Adopted from: CPN-2012 Corn – Tar Spot, Crop Protection Network
Tar spot is a foliar disease of corn that commonly occurs throughout Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. The disease was identified in the United States for the first time in 2015 in northern Illinois and Indiana. As of 2018, it has been confirmed in Iowa, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio, and Florida. During the 2018 growing season, the prevalence and severity of the disease increased dramatically, and in some areas tar spot caused substantial yield losses.
In the United States, tar spot of corn is caused by the fungus Phyllachora maydis. The fungus produces small (0.2-0.8 inch), round to semi-circular, raised black structures called stromata. In severe cases, stromata may also be observed on leaf sheaths and husks. Tar spot severity on ear leaves at growth stage R5 (dent stage) can exceed 50 percent in susceptible hybrids when conditions are favorable for the disease.
Corn at any developmental stage is susceptible to infection by the tar spot fungus when conditions are favorable. Disease symptoms have been observed as early as the third-leaf (V3) growth stage in the United States. P. maydis overwinters on infested corn residue on the soil surface, which serves as a source of inoculum for the subsequent growing season. It is not known if P. maydis overwinters on or infects any other plant hosts in the United States.
Conditions that Favor Disease In Latin America, cool temperatures (60-70°F) and high relative humidity (greater than 75 percent) favor tar spot development. In addition, disease incidence increases when there is at least seven hours of free moisture on the leaves due to rain, fog, or high relative humidity. However, it is not currently known what conditions favor the disease in the United States. In both 2015 and 2018, warm weather and periods of persistent rain and high humidity during the growing season likely favored the development and spread of the disease.
Continuous corn cultivation with minimum tillage practices, and high application rates of nitrogen fertilizer are also positively correlated with increased disease in Latin America. Although corn lines have been identified in Latin America that have resistance to tar spot complex, U.S. observations indicate that most hybrids grown in the North Central region are susceptible to P. maydis (although they differ in susceptibility).
Yield Losses and Impact Preliminary data from the Midwest indicate that severe tar spot outbreaks can reduce yield by more than 30 bushels per acre. Yield losses are a function of reduced ear weight, poor kernel fill, loose kernels, and vivipary (a condition in which the seed germinates while still on the cob). Observations also suggest that stalk rot and lodging are increased when tar spot severity is high. Severe tar spot also reduces forage quality.
Diagnosis You can diagnose corn tar spot in the field by examining corn leaves for the presence of black, tar-like spots. To date, tar spot has been observed most often during mid-to late grain fill (growth stages R3-R6) and usually on leaves below or near the ear leaf. You can observe stromata in green and senesced tissues. Occasionally, you may also observe necrotic brown tissue surrounding the black structures, which produces a fisheye appearance.
Management Most of what we know about tar spot has originated from Mexico and Central America. However, differences in the environments, fungal populations, hybrid genetics, and cropping systems may influence disease development in different areas. Our understanding of this disease in the United States is limited because of its very recent history.
However, several management practices may help reduce tar spot development and severity.
- Manage residue. Tilling fields buries infected residue and encourages it to decompose, which may help reduce the amount of overwintering tar spot inoculum.
- Rotate to other crops. This will allow residue to decompose and reduce the primary It is not yet known how many years it may take to sufficiently reduce inoculum.
- Avoid highly susceptible hybrids.
- Investigate fungicides. Some fungicides may reduce tar spot, however, we have little data about application timing that will provide an effective and economical response. Efforts are underway to understand the biology and epidemiology of this disease, which may help formulate fungicide application decisions in the future.