Annotated Bibliography

References Used by Jessica Hudak:

Robinson, B. H. (October 28, 2009). E-Waste: An assessment of Global Production and Environmental Impacts. Retrieved March 6, 2018, from

This academic article written by Robinson provides an intellectual and educational perspective concerning the environmental impacts of e-waste. Robinson heavily relies on logos as he incorporates statistics describing the production rates of common electronic items, the lifespans of these electronic items, and potential environmental contaminants associated with e-waste.


McAllister, L. (n.d.). The Human and Environmental Effects of E-Waste. Retrieved March 06, 2018, from

In this second source, McAllister supplies the reader with a factual explanation about the global issue of e-waste. She states how much of the e-waste produced globally ends up in informal “recycling” markets in developing countries. At these places, most of the e-waste is dismantled, shredded, or burned. McAllister proclaims that these practices have detrimental effects on the health of people as well as the health of the environment.


Wilson, D. (n.d.). Impact of WEEE (E-Waste). Retrieved March 06, 2018, from

In this third source, Wilson offers an insightful and informative explanation of the impacts that e-waste has on the environment. Wilson explains how improper disposal of used electronic items can lead to air contamination, detrimental consequences on ecosystems, and harmful changes in soil and water chemistry.


References Used by Huifei Zhao:

Sampson, K. (2015, June 17). Pros And Cons Of Recycling Computers. Retrieved March 07, 2018, from

In this article, Kelly Sampson attempts to explain to the public that why computers can be recycled. The author lists numbers of advantages about recycling computers such as health benefits, economic benefits, more jobs, conserving resources supporting the community and preventing abuse resources. In addition, the author also lists disadvantages like toxic materials may harm workers while sorting. The primary evidence the author uses is an example of Ethos. She first put a graph to combine all points she wants to illustrate, then she explains details about every small point by analyzing some data and give some examples. There is not too much data analysis, but she uses her excellent explanations to support her ideas and makes people believe her.


The Benefits of Computer Recycling. (2014, July 31). Retrieved March 07, 2018, from

In this article, it only talks about the benefits of computer recycling. It first points out that recycling is environment-friendly because recycling keeps toxic waste from computers away from landfills and waterways. Then the author describes details about four benefits. It’s an example of Ethos, the author doesn’t use data as evidence. This article first make people imagine they have old computers can be recycled, and detailed benefits to persuade them to regard computer recycling is the best option to deal with old computers.


May, R., Taylor-Reynolds, J., Allen, J., White, M., & Turner, J. (2015, October 31). E-Waste: What Percent of Your Laptop can be Recycled? Retrieved March 07, 2018, from

In this article, Rob May discusses how technology can solve the world of its pollution problems by recycling. E-waste has become a serious concern in American, and the world pitches between 20 and 50 million tons of electronic waste every year. Rob discusses what parts of the computer can be recycled in this article, such as batteries, motherboards, metals, and plastic. Even the entire laptop can be recycled. The primary evidence the author uses is an example of Ethos. Rob first points out environment problems to make people pay attention to the pollution of e-waste. Then he uses data collected by the United Nations to show how many e-waste every year. He also directly discusses the details of how to recycle batteries, motherboards, metals, and plastic to support his points. Later, he moves to the development trend of future “nothing but green fields and blue streams” to make audiences believe what he points out.


References used by Kenn Nelson:

Tanskanen, Pia. “Management and Recycling of Electronic Waste.” Acta Materialia. 61.3 (2013): 1001-1011.

In the publication of “Acta Materialia”, an analysis of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and the sustainability of this field with respect to environmental and economic sustainability presents a unique perspective on the problematic situation the world is in from a country that has since conquered the issue. The recycling of out-dated equipment is not only a matter of the materials being integrated into these components, but the lack of infrastructure currently in place to handle this endeavor.


Leigh, Nancey G, Taelim Choi, and Nathanael Z. Hoelzel. “New Insights into Electronic Waste Recycling in Metropolitan Areas.” Journal of Industrial Ecology. 16.6 (2012): 940-950.

Professor Hoelzle and co-authors analyze and report on the state of urban and metropolitan Electronic Waste (e-waste) recycling and collection as seen between 2003 to 2011. Within this synthesized research, economic factors of e-waste recycling as well as the growth of the WEEE recycling industry were compared between the states of the US to the recycling industry innovations being made in the Seattle Metropolitan Area. From this analysis, a projection simulation was used to show the future progress that would be made following expansion and regulatory advancement.


Cleaning Up Electronic Waste (E-Waste), edited by Stephanie Adrian, Office of International and Tribal Affairs (2670R), Accessed 7 Mar. 2018.

Regulatory Organizations and influences researched to prevent incorrect donation acceptance criteria based on state based recycling requirements and restrictions. Governmental sponsorship of similar recycling facilities and currently sponsored locations used to adequately locate recycling organizations with “on-par” standards equipment as well as process control to prevent improper donation of valuable resources.

Websites used for Columbus area recycling references.


References by Hunt Wagner:

High P. A Recycling Entrepreneur Has Been Sentenced To 15 Months In Prison. Forbes. Published June 20, 2017. Accessed March 7, 2018.

This is a highly detailed interview conducted by a Forbes reporter on Eric Lundgren, discussing details of his life and growth with electronics recycling, as well as his pending court case against Microsoft and the distribution of free recovery discs.

Jackman T. Eric Lundgren, e-waste recycling innovator, faces prison for trying to extend life span of PCs. The Washington Post. Published February 15, 2018. Accessed March 7, 2018.

This interview with Eric Lundgren gives some additional information into his personal life and how it led him to be so successful in the recycling world.

Environmental Laws that Apply to Mercury. (2018, January 11). Retrieved March 07, 2018, from

Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs). (2017, August 16). Retrieved March 07, 2018, from

The Environmental Protection Agency contains a wealth of knowledge on hazardous waste materials. They have a variety of classifications of how and why certain materials and compounds can be hazardous to individuals or the environment. These articles on Mercury and CRT monitors and the dangers they pose are particularly helpful in determining items that cannot be recycled safely.

Home. (n.d.). Retrieved March 07, 2018, from

Electronics Take Back is an organization focused on electronics recycling to reduce the amount of hazardous material that is sent to dumps around the world. This page discusses materials that cannot be recycled safely.