Source: Mark Badertscher, OSU Extension
Join OSU Extension for a virtual New Private Pesticide Applicator Training to help new pesticide applicators prepare for the Ohio Private Pesticide Applicator License scheduled for Tuesday, January 26 from 12:30-4:30 pm. The class will provide instruction in CORE, Grain, and Cereal Crops. For further study and to prepare for the test, books can be purchased from OSU Extension Publications online and shipped to your house at your expense.
Optional books for the online participants include:
Applying Pesticides Correctly (Core Manual)
Ohio Pesticide Applicator Training: Core Student Workbook
Ohio Pesticide Applicator Training: Field Crops Student Workbook
Register for this virtual event at https://go.osu.edu/virtualnewpesticideapplicatortraining-january26 and you will be sent a link for the class. There is no cost to participate and those who are unable to participate on the scheduled webinar date will be sent an email to watch the recording later if they register for the class. Following the class, participants can schedule an exam time at https://pested.osu.edu/PrivateApplicator/testing when they are ready to take the tests.
Source: Dr. Pierce Paul, OSU
If your grain was harvested from a field with Gibberella ear rot (GER), it is more than likely contaminated with mycotoxins. Deoxynivalenol, also known as vomitoxin, is one of the mycotoxins most commonly produced by the fungus Fusarium graminearum that causes GER. Another name for this fungus is Gibberella zeae, hence the name of the disease. Before storing grain harvested from GER-affected fields or areas where conditions were favorable for the disease, pull a sample and test for the presence and level of contamination with vomitoxin. Mycotoxin tests are either qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative. Qualitative tests provide a yes/no answer for the presence of the toxin and are useful for initial screening. Semi-quantitative tests estimate whether the toxin is at or above certain levels (>5 ppm) or within a given range, whereas quantitative tests provide more precise estimates of contamination. There is a trade-off between precision, price, and speed. Quantitative tests tend to be the most precise but are also more expensive and take longer to complete than the qualitative or semi-quantitative tests. Semi-quantitative quick-test kits are very common and relatively easy to use and inexpensive. They are often very specific for one particular toxin. A test developed specifically for Aflatoxin or Fumonisins will NOT work for vomitoxin.
Unfortunately, there are no commercially available treatments to reduce vomitoxin levels in stored grain. Poor storage may cause toxin levels to increase. Warm, moist pockets in the grain promote mold development, causing the grain quality to deteriorate and toxin levels to increase. Aeration is important to keep the grain dry and cool. However, it should be noted that while cool temperatures, air circulation, and low moisture levels will minimize fungal growth and toxin production, these will not decrease the level of toxin that was already present in grain at the time of storage.
- Dry and store harvested grain to below 15% moisture of lower to minimize further mold development and toxin contamination in storage.
- Store dried grain at cool temperatures (36 to 44°F) in clean, dry bins. Moderate to high temperatures are favorable for fungal growth and toxin production.
- Periodically check grain for mold, insects, and temperature.
- If mold is found, send a grain sample for mold identification and analysis to determine if toxins are present and at what level.
- Clean bins and storage units between grain lots to reduce cross-contamination.
Several companies sell test strips for mycotoxin analysis, including Romer Labs (http://www.romerlabs.com) and Neogen (http://www.neogen.com/). These tests are fairly easy to use once you read and follow the manufacturer’s guidelines carefully.
More information on sampling, testing, and storage can the found in factsheet # PLPATH-CER-04 (http://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/plpath-cer-04).
by: Mary Griffith, Chris Zoller, Hallie Williams, OSU Extension Educators
Enrollment for the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs for the 2021 crop year opened in October, with the deadline to enroll and make amendments to program elections on March 15, 2021. This signup is for potential payments for the 2021 crop.
If changes are not made by the March 15th deadline, the election defaults to the programs selected for the 2020 crop year with no penalty. While it is optional to make changes to program elections, producers are required to enroll (sign a contract) each year to be eligible to receive payments. So, even if you do not change your program elections, you will still need to make an appointment at the Farm Service Agency to sign off on enrollment for the 2021 crop year by that March 15th deadline.
Producers have the option to enroll covered commodities in either ARC-County, ARC-Individual, or PLC. Program elections are made on a crop-by-crop basis unless selecting ARC-Individual where all crops under that FSA Farm Number fall under that program. These are the same program options that were available to producers during the 2019 and 2020 crop years. In some cases producers may want to amend program election to better manage the potential risks facing their farms during the 2021 crop year.
As you consider amending your program choices, here are some important reminders: