REMINDER: Join Us for the 2nd Annual Virtual Corn College and Soybean School

By: Laura Lindsey

The AgCrops Team will host the 2nd annual virtual Corn College and Soybean School on February 15, 2022 from 9:00 AM – 4:00 PM featuring your OSU Extension state specialists, including the new corn agronomist, Dr. Osler Ortez, and new soybean pathologist, Dr. Horacio Lopez-Nicora. CCA CEUs will be available during the live presentations (2.0 CM, 5.0 IPM, and 1.0 NM).

To register, please go to: http://go.osu.edu/cornsoy There is a $10 registration fee for this event, which goes directly to support OSU AgCrops Team activities. Presentations will be recorded and uploaded to the AgCrops Team YouTube channel after the event (https://www.youtube.com/c/OSUAgronomicCrops).

MORNING SESSION 9:00-noon

9:00-9:40              Laura Lindsey

Soybean Management for 2022

9:50-10:30           Osler Ortez

Corn Management for 2022

10:40-11:20         Horacio Lopez-Nicora

Soybean Disease Management

11:20-noon         Pierce Paul

Corn Disease Management

AFTERNOON SESSION 1:00-4:00

1:00-1:40              Kelley Tilmon

Soybean Insect Management

1:50-2:30              Andy Michel

Corn Insect Management

2:40-3:20              Mark Loux

Weed Management for Corn and Soybean

3:20-4:00              Steve Culman

Meeting Nutrient Needs for Corn and Soybean

Are Periodical Cicadas a Threat to Field Crops?

Source: Curtis Young, OSU Extension

 

OK, let’s dispel any of the wild rumors right now!

 

 

Are periodical cicadas a threat to field crops? The quick and dirty answer to this question is NO!  Are they a threat to the health and welfare of anything? There is no quick and dirty answer to this question.

The best way to answer the second question is to start by looking at what the periodical cicada is, what it feeds on, where one would expect to find them, and its life cycle.

The periodical cicada or 17-year cicada is an insect with an extremely long life cycle that takes 17 years to get from the egg stage to the adult stage. Some people mistakenly refer to this insect as a locust. Unfortunately, locusts and cicadas are not one-in-the-same.  Locusts are a type of grasshopper (Order Orthoptera).  Cicadas (Order Hemiptera) are not grasshoppers. And the 2 look nothing like one another.

The periodical cicada feed mostly in their nymphal stages and are hosted by trees of many species. And since it takes 17 years of feeding by the nymphs, the trees have to be old and well established, minimally 20+ years old.

Therefore, periodical cicadas are going to be found in and around long-standing woodlots, forests and landscapes (homes, parks, and cemeteries), especially those that have been established in or next to woodlots. What does this preclude? We will not find periodical cicadas in crop fields, pastures, landscapes recently established on field crop ground, housing developments where all of the ground was excavated, or basically anywhere where there isn’t long established trees. There are also northern limits to their natural range (e.g. they do not exist very far into the state of Michigan).

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Roundup vs. Roundup vs. Roundup – REALLY??!

 

From a consumer standpoint this could quite possibly be the worst product marketing of ALL TIME!

 

 

Roundup has been around for a long time.  The active ingredient in “Roundup” is glyphosate.  Many of us know “Roundup” as a non-selective herbicide – i.e. it will kill all plants it contacts.

So what’s the problem?  With these products having a similar name, it’s quite possible to grab the wrong product from the shelf and thus risk harming or destroying the wrong (or all) plants.

The Solution.  Always read the label!  Products with similar names may have different active ingredients and therefore may not have the have the desired outcome.

Below is a general guide to the different Roundup products available to consumers.  Note that for many of these products there may be ready to use (RTU) and/or concentrate formulations available with different ratios or percentages of the same active ingredients.  Additional products are marketed for use in southern turfgrass.

Don’t be fooled by products that have a similar name . . . read the label!

 

Corn College and Soybean School

The Agronomic Crops Team will host a virtual Corn College and Soybean School on February 11, 2021. Corn College is in the morning, from 9:00 – 12:00pm, with Soybean School in the afternoon from 1:00-4:00pm. Each program will feature updates from OSU Specialists. CCA CEUs are available. The schedule for the day is as follows:

 

Corn College, 9:00am-12:00pm

  • Corn Management for 2021, Peter Thomison, 1.0 CM CCA CEUs
  • Meeting Nutrient Needs in Corn, Steve Culman, 1.0 NM CCA CEUs
  • Disease Management, Pierce Paul, 1.0 PM CCA CEUs
  • Insect Management, Andy Michel, 1.0 PM CCA CEUs

Soybean School, 1:00-4:00pm

  • Soybean Management for 2021, Laura Lindsey, 1.0 CM CCA CEUs
  • Weed Management, Mark Loux, 1.0 PM CCA CEUs
  • Disease Management, Anne Dorrance, 1.0 PM CCA CEUs
  • Insect Management, Kelley Tilmon, 1.0 PM CCA CEUs

This program is free to attend. Register at www.go.osu.edu/agronomyschools.

Leafhoppers, Grasshoppers, and Beetles, Oh My!

Source: Kelley Tilmon, Andy Michel, OSU

As the summer progresses we are receiving reports of insect problems often encouraged by hot, dry weather.  Last week we reported on spider mites and especially if you are in an area of continued dry weather we recommend scouting your soybeans and corn  https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2020-22/watch-spider-mites-dry-areas .

Some areas are also reporting increases in young grasshoppers in soybeans, another insect favored by dry weather.  Grasshoppers of often start on field edges so early scouting may allow for an edge treatment.  Japanese beetles are another common defoliator of soybean that are starting to appear.  Both of these pests fall into a general defoliation measurement, and we recommend treatment if defoliation is approaching 20% on the majority of plants in post-flowering beans.  Download our guide to estimating defoliation in soybean at https://aginsects.osu.edu/sites/aginsects/files/imce/Leaf%20Defoliators%20PDF_0.pdf

A weird problem being reported not just in Ohio but in parts of the Midwest as far-flung as Minnesota is the red headed flea beetle, which is being found in corn and soybean.  This is a small, narrow, shiny black beetle with a red head which springs like a flea when disturbed.  Feeding in soybean creates small round holes and in corn longer narrow strips of damage.  This feeding is seldom economic.  In soybean follow the general defoliation threshold of 20%.  Leaf feeding in corn is almost never economic, but be on the watch for silk-clipping, which is rare but possible.  There are no thresholds in corn, but our Minnesota colleague Bruce Potter suggest this guideline: “flea beetles are very numerous (it is likely more than 5-10/plant), pollination is less than 50% complete, and numerous plants have silks clipped to within 1/2 inch, you might consider an insecticide.”

Finally, earlier in the season we reported higher than usual numbers of potato leafhopper in alfalfa and encouraged stepping up scouting.  In some fields third-cut alfalfa is being heavily impacted by this insect.  You can review our scouting advice for this insect at https://agcrops.osu.edu/newsletter/corn-newsletter/2020-17/time-start-scouting-potato-leafhoppers-alfalfa

True Armyworm Infestations

Source: Andy Michel, Curtis Young, CCA, Kelley Tilmon, OSU

 

As you scout your fields this week be on the lookout for this pest!

 

We received many reports of true armyworm infestations in wheat, barley, and corn. These are black or green caterpillars with stripes along the side and orange heads.  In the spring, true armyworm moths migrate from the south and lay eggs in grasses such as forage and weed grasses, winter wheat and barley, and rye cover crops.  When the eggs hatch, the larvae can significantly damage wheat and barley before then moving to young corn. Usually, moth flights occur in April, but we may have had a second peak the first or second week of May—it’s likely the caterpillars feeding now are from this later flight. Right now, wheat, barley, and corn should be inspected for true armyworm populations. Armyworms like to hide during the day and feed at night, so scouting should occur at dusk or dawn, and/or on cloudy days.

Corn: True armyworm in corn cause the most damage when planted in no-till grassy fields, such as a rye cover crop.  In this case, after feeding on the cover crop, the caterpillars shift onto the emerging corn.  The name armyworm comes from the caterpillars’ behavior of migrating en masse from one location to another. Thus, one should pay particular attention to cornfields adjacent to wheat fields that may have supported a high armyworm population, especially the first several rows into the cornfield. As the wheat matures and dries down, it could stimulate the caterpillars to move.

One may only need to treat the edge of the field closest to the wheat field from which the caterpillars are marching. If armyworms are found in a cornfield, check for the percentage of plants damaged in 5 sets of 20 plants.  If more than 10% of the stand has feeding damage, it may indicate a large infestation, and the field should be re-checked in a few days to see if defoliation is increasing. If defoliation has increased and plants have two or more caterpillars per corn seedling, an insecticide application may be necessary. However, if most larvae are longer than 1 inch, then much of the feeding is complete as the caterpillars will begin to pupate. Also, look for the presence of diseased (black and shriveled) or parasitized caterpillars (having a few or several small, white egg cases on their body)—if found, do not include them in your counting.

If defoliation exceeds 50%, even a rescue treatment may not recover the field without a significant impact on yield.  According to the Handy Bt Trait Table (https://agrilife.org/lubbock/files/2020/02/BtTraitTable_FEB_2020.pdf), only the Vip3A (e.g., Viptera) Bt trait is effective against true armyworm.  Insecticidal seed treatments may offer some control but can be overwhelmed with high populations. Plus, insecticidal seed treatments last only about 4-6 weeks after planting.

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Alfalfa Weevil – It’s Closer Than You Think

Green alfalfa weevil larvae (the main feeding stage) at various growth stages, and brown adults. Photo by Julie Peterson, University of Nebraska.

Though it seems like spring has been slow to come this year, we have actually accumulated enough degree days to see potential outbreaks of alfalfa weevil in some locations.  Ohio experienced its 5th warmest winter on record (1895-2020) and March temperatures averaged 2-8°F above average. Overwintered adults begin laying eggs when temperatures exceed 48°F.  Peak larval activity and feeding damage occurs between 325 and 575 heat units (based on accumulation of heat units from January 1 with a base of 48°F).  Current (Jan. 1 – Apr. 11, 2020) heating units range from near 100 in far northeastern Ohio, 100-200 across much of northern Ohio, and 200-300 units across much of central, southwest, and southeast Ohio. South central Ohio has currently eclipsed 300 units as evident at OSU South Centers in Piketon.

In short, now is the time to start scouting.  Alfalfa fields should be scouted weekly for weevils until at least the first harvest.  Don’t let your guard down with the recent turn to cooler weather! We’ve seen significant weevil infestations in past years when early warm weather pushed weevil development earlier than normal, followed by cooler weather later that slowed alfalfa growth. Continue reading

Overwintering of Pathogens and Insects – What do Winter Temperatures Tell Us About Next Season?

Source: Anne Dorrance, Kelley Tilmon, Andy Michel, OSU Extension

Over the years we have developed databases of winter temperatures followed by scouting to indicate starting pathogen populations for Ohio.

Frogeye leaf spot – We have documented early infections and overwintering ability of the fungus, Cercospora sojina, that causes frogeye leaf spot. It appears that when there are less than 10 days during the months of December, January and February of less than 17 F, we have had reports of outbreaks of frogeye leaf spot.  This occurred in fields where there was a high level of inoculum at the end of the season the same or similar moderately to highly susceptible cultivar was planted into the same field again which then initiated the epidemic that much sooner.  Losses of greater than 35% in yield or very early fungicide applications were necessary.

Expecting continued warmer winter temperatures, for fields with a history of frogeye leaf spot, and no-till production systems, the first thing for farmers is to do now to mitigate losses in 2020:

  1. Rotate fields with high levels of frogeye leaf spot into corn or another crop.
  2. If it is still targeted for soybean, look at their soybean varieties frogeye leaf spot resistance scores.  Your seed dealer will have more information.  Plan now for what fields they will go into.
  3. Scout the susceptible cultivars much earlier than what we have called for in the past and monitor levels.

Another pathogen that may be more prevalent after a warm winter is Stewart’s bacterial wilt.  This disease is transmitted to corn by corn flea beetle which survives in greater numbers in warm winters. This is a greater problem in popcorn and sweet corn as most field corn has high levels of resistance to the bacterium.

Most other field crop insect pests in Ohio are not highly influenced by winter conditions as they are well-adapted to withstand cold overwintering conditions.  Once exception is Mexican bean beetle, an occasional pest of soybean (especially in central Ohio).  Warm winter conditions may cause higher populations of this insect the following field season.

Considerations for 2019 Wheat Planting

Source: Andy Michel, Laura Lindsey, Pierce Paul, OSU

With the autumn rapidly approaching, wheat planting is likely to begin soon. Planting after the Hessian fly free date remains the best chance to avoid issues with insects and diseases, as well as helping ensure good agronomic quality.  Some benefits of the fly free date:

Hessian Fly: Adults of the Hessian fly lay eggs in emerging wheat. These eggs then hatch into small larvae that feed before spending the winter as a flaxseed. The early autumn feeding will stress the young wheat plant right before the winter, resulting in stunted and wilted plants.  Very little egg laying occurs after the fly free date, which helps to limit infestation. Wheat varieties with resistance against the Hessian are available, in addition to seed treatments, which can help limit damage.

Aphids: Two main aphids infest wheat in Ohio: the English grain aphid and the bird cherry-oat aphid.  These aphids rarely cause economic injury on wheat from feeding. However, they can transmit several viruses that can severely impact wheat including Barley Yellow Dwarf virus.  These aphids do not only feed on wheat, but several other grasses that serve as natural sources of viruses.  If wheat is planted too early, and emerges before the aphids overwinter or stop feeding, they can be early transmitters of viruses.  Although seed treatments could help kill the aphids, they may survive long enough to transmit the virus to the plant.  Any transmission in the autumn would likely serve as a local source in the following spring.

Other foliar diseases: Although not directly related to the Hessian Fly, planting after the fly free date also helps to reduce the early establishment of leaf diseases like Stagonospora leaf blotch and powdery mildew. Planting date is indirectly linked to spore production by fungi that cause these diseases and infection of young plants. The earlier you plant, the more spores are available, and the more suitable (warmer) conditions are for infection. Fall infections often leads to more damage and greater yield loss in the spring, especially of susceptible varieties are planted and not protected with a fungicide at Feeks 8 (flag leaf emergence). As conditions become cooler after the fly free date, pathogens that cause leaf diseases become last active, and as such, are less likely to infect plants.