Double Crop Soybean Management Considerations

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Wheat harvest is just around the corner, and it’s time to consider double-crop soybean production management. For double-crop soybean to be successful, you need adequate time and moisture for the production of the soybean crop. In southern Ohio, double-crop soybean after wheat harvest is common. In central and northern Ohio, double-crop soybean after winter wheat depends on the wheat harvest date and soybean prices. With high soybean prices, we anticipate interest in double-crop soybean production in central and northern Ohio this year.

Double-crop soybean management considerations.

  1. Soybean relative maturity. Relative maturity (RM) has little effect on yield when soybeans are planted during the first three weeks of May. However, the effect of RM can be larger for late plantings. When planting soybean late, the latest maturing variety that will reach physiological maturity before the first killing frost is recommended. This is to allow the soybean plants to grow vegetatively as long as possible to produce nodes where pods can form before vegetative growth is slowed due to flowering and pod formation.

Table 1. Recommended relative maturity (RM) ranges for soybean varieties planted in June and July in northern, central, and southern Ohio.

  1. Row spacing. Double-crop soybeans should be produced in narrow rows- 7.5 or 15-inch row spacing. The later soybeans are planted, the greater the yield increase due to narrow rows. Soybeans grown in narrow rows produce more grain because they capture more sunlight energy, which drives photosynthesis.
  1. Seeding rate. The soybean plant population at harvest for mid-to-late June plantings should be between 130,000-150,000 plants/acre. The harvest population for early July plantings should be greater than 180,000 plants/acre. Harvest population is a function of seeding rate, quality of the planter operation, and seed germination percentage and depends on such things as soil moisture condition, seed-soil contact, and disease pressure.

Double-Crop Soybean Weed Management

by: Dr. Mark Loux, OSU Extension

It’s been a tough summer in parts of Ohio to do anything on a timely schedule and there are some weedy fields.  The best advice we have for big weeds in full-season soybeans is to increase rates and the complexity of POST herbicide applications, while still adhering to cutoffs for the application of certain herbicides as much as possible.  Dicamba products, XtendiMax, Engenia, and Tavium, cannot legally be applied to Xtend and XtendiFlex soybeans after June 30.  This cutoff date pertains to use in double-crop soybeans also.  If you are planning on planting Xtend or XtendiFlex soybeans in double-crop fields and using dicamba as a burndown, apply before Friday.  There isn’t a cutoff date for most other POST soybean herbicides – it’s based on either crop stage (eg R1) or days before harvest.

Double crop soybeans usually need some type of weed control program, although how weedy they get depends upon weeds surviving down in the wheat that can take off once they receive light; how much rain we get in July, which drives additional weed emergence and rate of soybean growth; and how fast the soybeans grow and develop a canopy.  Control can occur via the use of pre-plant/preemergence burndown herbicides, followed by POST as needed.  It’s also possible to accomplish this with one early POST application in Enlist soybeans, using Enlist Duo or a combination of Enlist One with glyphosate or glufosinate.  And also in LLGT27 soybeans with a combination of glyphosate and glufosinate.  Herbicides need to address marestail in many fields, which is often lurking in the wheat ready to regrow.  Marestail that are taller and get cut off by the combine will be more difficult to control than the smaller intact ones below the cutter bar.  Herbicide options vary depending upon the weeds and what type of soybeans are planted.  More effective options include:

  • Glyphosate or glufosinate + Sharpen (1 oz) + MSO – any soybean, prior to emergence
  • Glyphosate or glufosinate + 2,4-D – any soybean, at least a week before planting
  • Enlist Duo; glyphosate or glufosinate + Enlist One (Enlist soybeans) – PRE or POST, no wait to plant
  • Glyphosate + XtendiMax or Engenia (Xtend or XtendiFlex soybeans) – PRE, apply by June 30
  • Glyphosate + glufosinate – PRE in any soybean, PRE or POST in LLGT27 soybean

​​​​​​​It is possible to include residual herbicides with a PRE burndown treatment, but their value in this situation is questionable.  Residual herbicides with long recrop intervals to corn should be avoided.  POST options in double-crop include glufosinate, glyphosate, Enlist One/Duo, and conventional herbicides, depending upon the type of soybean planted.  One caution here is to avoid excessive injury to soybeans that slows growth and development since this is likely to reduce yield due to the short season.  Weed emergence is reduced and variable in July compared with May and June.  Where burndown herbicides are used, but there is still a need for POST herbicides to control a flush of late-emerging weeds, consider reduced rates.  Research we conducted back in the 1990s demonstrated that weeds up to 2 inches tall can usually be controlled with half of a typical labeled rate.  When we planted soybeans in early June, the single application of a half-rate provided adequate control, versus early May when a second application was needed.  So this should be a suitable approach for double-crop soybeans.  Just be sure to start with an effective burndown at planting, and apply when weeds are well within the 2-inch size.

Ohio Department of Agriculture Reminds Pesticide Applicators of June 30 Cutoff Date for Dicamba Products

The Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) is reminding pesticide applicators of the June 30 cutoff date for over-the-top dicamba products to soybeans. No additional applications can be made to this year’s crop after this date, regardless of growth stage.

Dicamba is an herbicide used to help limit unwanted weeds around crops. In 2018, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated new dicamba products as restricted use, meaning they can only be used by certified applicators.

In December 2021, the EPA released its 2021 incident report, which indicated that across the United States “more than 1 million acres of non-dicamba-tolerant soybean crops were allegedly damaged by off-target movement of dicamba.” In Ohio, there were 34 reported incidents involving dicamba.

If you have questions or concerns about dicamba please contact the Division of Plant Health’s Pesticide & Fertilizer Regulation Program at (614) 728-6987 or Pesticides@agri.ohio.gov.

Evaluating the Prevent Plant Option

By: Eric Richer & Chris Bruynis, OSU Extension Educators

Planting progress goes differently every year and in each part of the state. This year is no different in Ohio. Some places got in early and are finished. Others had their ‘normal’ planting progress with ‘normal’ Mother Nature breaks, perhaps with some re-plant needed. And still others have not had ideal conditions all spring to plant.  As such, we have received some recent calls regarding the mechanics and economics of utilizing the Prevent Plant through crop insurance this year in certain parts of the state. First and foremost, we are not crop insurance agents, so speaking with your agent is of utmost importance. In this article, we will walk through an example on the economics of electing Prevent Plant.

In Ohio, once you arrive at the final plant date of June 5 for corn (already passed) and June 20 for soybeans, you basically have 3 options in a corn scenario: Continue reading

Xyway Corn Fungicide Trial

Knox County Xyway Trials

Taking stand counts at our Xyway plot – Great looking field of corn!

 

 

A Special Thanks to Ed & Vicki Piar!!

 

The goal of this study is to determine corn’s response to an at-plant soil application of flutriafol (Xyway™) fungicide. Information from this trial will be used to improve corn disease management recommendations for growers throughout the state.

Vomitoxin Research 2022 – Plot #4

Knox County Vomitoxin Research Station #4 Installed – Thanks to Dr. Pierce Paul and Crew!

A Special Thanks to Braddock Farms – Jim and Susan Braddock!!

 

Fusarium molds that produce DON often develop under wet weather conditions. This particular mold initially enters plants through silks or wounds, and cool, wet conditions during the silking stage promotes spore production, increasing the inoculum load that can potentially infect more plants. Infections by the fungal species F. graminearum result in the development of Gibberella ear and stalk rots. Corn from fields with this disease issue may need to be tested for potential contamination.

The goal of this Statewide research project is to develop a prediction model that will allow producers to take corrective action based upon a weather prediction model to prevent plant infections.

40 of these research stations are scattered throughout West-Central Ohio.

Vomitoxin Research 2022 – Plot #3

Knox County Vomitoxin Research Station #3 Installed – Thanks to Dr. Pierce Paul and Crew!

A Special Thanks to Clark Farms – Tom and Nate Clark!!

 

Fusarium molds that produce DON often develop under wet weather conditions. This particular mold initially enters plants through silks or wounds, and cool, wet conditions during the silking stage promotes spore production, increasing the inoculum load that can potentially infect more plants. Infections by the fungal species F. graminearum result in the development of Gibberella ear and stalk rots. Corn from fields with this disease issue may need to be tested for potential contamination.

The goal of this Statewide research project is to develop a prediction model that will allow producers to take corrective action based upon a weather prediction model to prevent plant infections.

40 of these research stations are scattered throughout West-Central Ohio.

Vomitoxin Research 2022 – Plot #2

Knox County Vomitoxin Research Station #2 Installed – Thanks to Dr. Pierce Paul and Crew!

 

A Special Thanks to David and Emily Mitchem!!

 

Fusarium molds that produce DON often develop under wet weather conditions. This particular mold initially enters plants through silks or wounds, and cool, wet conditions during the silking stage promotes spore production, increasing the inoculum load that can potentially infect more plants. Infections by the fungal species F. graminearum result in the development of Gibberella ear and stalk rots. Corn from fields with this disease issue may need to be tested for potential contamination.

The goal of this Statewide research project is to develop a prediction model that will allow producers to take corrective action based upon a weather prediction model to prevent plant infections.

40 of these research stations are scattered throughout West-Central Ohio.

Vomitoxin Research 2022 – Plot #1

Knox County Vomitoxin Research Station #1 Installed – Thanks to Dr. Pierce Paul and Crew!

 

A Special Thanks to Sassafras Hill Farms – Nate McKee and Skyler Epler!!

 

Fusarium molds that produce DON often develop under wet weather conditions. This particular mold initially enters plants through silks or wounds, and cool, wet conditions during the silking stage promotes spore production, increasing the inoculum load that can potentially infect more plants. Infections by the fungal species F. graminearum result in the development of Gibberella ear and stalk rots. Corn from fields with this disease issue may need to be tested for potential contamination.

The goal of this Statewide research project is to develop a prediction model that will allow producers to take corrective action based upon a weather prediction model to prevent plant infections.

40 of these research stations are scattered throughout West-Central Ohio.