…At Least One Good Rain Event Per Week for the Rest of August…

by: Jim Noel, NOAA

Summer rainfall has been on a wild swing. We have been going back and forth from wet to dry and now we are looking toward a bit wetter pattern again.

The outlook for the rest of August calls for slightly above normal temperatures (about 1-2F). Rainfall will likely average 2-4 inches with normal being near 3 inches inches. Isolated totals could reach 5 inches through the end of August.

Going into harvest season things have been changing. Current climate models are continue the trends of temperatures 1-3 F above normal through November. However, trends are also gradually wetting up in fall. Rainfall goes from near normal in September to above normal by October into November. We will continue to monitor this trend but early harvest conditions look pretty good but later harvest conditions look more questionable.

Check back for future posts with more detail on crop water requirements through maturity.

 

Palmer Amaranth – Remain Vigilant!

As weeds continue to rear their ugly heads above the soybean canopy, it is important to remain vigilant and continue scouting your corn and bean fields on a regular basis.  We are seeing many weeds, Palmer Amaranth, Marestail, Waterhemp, Pigweed, Ragweed (Giant & Common), and various grassed, just to name a few.

Marestail, Palmer Amaranth and 19 other weeds are on the Ohio Noxious weed list. This designation requires that the landowner Public or Private MUST control these evasive weeds.  See earlier posts in this blog for more information on each of the 21 noxious weeds in Ohio.

Need help to identify weeds? As you scout your fields and you come across a weed that you’re not sure about; Is it Pigweed, Is it Waterhemp, Or is it Palmer.  If you are not sure call me at 740-397-0401 and I will be happy to help you with the identification. Visit our Knox County Extension YouTube channel (Click Here) for locally produced videos an how to identify and control this devastating weed.  Additional resources for Palmer Amaranth can be found on the OSU Weed Management Blog (Click Here).

Palmer Amaranth may very well be the most devastating pest you have/will ever encounter. Soybean yield losses approaching 80% and corn yield losses exceeding 90% have been reported.  A single female plant can produce up to 1,000,000 seeds and these seeds can remain viable in the soil for many, many years.  As Dr. Mark Loux states “Waterhemp and Palmer Amaranth will have more impact on the profitability of your farm operation than probably any other weedPalmer Amaranth, in the south, essentially doubled the herbicide costs in beans.” Remember, weed seeds are easily spread within a field and from field to field during harvest.

It is Your Farm, Your Field, Your Operation, Your Future – Protect it by keeping a watchful eye on your fields!

No Pigweed Left Behind – Late-Season Scouting for Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp

by: Mark Loux

If you don’t already have to deal with waterhemp or Palmer amaranth, you don’t want it.  Ask anyone who does.  Neither one of these weeds is easy to manage, and both can cause substantial increases in the cost of herbicide programs, which have to be constantly changed to account for the multiple resistance that will develop over time (not “can”, “will”).  The trend across the country is for them to develop resistance to any new herbicide sites of action that are used in POST treatments.  Preventing new infestations of these weeds should be of high priority for Ohio growers.  When not adequately controlled, Palmer amaranth can take over a field faster than any other annual weed we deal with, and waterhemp is a close second.  Taking the time to remove any Palmer and waterhemp plants from fields in late-season before they produce seed will go a long way toward maintaining the profitability of Ohio farm operations.  There is information on Palmer amaranth and waterhemp identification on most university websites, including ours –  u.osu.edu/osuweeds/ (go to “weeds” and then “Palmer amaranth”).  An excellent brief video on identification can be found there, along with a fact sheet.  The dead giveaway for Palmer amaranth as we move into late summer is the long seedhead, and those on female seed-bearing plants are extremely rough to the touch.

If you need help with identification, call John at 740-397-0401.

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Overall Drier Pattern into Early August

by: Jim Noel

The pattern change from wet to dry has arrived. For the remainder of July expect temperatures not too far from normal, some days above some days slightly below. Nothing real extreme to note in the temperatures. Humidity will also fluctuate from higher to lower to higher. Overall, moisture in the air will be typical for July. The one thing that will be different is the rainfall pattern. July has been a drier month for many areas. After a few showers or storms early this week, the next rain chance will be late this Friday into the weekend. It appears most should be 0.50-1.0 inches with the range being 0.25 to 3.00 inches. However, after this rain event it looks like rainfall will go back to being limited for the rest of July and possibly into early August.

August is shaping up to be warmer than normal with a drier start and wetter finish.

For the next two weeks the attached rainfall map from NOAA/NWS/Ohio River Forecast Center shows rainfall will average 0.75 to 2.75 inches across Ohio with isolated totals higher and lower than that. The heaviest rains will be to the south and east of Ohio.

Ohio Noxious Weed Identification – Week 21 Palmer Amaranth

Palmer Amaranth

FamilyPigweed, Amaranthaceae.

Habitat: Crop fields, pastures, and roadsides.

Life cycle: Summer annual.

Growth habit: Erect up to 6 ft. high.

Leaves: Prominent white veins on the undersurface unlike redroot pigweed, not pubescent, alternate, without hairs (glabrous), and lance or egg-shaped.  Leaves are 2 to 8 inches long and 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches wide with prominent white veins on the undersurface.  Leaves occur on relatively long petioles.

Flower: Small, green, inconspicuous flowers are produced in dense, compact, terminal panicles that are from 1/2 to 1 1/2 feet long. Smaller lateral flowers also occur between the stem and the leaf petioles (leaf axils).  Male and female flowers occur on separate plants. Each terminal panicle contains many densely packed branched spikes that have bracts that are 3 to 6 mm long; can produce 500 thousand to 1 million seeds per plant.

Roots: Taproot that is often, but not always, reddish in color

Stem: One central stem occurs from which several lateral branches arise.

Similar Plants: Loosely resembles many other pigweed species. Palmer’s petioles are as long or longer than the actual leaf. This plant is hairless and has elongated seed heads. Leaves are typically more diamond shaped than other pigweed species, and occasionally has one hair at the tip of the leaf.

The Problem is……..Palmer amaranth is one of the most difficult weeds to control in agricultural crops.  It developed a major glyphosate resistance problem in the southern US from 2006-2010, and has been spreading in the midwestern US since, causing crop loss and increases in weed management costs. Characteristics that make it a successful annual weed include: rapid growth rate; wide window of emergence (early May through late summer); prolific seed production (upwards of 500,000 seeds/plant); tendency to develop herbicide resistance; and tolerance to many post-emergence herbicides when more than 3 inches tall.

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Ohio Noxious Weed Identification – Week 20 Marestail

Marestail

FamilyComposite, Asteraceae.

Habitat: Thin turf, agronomic crops, pastures, orchards, fallow fields, waste areas, and roadsides.

Life cycle: Summer or winter annual.

Growth habit: Seedlings develop a basal rosette and mature plants erect are reaching 6 1/2 ft in height.

Leaves: The mature plant has leaves that are entirely without petioles (sessile). Leaves are 4 inches long, 10 mm wide, alternate, linear, entire or more often toothed, crowded along the stem, and hairy. Leaves become progressively smaller up the stem.

Stem: Erect, solid, hairy, reaching 6 1/2 ft in height.

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Hay Moisture Levels

Originally posted in the BEEF Cattle Newsletter, June 13, 2018– Chris Penrose, OSU ANR Extension Educator, Morgan County and Dan Lima, OSU ANR Extension Educator, Belmont County

 

With the limited opportunities and short windows many have had to make hay so far this year, some hay may have been made at higher moisture levels than we would like. Moisture levels have a direct effect on hay quality. What we have found to be a consistent number in the literature is 20% moisture maximum. To be more specific:

    1. Small squares to be 20% or less,
    2. Large round, 18% or less and
    3. Large squares, 16%

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Multiflora Rose Problems in Pastures? Control it Now!

Originally posted in the BEEF Cattle Newsletter, June 13, 2018– Dwight Lingenfelter, Penn State Extension Associate, Weed Science

As spring progresses, multiflora rose aggressively grows and eventually blooms in late May/early June. Several tactics can be used to control this problem weed and these methods will be briefly discussed.

It’s the right time to be scouting and managing multiflora rose in your pasture. Photo credit: Penn State Extension

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Poor Forage Establishment

Mike Rankin, Hay and Forage Grower managing editor (Previously published in Hay & Forage Grower: June 5, 2018)

Dealing with crappy new seedings.

Every farmer has done “it.”

That “it” is to walk a new forage seeding field that just never developed. There is nothing more disheartening than a newly seeded hayfield or pasture that for one or a variety of reasons was done before “it” ever really started.

(Image Source: Mike Rankin, Hay and Forage Grower)

During my extension agent days, I walked many of these fields. Sometimes the failure could be blamed on the weather, but there were cases when the reasons for the lack of establishment just couldn’t be fully explained.

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Ohio Noxious Weed Identification – Week 18 Wild Mustard

Wild Mustard

FamilyMustard, Brassicaceae.

Habitat: Wasteland, roadsides, grain and other fields crops, primarily in northern Ohio.

Life cycle: Annual annual or summer annual.

Growth Habit: 1-2 feet high, branched and erect.

Leaves: Alternate, 2-7 inches long. Lower leaves have petioles and are irregularly lobed and toothed with bristly hairs; upper leaves are smaller and may not be lobed; petioles lacking or short.

Stem: Branched near top, bristly.

Flower: June – October. 1/2 inch, bright yellow, four-petal flowers borne in small terminal clusters.

Fruit: Slender, slightly curved, smooth seedpod about 1 inch long; borne on upper branches.

Similar plantsThe yellow rocket looks similar but has rounded lower leaves that are more heart shaped.

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