Keys to Success for Intercultural Pedagogy and Cross-cultural Online Conversations Presentation

My colleagues and I recorded the presentation for the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES) which is taking place entirely online due to the Corona Virus. Please watch the 17-minute video. We delve into our learning approaches and what kinds of assignments you can easily include in your syllabus. We share some keys to success for intercultural pedagogy and cross-cultural online conversations. I talk about ground rules for online communication, active listening, how to approach challenging topics.

The presentation came about from our research on language and culture courses at Ohio State in which professors are intentionally scaffolding their students’ learning toward cultural differences. We are assessing students’ intercultural awareness with the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) at the beginning and at the end of the courses we are studying to measure any gains in their intercultural awareness. We also assess students’ perspective-taking and communication skills in cross-cultural conversations.  

There are several courses at Ohio State in Italian language and Turkish Studies which my colleagues and I  are studying and teaching. Assignments in these classes are geared toward reflection on self as cultural being (Gay, 2010, p. 69) and an understanding of diverse cultural perspectives.  Students learn how to tell the difference between a generalization and a stereotype and are taught to think about their own history as they learn about historical events in Turkey – a reflection on self while learning about an “other” is critical for gaining intercultural awareness. Please watch the presentation to learn more about us and the work we are doing!


image of text about how to implement successful online conversations (also written in blog post)






A Definition of Culture is Critical for Learning

Culture has many connotations and definitions and you might be surprised by the variety of ways your students think about culture. If you are thinking of using this e-portfolio or are planning to do any kind of cross-cultural experiential learning, it’s important that you and your students get on the same page about the meaning of the word “culture.” Establishing an academic definition of culture also challenges students to think more critically and inoculates against superficial ways of thinking and speaking about cultural differences.

How to get started? You can choose a definition and stick with it*, or develop your own working definition. If you develop your own definition, the class should consider different theoretical frameworks (anthropological, social, psychological, classical, etc.), contrast them with commonsense definitions, and agree on a definition the class will refer to throughout the activities. But at the very least provide a definition for the class to refer to throughout the activities.

Graphic of an iceberg

This graphic of an iceberg shows the different aspects of culture, visible (above the water), and invisible (below the water). Iceberg, by Olga Berrios, Flickr, CC 2.0,

Recommended classroom activities for your “working definition” of culture:

Do a word cloud with Polleverywhere or another interactive tool in one of the first classes. Read and Discuss: ‘Culture’ from Keywords by Raymond Williams At the end of the semester, do another word cloud exercise and compare your results to the initial word cloud – how has our definition evolved? Reread article – new things appear more prominent in the second reading – share quotes you found significant. Reflect on how the class’s understanding of culture changed from the beginning of the program to the end. We found this worked really well and generated rich discussion.

If your class is directly focused on a particular country or culture you may want to dig even deeper into the meaning of culture and make a goal of your class to develop intercultural awareness. Here is a lesson for teaching your students a new way to think about culture and begin developing self-awareness regarding one’s own cultural background.

The key is to get your students thinking about how they think about culture. Feel free to be creative! Just don’t neglect this step. It is an important part of the learning for any class which seeks to develop students’ intercultural awareness and global competence.


Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York; Teachers College.

*this could be as simple as “shared beliefs and values of a group of people.” This definition is brief but it focuses on aspects of “deep culture” – those things which can’t be seen but which drive culture as in the iceberg visualization of culture (see above). It’s important to emphasize deep culture in class discussions and to encourage students to consider underlying factors in their analyses.




What is Culture?

Learning objective: Our goal in this class is to not only look at what the cultural practices, traditions, and norms are, but to ask why they came to be.  We will be giving you direct feedback on how well you understand cultural diversity. We will be looking at the reasons for and circumstances of particular traditions and practices in order to learn about deep culture. We will think like anthropologists – ie use the research tools of anthropology while learning about the art, literature, music, dance, clothes, and other forms of visible culture.  Reflections will also be an important part of the writing you do this semester, as will the intercultural development interview.  These allow you to think about not only Turkish culture, but how you think about cultural diversity. We are learning to be cultural learners.
Let’s start by considering one analysis of culture. What do you think of this quote?
“It has long been recognized that culture is very hard for humans to think about culture. Like fish in water, we fail to “see” culture because it is the medium within which we exist.” (Cole, 1996, p. 8)
Image of a fish in a fishbowl

Fish, by mohamed_hassan, Pixabay, CC0

What is the water? What do we take for granted as understood when we’re in our own culture?
What do you think about this quote?
“Encounters with other cultures make it easier to grasp our own as an object of thought.”  (Cole, 1996, p. 8)
Let’s make a word cloud to capture our thinking –
What would you tell someone from another country about culture in your home town?
So. . . Are there aspects of culture we do see?
  • Material Culture
  • Cultural Practices
Write your thoughts down about your own culture and save for the autobiography assignment.
Would anyone like to share?

Visible and Invisible aspects of culture:


Graphic of an iceberg

This graphic of an iceberg shows the different aspects of culture, visible (above the water), and invisible (below the water). Iceberg, by Olga Berrios, Flickr, CC 2.0,

Cole, M. (1996). Cultural psychology: A once and future discipline. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. /z-wcorg/.