devastating weed.  Additional resources for Palmer Amaranth can be found on the OSU Weed Management Blog (Click Here).

Palmer Amaranth may very well be the most devastating pest you have/will ever encounter. Soybean yield losses approaching 80% and corn yield losses exceeding 90% have been reported.  A single female plant can produce up to 1,000,000 seeds and these seeds can remain viable in the soil for many, many years.  As Dr. Mark Loux states “Waterhemp and Palmer Amaranth will have more impact on the profitability of your farm operation than probably any other weedPalmer Amaranth, in the south, essentially doubled the herbicide costs in beans.” Remember, weed seeds are easily spread within a field and from field to field during harvest.

It is Your Farm, Your Field, Your Operation, Your Future – Protect it by keeping a watchful eye on your fields!