Developing a long-term comprehensive weed management system.

Source: Iowa State University, (Edited)

As the end of the year approaches and we reflect on the 2018 growing season we need to look at what changes or improvements we need to make in our production plans for 2019.  Herbicide resistant weeds are continuing to create problems.  New, very invasive and harmful weed species (Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp) are now prevalent in Knox County.  Therefore, a review of the effectiveness of your herbicides program is definitely in order.

To effectively battle these new weed problems, creating a comprehensive, all-encompassing weed control strategy is essential in today production agriculture.  Over the next 4 weeks I will share information developed by Meaghan Anderson and Dr. Bob Hartzler at Iowa State University on developing a long-term weed management system.

This week’s post:   Herbicide program development: Using multiple sites of action

With the stagnant development of new herbicides and weeds seemingly evolving herbicide resistance faster than ever before, it’s important to maximize the usefulness of every herbicide application. A new herbicide site of action (or herbicide group number) for use in corn and soybean production has not been discovered since the early 1980s. According to Dr. Ian Heap with www.weedscience.org, since the 1980s, the confirmed number of unique cases of herbicide resistance globally is increasing at a rate of about 12 discoveries per year.

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Precautions for Dicamba use in Xtend Soybean

Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois are heavily infested with weeds resistant to glyphosate (group 9), PPO inhibitors (group 14), and ALS inhibitors (group 2). This has greatly reduced the number of effective postemergence herbicides for controlling these weeds in Roundup Ready 2 (RR2) soybeans. Adoption of Roundup Ready 2 Xtend (glyphosate and dicamba resistant – RR2 Xtend) soybeans and use of dicamba-based herbicides is one option for managing resistant weed populations. Keep in mind that selection for dicamba resistance occurs each time dicamba is applied, and over reliance on this technology will lead to the development of dicamba-resistant weed populations.

The extension weed science programs at The Ohio State University, Purdue University, and the University of Illinois recently collaborated to revise suggestions and precautions for use of dicamba in dicamba-resistant soybean.  The United States Environmental Protection Agency renewed labels of Xtendimax, Engenia, and FeXapan last October, and this updated extension weed science publication offers additional suggestions to help further reduce off-target dicamba movement.

Click here to view the publication

Properly Winterizing Sprayers Can Help Mitigate Costly Problems Next Spring

Source: Dr. Erdal Ozkan (Edited)

OK, it’s way too wet to be in the fields … So how about doing something like winterizing your sprayer too take your mind off of harvest for awhile?!

The four main steps are Rinsing, Cleaning, Winterizing and Storing.  Below are some suggestions from Dr. Erdal Ozkan, Extension Agricultural Engineer.

This is a busy time of year for many farmers, but taking time to winterize your sprayer now can payoff in avoiding problems next spring.  Without proper winterizing before the temperature falls below freezing, you could end up with a pump that is cracked and/or not working at its full capacity.  Here are some important things you need to do with your sprayer this time of the year.

Rinsing

Make sure to rinse the whole sprayer thoroughly before storing. Rinsing the sprayer thoroughly after each use reduces likelihood of cross-contamination of products applied next spring. Insufficient rinsing may also result in clogged nozzles. Once the nozzles are clogged, it is extremely difficult to bring them back to their normal operating conditions. Leaving chemical residues in nozzles will usually lead to changes in their flow rates, as well as in their spray patterns resulting in uneven distribution of chemicals on the target.

Depending on the tank, proper rinsing of the interior of the tank can be challenging.  Rinsing is easy if the tank is relatively new and equipped with special rinsing nozzles and mechanisms inside the tank. If this is not the case, manual rinsing of the tank interior is more difficult, and poses some safety problems such as inhaling fumes of leftover chemicals during the rinsing process. To avoid these problems, either replace the tank with one that has the interior rinse nozzles, or install an interior tank rinse system in your existing tank.

For effective rinsing of all the sprayer components, circulate clean water through the whole sprayer for several minutes with the nozzles off, then flush out the rinsate through the nozzles. Rinsing should be done in the field, or on a concrete chemical mixing/loading pad with a sump to recover rinse water. Dispose of the rinsate according to on the directions on the labels of the pesticides in the tank. Always check the label for specific instructions. Most labels recommend following procedure: If rinsing is done on a concrete rinse pad with a sump, put the rinsate collected in the sump back in the tank, dilute it with water and spray it in the field where there is no potential for the rinsate to reach ditches and other water bodies nearby. If the rinsing is done in the field, make sure you are not flushing out the rinsate in the system in one area. It is best to further dilute the rinse water in the tank and, spray it on the field on areas where there is no potential for the rinsate to reach ditches and other water bodies nearby.

 

Cleaning

Rinsing the system with water as explained above may not be sufficient to get rid of chemicals from the sprayer. This may lead to cross-contamination problems. Residues of some pesticides left in the sprayer may cause serious problems when a spray mixture containing these residual materials is applied on a crop that is highly sensitive to that pesticide. To avoid such problems, it is best to clean and rinse the entire spraying system with cleaning solution. A mixture of 1 to 100 of household ammonia to water should be adequate for cleaning the tank, but you may first need to clean the tank with a mixture containing detergent if tank was not cleaned right after the last spraying job was done. Some chemicals require specific rinsing solution. The Univeristy of Missouri has a publication listing commonly used pesticides and the specific rinsing solutions required of each, available online here:  http://extension.missouri.edu/p/G4852. Always check the product label to find out the most recent recommendations on cleaning agents.

Cleaning the outside of the sprayer components deserves equal attention. Remove compacted deposits with a bristle brush. Then flush the exterior parts of the equipment with water. A high pressure washer can be used, if available. Wash the exterior of the equipment either in the field away from ditches and water sources nearby, or a specially constructed concrete rinse pad with a sump. Again, the rinsate should be disposed of according to the label recommendationsMost labels recommend the following practice: put the rinsate collected in the sump back in the tank, dilute it with water and spray it in the field where there is no potential for the rinsate to reach ditches and other water bodies nearby.

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FARM: Field Application Resource Monitor

One of the missions of the State Climate Office of Ohio (SCOO; https://climate.osu.edu) is to serve as data stewards to connect Ohioans with the weather and climate information necessary to improve lives. In an effort to provide farmers across the state with sufficient weather guidance, specifically to aid in decisions regarding the application of fertilizer and manure, SCOO has developed FARM, the Field Application Resource Monitor (https://farm.bpcrc.osu.edu/).

FARM is a web-based, mobile friendly tool that provides:

  • Real-time high resolution precipitation forecasts to field(s) of interest (up to five locations),
  • Historical precipitation forecasts (back to July 2017),
  • Daily email notifications if desired (text alerts coming soon).

Originally designed in response to Senate Bill 1 regulations for the Western Lake Erie Basin, FARM can help any farmer throughout Ohio follow best management practices with regard to their precipitation forecast needs.

Precipitation forecasts in FARM are provided via the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Weather Prediction Center (WPC). We utilize the probabilistic forecasts which are based on a combination of WPC’s 6-hour quantitative precipitation forecasts and an ensemble of model forecasts. This data is available on a 1.5 mile x 1.5 mile grid, meaning FARM provides precipitation guidance on a local scale.

Again, FARM can be found by visiting /farm.bpcrc.osu.edu/. For more information on creating user profiles, returning, and other features of FARM, please check out http://u.osu.edu/farmprecip for a full tutorial. We have also provided a feedback button on the initial screen and request feedback, suggestions, and improvements as we continue to improve our product.

This program provides weather data only and does not take into account current field conditions.  Below is a snapshot of the weather information for our office at 160 Columbus Rd.

Click Here To Read More

 

Registration of Dicamba for Use on Dicamba-Tolerant Crops

The EPA extended the registration for two years for over-the-top use of dicamba to control weeds in fields for cotton and soybean plants genetically engineered to resist dicamba. This decision was informed by extensive collaboration between EPA, the pesticide manufacturers, farmers, state regulators, and other stakeholders. The registration includes label updates that add protective measures to further minimize the potential for off-site damage.  The registration will automatically expire on December 20, 2020, unless EPA further extends the registration.

The following label changes willbecome effective this year.

  • Only certified applicators may apply dicamba over the top (those working under the supervision of a certified applicator may no longer make applications)
  • Prohibit over-the-top application of dicamba on soybeans 45 days after planting and cotton 60 days after planting
  • For cotton, limit the number of over-the-top applications from 4 to 2 (soybeans remain at 2 OTT applications)
  • Applications will be allowed only from 1 hour after sunrise to 2 hours before sunset
  • In counties where endangered species may exist, the downwind buffer will remain at 110 feet and there will be a new 57-foot buffer around the other sides of the field (the 110-foot downwind buffer applies to all applications, not just in counties where endangered species may exist)
  • Clarify training period for 2019 and beyond, ensuring consistency across all three products
  • Enhanced tank clean-out instructions for the entire system
  • Enhanced label to improve applicator awareness on the impact of low pH’s on the potential volatility of dicamba
  • Label clean up and consistency to improve compliance and enforceability

Click Here To Read The Entire Article

 

 

Preparation of Grain Bins for Storage of Corn and Soybeans

Source: Curtis Young, OSU Extension Van Wert County

Empty Bin Treatments for Grain Bins for Storage of Corn, Popcorn and Soybeans

First – before using any product to treat grain bins, always read the most current label for the product to assure that the product is used correctly.  This is for the protection of the grain to be stored in the bin as well as for the protection of the applicator of the product.  Labels for products are subject to change from one year to the next, product registrations can be changed and/or canceled and rates may be changed.  Errors made because of not reading the most current label could result in injury to the applicator or contamination of the grain with a non-labeled product making it unsalable.

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New Requirements for Paraquat

by Mary Ann Rose, Director, Pesticide Safety Education Program OSU Extension

The EPA will be phasing in key restrictions and label changes for paraquat products due to the disproportionately high number of deaths resulting from accidental ingestion of the highly toxic herbicide (17 deaths since 2000). Only certified applicators who complete an EPA-approved paraquat training program will be able to apply the material; direct supervision of uncertified applicators will not be allowed. Applicators must take the online safety training every three years and keep documentation of the training. The pesticide label will be modified to highlight paraquat toxicity, new application restrictions, and training requirements. Packages will feature safety stickers and counter cards with warnings will accompany each purchase. Registrants submitted label changes in March 2018 and will have 12 months from EPA’s label approval date to adopt the new labels.

Closed-system packing will be required for all non-bulk containers (less than 120 gallon). Registrants will submit label changes and new product registrations for the closed system packaging by March, 2019, and will have 12 months from EPA’s label approval date to adopt the closed system packaging.

Registrants will be prohibited from sale or distribution of old labeled product after the deadlines, but persons other than registrants may continue to use/sell existing stocks until exhausted.

Farm Science Review Agronomy College is September 11th

by: Harold Watters, OSU Extension

The FSR Agronomy College is held in partnership between the Ohio AgriBusiness Association & OSU Extension. The event is designed to educate agronomists, Certified Crop Advisers, custom applicators and farmers on current agronomy issues. The full-day event features time with OSU Extension staff in the field in the agronomy plots on the east side of the Farm Science Review grounds. Breakout sessions will feature topics including a weed management update, weed and crop screen, variable rate soybean seeding, an update to the Tri-State Fertilizer Recommendations, the new Ohio Phosphorus Index, and some how we will squeeze in even more. CCA and pesticide application credits available to those attending.

Date: September 11, 2018

Location: Farm Science Review – Molly Caren Agricultural Center, London, OH

Time: Check-in begins at 8:30 a.m.; sessions begin at 9 a.m. and concludes at 4:00 p.m.

Cost: $120 Registration: Click here to register for the event. (or try this link:http://oaba.net/aws/OABA/pt/sd/calendar/67757/_PARENT/layout_details/false)

Contact: Janice Welsheimer at 614-326-7520 or by email: jwelsheimer@oaba.net

Or for additional information, Harold Watters, 937-604-2415 or by email: watters.35@osu.edu

Agricultural nutrients targeted in Clean Lake 2020 bill and Kasich Executive Order

by: Peggy Kirk Hall, Associate Professor, Agricultural & Resource Law

Recent actions by the Ohio legislature and Governor Kasich will affect the management of agricultural nutrients in Ohio.   The Ohio General Assembly has passed “Clean Lake 2020” legislation that will provide funding for reducing phosphorous in Lake Erie.  Governor Kasich signed the Clean Lake 2020 bill on July 10, in tandem with issuing Executive Order 2018—09K, “Taking Steps to Protect Lake Erie.”  The two actions aim to address the impact of agricultural nutrients on water quality in Lake Erie.

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Corn Growth Stage and Postemergence Herbicides

by: Aaron Hager, University of Illinois

Image result for corn sprayer

The labels of most postemergence corn herbicides allow applications at various crop growth stages, but almost all product labels indicate a maximum growth stage beyond which broadcast applications should not be made, and a few even a state minimum growth stage before which applications should not be made.  These growth stages are usually indicated as a particular plant height or leaf stage; sometimes both of these are listed.  For product labels that indicate a specific corn height and growth state, be sure to follow the more restrictive of the two.  Application restrictions exist for several reasons, but of particular importance is the increased likelihood of crop injury if applications are made outside a specified growth stage or range.  The following table lists the maximum corn growth stage for broadcast application of several postemergence corn herbicides.  Be sure to constult the respective product label for additional precautions or restrictions.

Table 1.  Postemergence herbicide application timings based on corn growth stage(s).

Herbicide Maximum corn heights and/or growth stagesa
2,4-D Broadcast before corn exceeds 8” tall; use drop nozzles when corn is taller than 8”.
Accent Q Broadcast up to 20” tall or through the V6 stage.  Apply with drop nozzles when corn is 20–36” tall or before the V10 stage.
Anthem Maxx Apply from corn emergence through the V4 (visible fourth leaf collar) stage.
Armezon Pro Apply from corn emergence to the 8-leaf stage or 30” tall.  Use directed applications when corn is 12–30” tall.
Atrazine Apply before corn exceeds 12” tall.
Basagran No height specified on label.
Basis Blend Apply to corn from spike through 2 collar stage. Do not apply to corn having 3 fully emerged collars or over 6” tall.
Cadet Apply until corn is 48″ tall or prior to tasseling.
Callisto/Callisto GT May be applied to corn up to 30” tall or up to the 8-leaf stage.
Callisto Xtra Apply before corn exceeds 12” tall
Capreno Broadcast applications may be made to corn from the 1-leaf collar stage up to 20” tall.  Do not apply if corn is more than 20” tall or exhibiting 7 or more leaf collars.
Clarity or Banvel Apply between corn emergence and the 5-leaf stage or 8” tall; apply 0.5 pt/A rate when corn is 8 to 36” or if 6th leaf is emerging, or if 15 days prior to tassel emergence.  Do not apply when soybean are growing nearby if: 1) corn is more than 24” tall, 2) soybean are more than 10” tall, 3) soybean have begun to bloom.
DiFlexx Apply broadcast to corn from spike through V10 growth stage or 36” tall, whichever occurs first.
DiFlexx Duo Apply broadcast to corn from emergence up to, but not including, V7 or 30” tall, whichever occurs first.  Can be applied as a directed spray from V7 through V10, up to 36” tall corn, or up to 15 days prior to tassel, whichever occurs first.
Enlist One/Duo Apply when corn is no larger than V8 or 30” tall, whichever is more restrictive.  Directed applications can be made to corn up to 48” tall.
Glyphosate (glyphosate-resistant corn) Apply broadcast through the V8 stage or until corn reaches 30” tall.  Use drop nozzles for applications to corn 30–48” tall.
Halex GT (glyphosate-resistant corn) Apply to corn up to 30″ tall or the 8-leaf stage.
Harmony SG Apply to 2–6 leaf corn with 1–5 collars or up to 16” tall.
Harness Max Apply until corn reaches 11” tall.
Hornet WDG Apply broadcast until corn reaches 20” tall or V6 stage.  Apply with drop nozzles to corn up to 36” tall.
Impact/Armezon Can be applied up to 45 days before harvest.  Do not apply Armezon past the V8 growth stage.
Impact Z Apply before corn exceeds 12” tall.
Laudis Apply up to the V8 growth stage.
Liberty (glufosinate-resistant corn) Broadcast until corn at the V6 growth stage.  Use drop nozzles for up to 36” tall.
Marksman Apply between corn emergence and the 5-leaf or 8” height stage.
Moxy Apply prior to tassel emergence.
NorthStar Broadcast applications are made when corn is between 4 –20” tall (V2–V6).  Use directed applications when corn is 20–36” tall.
Permit Can be applied from spike through layby.
Realm Q May be broadcast applied to corn up to 20” tall or exhibiting 6 leaf collars.
Require Q Apply to corn 4–20” tall.  Do not apply to corn exhibiting 7 or more leaf collars.
Resolve Q Do not apply to corn taller than 20” or exhibiting 7 or more leaf collars.
Resource Apply to corn from the 2-leaf through 10-leaf stage.
Revulin Q Do not apply to corn taller than 30” or that exhibits 8 or more collars.
Solstice May be applied broadcast up to the V8 growth stage or 30” tall.
Starane Ultra Apply broadcast to corn with up to 5 fully exposed leaf collars (V5).
Status Can be applied to corn between 4” (V2) and 36” (V8) tall.
Steadfast Q Apply to corn up to 20” tall and exhibiting up to 6 leaf collars.
Stinger Apply to corn from emergence through 24” tall.
Yukon Apply broadcast or with drop nozzles to corn from spike to 36” tall.  Drop nozzles are recommended when corn exceeds 20”.
Zemax May be applied after corn emergence until plants reach 30” tall or up to the V8 stage.

When maximum application timings are indicated by two corn growth stages, follow the most restrictive of the two.