Somali Civil War and Diaspora

I. Resources from Jibril Mohamed’s Presentation

II. Somali History, Culture & Politics

III. Human Rights in Somalia

IV. Somali in Diaspora

V. Library Resource Page

VI. Academic articles, Journals and Books

VII. Classroom Resources

I. Resources from Jibril Mohamed’s Presentation

  1. Transnational Nomads: How Somalis Cope with Refugee Life in the Dadaab Camps in Kenya by Cindy Horst. 2007

II. History, Culture & Politics

1. Somali Cultural Profile  by Toby Lewis Ethnomed (article)

An overview of Somalia’s geography, history, politics, society, familial structures, and cultural traditions

2. The Somalis: Their history and their culture Culture Bump (article)

Information on Somali clans, history, and society

3. Timeline: Somalia, 1991-2008  by Annabel Lee Hogg The Atlantic  December 2008 (article)

Published in 2008, this timeline details the major events in the Somali Civil War and its aftermath

4. Endless war: a brief history of the Somali Conflict Conciliation Resources (journal article)

A description of the changing nature of the Somali conflict over the past 20 years

5. Somalia: The Forgotten Story  by Hamza Ashrif, AlJazeera November 2016 (news article)

The story of Somalia’s decline from stability to chaos and the problems facing its people at home and abroad. Includes a two part documentary detailing the history of Somalia and its downfall into civil war.

6. Hiiraan Online: News and information about Somalia

Collection of news stories pertaining to Somalia

7. The Freedom Songs of the Somali Republic Smithsonian (website)

Recorded in the brief period of relative peace following independence from Britain and Italy, Freedom Songs of the Somali Republic is a collection of original Somali folk songs that speak to a new hope while advocating for continued change.

III. Human Rights in Somalia

8. Somalia Human Rights Watch (website)

Overview of current humanitarian concerns in Somalia, including: migration, refugee protections in Dadaab, freedom of expression, Somalia’s new government, piracy and the legacy of conflict.

9. World Report 2017: Somalia Human Rights Watch (Report)

Detailed analysis of human rights concerns in Somalia over the course of 2016, particular attention on Al-Shabab abuses, role of foreign forces, sexual violence, displacement, and attacks on human rights defenders and political opponents

10. Somalia 2016/2017 Amnesty International (Report)

Update on continued armed conflict in Somalia and the use of child soldiers, abductions, torture, rape and sexual violence

IV. Somali Diaspora

11. Rain in a Dry Land PBS (Documentary)

A documentary film examining the refugee resettlement experience of two Somali Bantu families. Includes additional teaching materials and discussion questions. The entire film can be rented from YouTube for $2.99.

12. Living at the Border (website)

Documenting the realities of African refugees and migrants, Living at the Border captures everyday life in Italy. Through their personal stories, this multimedia project shows the complexity of their lives as they navigate through the asylum system in Europe.

13. How the Diaspora is changing the face of Somalia  MPR News April 2014 (news article)

A detailed examination of how the current diaspora will change the face of Somalia

14. Meet the Somalis Open Society Foundations November 2013 (website)

Illustrated stories of Somalis in seven cities in Europe, highlighting discrimination, acculturation and acceptance faced by Somali immigrants

15. Integrating Europe’s Muslims Minorities: Public Anxieties, Policy Responses  by Meghan Benton, Anne Nielsen Migration Policy Institute. May 2013 (news article) 

An article detailing the challenges and resistant attitudes of European countries to integrating Muslim immigrants.

16. The Somali Bantu Experience: From East Africa to Maine   Colby College (website)

A large number of members of the Somali Bantu minority have relocated to Lewiston, Maine. This website features their stories, including many trials and tribulations of their experience in the small, working class city of Lewiston, Maine.

17. Becoming Minnesotan: Stories of Recent Immigrants and Refugees  Minnesota Historical Society (website)

Stories from Somali immigrants and refugees in Minnesota about their transition to American society

V. Library Resource Pages

18. The Digital Somali Library  Indiana University (resource page)

Digital collections, Somali collections, special collections, internet resources

19. Guide to Resources and Information on Somali Language, Culture, and Traditions The Ohio State University (resource page)

Somali language sites, Linguistics, African Civilizations, Somali Women, Somalis in Columbus, Diversity, Inclusion and Equity

VI. Academic Articles, Journals and Books

20. Bildhaan: An International Journal of Somali Studies Macalester College (Journal)

Includes journal articles on Somali education,  identity and belonging, development, inclusiveness, and citizenship

21. Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991,  by Lidwien Kapteijns,. University of Pennsylvania, 2013 (book)

The book deals with the transformative violence that helped cause the collapse of the Somali state in 1991.

VII. Classroom Resources

22. Different Strokes  by Deborah Lerman and Javaid Khan New York Times. October 2002 (article)

In this lesson, students learn about a Maine community in which a sudden influx of Somali immigrants has resulted in tension between the Somalis and the local residents. Students then create a handbook explaining aspects of the Somali culture to an American audience to increase understanding between the two groups.

23. Resources for K12 Teachers Colby College (website)

Lesson plans that teach students about the culture and lives of Somali Bantu refugees

24. African Studies Resources for K-12 Teachers Indiana University (website)

Teaching resources, lesson plans and PowerPoint Presentations from the African Studies Program

25. Resources for English Language Learners Colby College (website)

Short stories about Somali Bantu life in Somalia intended for ELL students

26. Somali Folktales  Minnesota Humanities Center (website)

Bilingual books (Somali and English) to promote and preserve heritage languages and increase English literacy skills of refugee and immigrant families.