Bale Grazing – Could It Work For You?

– Christine Gelley– OSU Extension Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator, Noble County, Ohio

Some of the original bale grazing research happened at EOARDC in Noble County.

Extending the grazing season is one of the best ways to save money on feed and reduce labor on the farm. In order to add grazing days to the calendar, farm managers must approach grazing with a plan and the willingness to be flexible. Rotationally grazing, utilizing multiple forage species and growing seasons, being thoughtful about stocking rates, adding fertility when needed, and having plentiful fence and water will increase chances for success.

Whether you have the ability to graze for a couple extra weeks or a couple extra months, the benefits of preparation will show up in the money you save on harvesting or purchasing supplemental feed. Regardless of how diligent you are about your grazing plans, it is difficult to provide sufficient grazing for livestock 365 days a year in Ohio and eventually you’ll be relying on stored feeds to meet the needs of your livestock. There are still benefits to utilizing your pasture rotations even while feeding hay. Bale grazing may be a practice to consider.

 

Continue reading

There’s Potential for Poisoning During Fall Grazing

– Jordan Penrose, Ohio State University Extension Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator, Gallia County (previously published in Farm & Dairy)

With fall fast approaching, it may be time to assess potential problems that could arise when livestock are grazing, such as trees and grasses. A good practice of walking or driving through your pastures will help you know what is growing in or around them.

Continue reading

What’s so Critical about Fall Cutting?

Amber Friedrichsen, Associate Editor, Hay and Forage Grower
(Previously published in Hay & Forage Grower: August 29, 2023)

The critical fall period for alfalfa has been said to start about six weeks before the first killing frost, which is roughly around the first week of September for most of the Midwest. This hard stop in harvest schedules is supposed to ensure plants store enough energy in their roots to survive the winter, but with improved alfalfa varieties, variable stand conditions, and warmer weather patterns, how critical can this period really be?

Despite heat indices recently reaching the triple digits in some parts of the Central U.S., temperatures will likely calm down as we flip the calendar from August to September. The sun is also setting noticeably earlier each day, and the combination of milder temperatures and shorter day lengths sends a signal to alfalfa to prepare for fall dormancy.

 

 

 

 

Continue reading

Preharvest Intervals for Soybean Herbicides Applied Postemergence

Preharvest intervals indicate the amount of time that must elapse between the herbicide application and crop harvest. Failure to observe the preharvest interval may result in herbicide residue levels in the harvested portion of the crop in excess of established limits. Also, livestock grazing or foraging treated soybean is not allowed on the labels of many postemergence soybean herbicides. Table 1 contains information regarding preharvest intervals and grazing restrictions for a number of postemergence soybean herbicides.

Table 18 from the OSU Weed Control Guide shows the PHI and feeding restrictions for postemergence soybean herbicide applications.

Field Observations Thru July 14

Alfalfa

2nd cutting is well underway.  Potato leafhoppers are very active. If you haven’t cut yet, continue to monitor, where damage is increasing, cut as soon as weather permits.

Click here for alfalfa insect scouting calendar

Click here for more information on Potato Leafhopper

Corn

Our corn growth varies greatly throughout the county. Some fields are beginning to tassel and some field are at V8.

V12 to V13 – Six weeks after the plant emerges, V12 begins. Moisture or nutrient deficiencies may reduce the potential number of seeds, as well as the ear size, seriously. These two components of yield have key development during the period from V10 to V17. The length of time for the plant to develop through these stages affects harvestable yield.

Early maturity hybrids normally progress through these stages in less time and have smaller ears than later hybrids. Higher plant populations are needed for earlier hybrids to produce grain yield similar to normal-maturity hybrids in the adapted region. Cultivation of plants at this time will destroy some of the plant roots. Brace roots are developing from the fifth node and the first above-ground node.

V14 to V15 – Seven weeks after the plant emerges, V14 begins. The corn plant at V15 is only 12 to 15 days (around one to five V stages) away from R1 (silking). This vegetative stage is the most critical period of seed yield determination. The number of ovules that develop silks, and thus the number of kernels, is being determined. Any nutrient or moisture deficiency or injury (such as hail or insects) may seriously reduce the number of kernels that develop.

The tassel is near full size but not visible from the top of the leaf sheaths. Silks are just beginning to grow from the upper ears. Upper-ear shoot development has surpassed that of lower ear shoots. A new leaf stage can occur every one to two days.

Brace roots from the sixth leaf node are developing, and the permanent roots have continued to elongate and proliferate, eventually reaching a depth of about 5 to 8 feet and spreading several feet in all directions. In some hybrids, brace roots also will develop from the eighth and ninth leaf nodes or even higher. Some corn plants in North Dakota may only develop 16 leaves.

Critical corn growth stages

Table 5. Postemergence Herbicides in Corn – Grasses

Table 6. Postemergence Herbicides in Corn – Broadleaves

Soybeans

Soybeans are starting to look a little bit better, however, there are still a lot of “yellow” beans throughout the county.  Two possible reasons are Yellow Flash and Soybean Cyst Nematode.  Other possibilities are seedling diseases and water-logged roots, more information on these topics next week.

After planting, the second biggest challenge we face is timely weed control.  If you haven’t already made a postemergence application, it might be time to check your fields.  Most beans (and weeds) are at stage that might warrant an application.  The links below will contain OSU Herbicide rating for postemergence applications.

Soybean Postemergence Weed Control – Grasses

Soybean Postemergence Weed Control – Broadleaves

Soybean Growth & Development – R1: Beginning Bloom

 

  • Open flower at any node on the main stem
  • Flowering begins at 3rd to 6th node (V6 to V10 stage)
  • Flowering period is 3 to 4 weeks
    –Begins ~6 to 8 weeks after emergence
    – Peaks R2 to R3; ends ~R5
  • Vertical root growth rates increase rapidly
    – As much as 1.3 to 3.2 in/day

Wheat

Wheat harvest has come to an end and most of the straw is in the barn.  From what I hear, wheat yields were pretty good with little to no disease issues.

If you removed the straw, remember to account for the additional fertilizer removal when planning for fertilizer needs next year.  Read more here.

Double crop beans have been, or are being planted now.  Click here for the Double Crop Soybean Production Guidelines from Dr. Laura Lindsey.

Misc. – Something you don’t see everyday.

I can honestly say that I have never seen one of these before! Click on the picture to see the video. If you know what it is, put your answer in the comment section.  Be sure to check back next week for the answer!

… AND THE ANSWER IS – Horsehair Worm

https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ef613

County Rainfall Update

Corn Water Requirements

Soybean Water Requirements

Weed of the week – Common Pokeweed

Common Pokeweed (AKA – Pokeberry)

Family:  Pokeweed Family

Life cycle: Perennial

Description: A large, 3 to 10 ft tall, perennial weed with thick, reddish-purple branched stems and dark purple to black berries. All parts of the plant are poisonous to cattle, horses, swine, and humans, especially the roots.

Seedlings: Cotyledons 7-33 mm long, 6-11 mm wide, egg-shaped but pointed at the apex. Stems below the cotyledons (hypocotyls) are without hairs, succulent, and often purple-tinged. Young leaves alternate, egg-shaped but pointed at the apex, and without hairs. Cotyledons and young leaves are pale green in color, with reddish tinted petioles.

Roots: Large, white tap root up to 6 inches in diameter.

 

 

Stem: Branch from the root crown at the base of the plant, erect, large, smooth, purple-tinged.

Leaves: Alternate, 3 1/2-12 inches long, 1-4 inches wide, egg-shaped, petiolated, without hairs, and are smaller in size toward the top of the plant.

Flower: Individual flowers small (6 mm wide) with 5 white to pink-tinged sepals.

Fruit: A berry, 7-12 mm, green when immature, dark-purple to black when mature. Contain a dark red juice.

 

Special identifying characteristics: Large, tree-like plant with egg-shaped leaves, purple-tinged stems and dark purple berries.

Pokeweed Control in Corn and Soybeans

 

Weed of the week – Poison Hemlock

Family: Parsley, Apiaceae.

Habitat: Wet sites, gardens, roadsides, wastelands, pastures, and meadows.

Life cycleBiennial, forming a rosette the first year and producing flowers and seed in the second.

First Year Growth HabitBasal rosette of finely divided leaves with a pungent odor.

Second-Year Growth Habit: 2-7 feet tall, branched plant with flowers.

LeavesAlternate, pinnately compound, finely divided, toothed, and glossy green.

Stems: Branched, waxy with purple blotches; hollow between nodes and grooved.

FlowerJune – August (second year). Clusters of small white flowers with 5 petals in a loose, umbrella-like cluster, 2-7” across.

Root: Fleshy taproot.

Similar plants: During the first year, poison hemlock resembles wild carrot, but has a strong, pungent odor. Further, young leaves of wild carrot are more finely divided and its stem is hairy. At maturity, poison hemlock can be difficult to distinguish from water parsnip and water hemlock. Look for purple blotches on the stem to identify poison hemlock. Water hemlock (Cicuta maculata), which is also highly poisonous, has a magenta-streaked stem and lanceolate leaflets with sharply-toothed edges. Water parsnip (Sium suave) is not poisonous and has toothed lanceolate leaflets.

The problem is….This plant is highly poisonous to both humans and animals. Poison hemlock is a large and impressive plant which has been planted as an ornamental in some areas. It grows quickly in fertile soils.

Seedling

Leaves

 

 

 

 

 

Stem – Note distinctive purple speckling

Flower

 

 

 

 

 

Click here for control options

 

Supplemental Forages to Plant in July After Wheat

by: Dr. Mark Sulc, Dr. Bill Weiss, OSU Extension

Some producers may be considering planting a supplemental forage crop after winter wheat grain harvest for various reasons. Some areas of the state are becoming very dry. In many areas, the wet weather this spring resulted in ample forage supply, but good to high-quality forage is in short supply because of the wet weather that delayed harvesting until the crop was mature, or it resulted in rained-on hay that lowered quality.

The table below summarizes options for planting annual forages after wheat harvest.

Continue reading

Blankets of Yellow Flowers

– Christine Gelley, Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator, Noble County OSU Extension

Fields of yellow flowers are abundant this year across the state as many annual crop farmers faced planting delays. Some pasture fields are covered in blankets of yellow too. The scenes are deceptively beautiful with their sunny appearance but may actually pose a deadly threat to livestock if the plant happens to be cressleaf groundsel, which is also known as butterweed. Cressleaf groundsel is another weed known to cause livestock poisonings in harvested or grazed forages.

Cressleaf groundsel is known to cause livestock poisonings.

Continue reading