How to focus on the work

In this module, I learned several ways to concentrate. I would like to summarize and give some new methods I think are useful.
1. Understand the reasons for your inattention and distraction. In your usual study or work, pay attention (don’t deliberately) your entire study or work process, and record it when there is inattention or distraction (you can bring a small notebook with you, and use your mobile phone if you don’t have one): Where are you distracted, what caused your inattention (fuse), what caused you to be distracted (that is, what distracted you from thinking: food, someone, etc.), Approximately how long is the distraction.
2. Train the “endurance” for long-term concentration
For most of us, it is not difficult to concentrate. The difficulty lies in concentrating for a long time, so this “endurance” is a very important issue. Train yourself. Set yourself a staged small goal, and force yourself to do it and improve.
3. Establish clear goals. In order to be able to concentrate, clear goals are very helpful, because specific and clear goals can produce specific results, which means that goals are result-oriented. The more specific point is: only when we clearly know what we are going to do next, will our brains prepare in advance, adjust our state and mentality to face what we are going to do next.
4. Ensure adequate sleep. Sleep is really too important. Adequate sleep can make your brain full of vitality and easier to concentrate on studying and working. Therefore, try to use the time during the day to study or work to improve the efficiency of the unit time. Don’t stay up late, get tired and dizzy, and lose energy all day long. Sleep well when it’s time to go to bed.

How to think of a meaningful research question

In this week’s module, the topic I feel most important is why a good research question is important. I have some experience on how to think of a good and meaningful research question.
My way is to understand academic history.
Through combing the academic history, we can find meaningful problems from four aspects and realize academic innovation: one is to discover new problems that the predecessors did not pay attention to; the second is to deepen the research of the predecessors; the third is to supplement the previous research; the fourth is Challenge previous research and put forward different viewpoints. Through the combing of academic history, we can find the weaker problems and fields of predecessors and realize academic innovation through more in-depth research on these problems and fields. Some old problems have not been fully and comprehensively studied due to the limitations of the progress of the archive decryption and the limitations of the researcher’s academic qualifications, or due to the discovery of new archives and changes in academic vision that need to be reviewed, such problems can be used as their own papers Topic selection. For example, the origin of the Cold War was studied shortly after the Cold War began, but there was no archival information at that time, and only public publications and the memories of the parties concerned were relied on. With the end of the Cold War and the declassification of a large number of archives of the United States and the Soviet Union, scholars can use richer materials, a broader perspective, and the use of favorable “hindsight” to re-study and explain this issue.

Reference: Slide 11.

Note taking

This week I have learned things about the note-taking and listening. The most important thing I learned is that it is significant to have an effective note-taking approach to perform better academically. It is not easy and it needs some methods. Today I have several methods to share here.

1. Don’t remember too tight or too dense, leave about 1/3 of the blank space on the right side of each page for future supplements and modifications.

2. Words should be concise and concise, and common words can be coded.

3. Write fast and don’t have to be too demanding, just see clearly.

4. Pay attention to the combination of listening to lectures and reading books. Some content can be annotated directly in the book.

5. Use simple sticky notes to be ready to record inspiration questions at any time, and add them to the notebook in time after finishing. For some knowledge points that often make mistakes, you can directly write the summary on the post-it and add it next to the corresponding knowledge points.

Reference: Slide 6


The most useful thing I learned on module this week is about procrastination. Definitely, it is easy to procrastinate. The module tells what I usually do in my life. I always tell myself that there is still enough time for me to finish the work. So, it is ok to play for some more time, for more time and for more time. And I will never start the work until it is really near the due date.

Recently I am reading a book about procrastination, called <>. It tells me how to solve the problem. There are several classifications of procrastination, including deadline procrastination, self-imposed obstacle procrastination, and distraction procrastination. In response to all kinds of procrastination, the author William Knaus proposed three methods of procrastination. The first: cognitive method, this method requires breaking away from the control of self-consciousness, observing one’s own behavior and symptoms of procrastination from an objective perspective, and determining the determination to change. The main weapon of the cognitive method is the five-step change method, namely awareness, action, adjustment, self-acceptance, and self-realization. Proficiency in the use of the five-step change method will enable you to face procrastination at the cognitive level. The second: emotional method, this method mainly describes the relationship between emotion and reason, and puts forward a hypothetical model of “horse and knight”. Using this method, you can get rid of emotional control, make rational decisions and put them into action. The third type: action method. This is the most important way to end procrastination. On the basis of the first two methods, it is necessary to gradually develop a plan to overcome procrastination. The author provides an effective weapon, that is, the five-minute principle. Using the five-minute principle, you can break down tasks, increase mental tolerance, and long-term execution will gradually produce benign habits and completely end procrastination. Do you remember these three methods? I sincerely wish you all get rid of the shackles of procrastination, succeed in the war, and prove the 10,000-hour law with practice.

Reference: Slide 3.

Communicating online

The most useful thing I learned in this module is about communicating online. There is a fact that people sitting in front of the screen at the other end could not see my face(emotion) and hear my voice(tones). So we should use as many simple words as we can to effectively and efficiently express what we want to tell. We should try to avoid sentences like sarcasm or slang, which is understood better under context and tones. This kind of sentence may probably give ambiguous meaning to other people. We should just tell it straightly.

This idea makes me think more deeply about another thing. Empathy is a way of thinking about dealing with interpersonal relationships that put oneself in the position for the sake of others, that is, thinks about what people think and understands first. People must understand and trust each other, and they must learn to think about empathy. This is the basis of interpersonal communication: mutual tolerance, understanding, and more thinking from the perspective of others. Empathy is an extremely important skill in today’s society. The idea above is somehow a kind of empathy. Before we say or do something, just stand at the others’ position. Think about in what ways they will receive the information I give? How will they feel at their point? Communicating online is just a tiny part in our life, however, empathy will probably influence our life continuously.

Reference: Slide 5,