August USDA Reports

By:Todd Hubbs, Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics University of Illinois. farmdoc Daily online

The highly anticipated August Crop Production report contained a larger than expected production forecast for the 2019 U.S. corn crop.  Soybean production came in lower on smaller acreage.

For corn, the USDA lowered harvested acres to 82 million acres, but this came in above expectations of 80 million acres.  Corn planted acreage totaled 90 million acres.  When combined with a Farm Service Agency projection of 11.2 million acres of prevent plant corn, the total corn base appears to exceed 101 million acres in 2019.  The U.S. corn yield forecast of 169.5 bushels per acre exceeded trade expectations by 4.6 bushels.  The projected corn crop is 700 million bushels larger than the average trade guess at 13.9 billion bushels.  As expected due to poor crop condition ratings, the eastern Corn Belt yield projections came in at lower levels than last year. Continue reading

Estimating Yield Losses in Stressed Corn Fields

By: Peter Thomison, OSU Extension

Many corn fields are still silking (and some are just past the mid-vegetative stages)….so, it may seem a little early to discuss estimating grain yields. However, according to the most recent  NASS crop report, for the week ending Aug. 8, 2019,  25% of the corn crop has reached the dough stage (compared to 63% for the 5 year average). Corn growers with drought damaged fields and late plantings may want to estimate grain yields prior to harvest in order to help with marketing and harvest plans. Two procedures that are widely used for estimating corn grain yields prior to harvest are the YIELD COMPONENT METHOD (also referred to as the “slide rule” or corn yield calculator) and the EAR WEIGHT METHOD. Continue reading

Keep an Eye on Crop Diseases

Source: OSU Extension

Late-planted corn and soybeans could be vulnerable to higher-than-normal levels of crop diseases this year. When sown one to two months later than usual, corn and soybeans stand a greater chance of succumbing, especially, to fungal diseases.

Dry weather across much of Ohio since July has helped stave off some disease spread because fungal diseases need moisture to thrive. Still, during a year when late planting has already limited the yield potential on crops, it’s critical to be watchful for other threats too, including all types of diseases, molds, and insects, advise experts with Ohio State’s College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences (CFAES). Continue reading

Prevented Planting Acres Announced For 2019

Agricultural producers reported they were not able to plant crops on more than 19.4 million acres in 2019, according to a new report released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). This marks the most prevented plant acres reported since USDA’s Farm Service Agency (FSA) began releasing the report in 2007 and 17.49 million acres more than reported at this time last year.

Of those prevented plant acres, more than 73% were in 12 Midwestern states, where heavy rainfall and flooding this year has prevented many producers from planting mostly corn, soybeans and wheat. Continue reading

Are Crops Catching Up?

By: Laura Lindsey and Peter Thomison, OSU Extension

Corn. Crop development varies tremendously across Ohio because of planting dates that range from late April to early July. According to field agronomists in some areas of the state, it looks like late-planted crops are “ rushing through development” …Unlike soybean, corn development is directly related to temperature, i.e. heat unit accumulation. Above average July temperatures (especially nighttime temperatures) have promoted rapid corn growth and development. After corn reaches the V10 stage (and most of our June plantings are near or beyond this stage), leaf collar emergence occurs at approximately one leaf every 50 GDDs. Continue reading

Drought and Heat Stress

By: Peter Thomison, OSU Extension

One of the corn production scenarios agronomists least like is an exceptionally wet spring followed by a hotter and drier than normal July and August. The spring of 2019 was one the wettest on records throughout much of the state and now, as the dry weather that started in July persists, such a scenario seems to be a possibility in many Ohio corn fields. A combination of warm temperatures and inadequate rainfall is beginning to stress corn fields across Ohio. Continue reading

No Pigweed Left Behind – Late-Season Scouting for Palmer Amaranth and Waterhemp

By: Mark Loux, OSU Extension

If you don’t already have to deal with waterhemp or Palmer amaranth, you don’t want it.  Ask anyone who does.  Neither one of these weeds is easy to manage, and both can cause substantial increases in the cost of herbicide programs, which have to be constantly changed to account for the multiple resistance that will develop over time (not “can”, “will”).  The trend across the country is for Palmer and waterhemp to develop resistance to any new herbicide sites of action that are used in POST treatments within about three cycles of use.  Preventing new infestations of these weeds should be of high priority for Ohio growers. Continue reading

Stink Bug Management In Non-Uniform Crop Stages

By: Kelley Tilmon and Andy Michel, Ohio State University Extension

With all the planting difficulties in 2019 there are soybeans in a much greater variety of growth stages than usual this summer. What does this mean for stink bug management? First, it means that different fields will be in the danger zone at different times. Stink bugs feed on developing pods and seeds, with the potential for damage beginning in R3 and R4-R5 being prime damage time, with damage potential still lingering in early R6. Continue reading

Noxious Weeds in Cover Crop Seed and Seed Germination

By: Alexander LindseyLaura LindseyMark LouxAnne DorranceStan SmithJohn Armstrong, Ohio State University Extension

Seed quality is key to establishing a good crop (or cover crop). Some of the critical components of seed quality are percent germination, mechanical analysis for purity (% other crops, % inert, and % weeds), and a listing of noxious weeds identified by scientific/common name and quantity found. As producers are looking for seed sources to provide living cover on acreage this year that was previously earmarked for corn or soybeans, it is important to pay attention to the quality. These tests may also be required on seed lots for use in some relief programs as well. Commercial or certified seed used for cover crops should have a seed tag that shows variety and the seed quality measurements above. However, if the seed is sourced from out of state, the noxious weeds listed (or NOT listed) on the tag by name may differ from those had the seed been sourced from Ohio. Continue reading

Delayed Corn Planting the Disease Risk in Corn

By: Pierce Paul, OSU Extension Plant Pathologist

Disease Risk. In Ohio, several foliar diseases are of greater concern in late-planted corn for a number of reasons, including: 1 – for diseases like gray leaf spot (GLS), northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), and eye spot that are caused by pathogens that overwinter in corn stubble, delayed planting allows more time for inoculum (spores) to buildup, especially in no-till, corn-on-corn fields and 2 – for diseases like common and southern rust that are caused by pathogens that do not overwinter in Ohio, planting late allows more time for spore for blow up from southern states. So, with late planting, not only are more spores likely to be available to infect the crop, they are also more likely to infect the crop at an earlier growth stage and under conditions that are more favorable for disease development. Let us use gray leaf spot as an example. Continue reading