Paper Draft

In a world where one can find information about anything in an instant, how difficult does it become to separate the truth from lies? Fear mongering and exaggeration can be useful tactics to push different agendas. This is especially harmful when it comes to policymaking and social change. The denial of facts due to mistrust of scientific research prevents policy from being made to to protect the environment.

With the rise of the internet, and almost everyone in the developed world having access to the internet in the palm of their hands, false information can be easily misunderstood as facts. The mistrust of all information can also be hindering, as distrust builds between readers and writers. The truth can be minimized as falsified, and the falsified information can be maximized as truth. With the rise of “Fake News”, its difficult to discern what is fact over fiction. Looking deeper into articles is time consuming and can be confusing to the common reader. The older generation are more likely to believe what they read online, and also more likely to believe climate change is a hoax.

The government exists to serve the people, [declaration of independence quote], and this belief still holds true. Many lobbyists for oil and gas companies have strong connection to Congress and those who make policy. It becomes a difficult stand-off to serve constituents, who are not as vocal, as well as corporations that rejuvenate the economy. Capitalism aims to create as much profit as possible for as long as possible, and this is often at the expense of the environment. Without caps on carbon emissions, or use of environmentally safe fertilizers, companies will do whatever is the cheapest, and not necessarily what is the best for the future of the planet. The balance of climate protection and corporation protection lies in Congress.

Climate change is occurring all over the world, yet many people choose to ignore findings due to beliefs that these findings are exaggerated or hyperbolized to push for different agendas that they do not want to be pushed. This is an issue, as the planet is a place where everyone lives, not just Democrats or just Republicans. There have been many findings of human interference causing disruption in the natural world. The use of excess nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers from the agricultural industry run off into local waterways, creating an excess of algae growth, too much to be equalized by the organisms that consume it. This algae excess creates “dead zones”, where no life can be supported due to lack of light and excess carbon dioxide in the water. The

Denying a fact does not make it less true. It makes persuading the deniers that something needs to be done even more difficult. If one does not believe a problem exists, why would one make an effort to solve those problems? The rise of falsified opinions disguised as real newsworthy facts has hindered the ability for policy to be made, and in turn, hindering any change to protect the environment to be made. It is ridiculous to ignore the scientific findings, as science is not meant to be political, and simply make observations and report those observations.

Executive Summary

With the increasing public awareness about climate change, so has the increase of vocal detractors who deny the scientific findings, or do not want to push for legislation to protect the environment. The denial of climate change is actively hindering any social progress towards protecting the environment. The rise of false news, as well as the push from lobbyists, help write the narrative that climate change is not as urgent of an issue as it really is.

Climate Change

3 Additional Annotated Bibliography entries



Scott C. Doney, Mary Ruckelshaus, J. Emmett Duffy, James P. Barry, Francis Chan, Chad A. English, Heather M. Galindo, Jacqueline M. Grebmeier, Anne B. Hollowed, Nancy Knowlton, Jeffrey Polovina, Nancy N. Rabalais, William J. Sydeman, and Lynne D. Talley

Annual Review of Marine Science 2012 4:1, 11-37

This source gave scientific findings of the impact of climate change on the ocean, including a rise in pH and lower availability of food for specific organisms, and an abundance of CO2 for others, such as algae, contributing to algae blooms. This source is very scientific, and comes from findings from many countries. This source was found through Google Scholar and gives insight about real, visible impacts of climate change.


Stiasny, M. H., Mittermayer, F. H., Sswat, M., Voss, R., Jutfelt, F., Chierici, M., … Clemmesen, C. (2016). Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population. PLoS ONE, 11(8), 1–11.


This source gave scientific information about how pH level of the ocean impacts Atlantic cod’s ability to lay eggs and survive. This source is scholarly and gave insight about impacts of climate change on other species besides humans. This source was found through OSU’s library database.



Barna, M. (2019, October). Toxic algae blooms creating hazards for US public health. Nation’s Health, pp. 1–10. Retrieved from


This source gives a public health viewpoint on climate change, and how algae blooms will likely impact not only precious water sources, but the health of those drinking from it. This source was found through Boolean modifers on Academic Search Complete.

Paper Outline

Opening/Introduction/Statement of the problem: Discuss modern-day climate change protests, popular sources.


Argument 1: Climate change is real, and its effects can be visible around the world, including ocean acidification, rising sea levels, and algae blooms

Counterargument 1: Climate change is real, and its effects can be visible around the world, including ocean acidification, rising sea levels, and algae blooms

Argument 2: Lobbyists for companies push for legislation that positively impacts them, not the environment. Those who don’t believe climate change is happening don’t see the need to assist in the problem

Counter Argument 2: Although some people do not believe it is the government’s job to regulate businesses carbon emissions, if regulations are not put in place, corporations will continue to do what is profitable for as long as possible, even at the sake of permanent environmental damage

Argument 3: In a world of fake news, people become less inclined to believe things that oppose their own views, creating a distrust of science

Counter Argument 3: Although people can look deeper into the headlines they see online, most don’t. Many sites such as Facebook allow anyone to create an ad, even if the information presented is not true.



Class 6: Laura Fathauer’s Presentation

Laura’s presentation gave an in-depth look at how individuals can compile information in a useful way for others’ academic pursuits. She also showed the importance of ensuring your sources are true, instead of just taking what the original poster said as true fact because they might not even know that it is false, such as the photo of OSU being improperly dated. Small bits of information can be useful when it is put into larger contexts, such as in the cold case about 2 missing children. This is useful when we think about our own research and our (seemingly) small academic contributions, because one source may not have a lot of information, but could help in answering our own questions.

Expert Questions *WAITING ON ANSWERS

My expert is Dave Jones, a meteorologist friend of mine


How have you seen the impacts of climate change within your specific realm of study?


Do you believe that the public trusts scientists less than about 10 years ago?


Do you believe that current legislation is impacting the climate in a detrimental way?


How has public disbelief in climate change helped or hurt the public’s trust in science?


Is climate change a partisan issue?




TradeMark’s applications for my own academics (Class 5)

TradeMark’s presentation about copyright gave relevant information about how students are allowed Fair Use to use copyrighted materials. Although legally, we are allowed to do this, it is still important to credit those who’s works you used to create something else. The legality of copyright is more about preventing loss of money, a physical thing. Intellectual theft does not necessarily prevent others from learning, unlike physical theft prevents others from using something. This presentation has given me a wider scope of understanding of how copyright laws impact me as an individual rather than just the abstract ideas of creative protections.

Annotated Bibliography Practice

4 sources for ESEPSY paper!


Funk, C., & Kennedy, B. (2019, April 19). How Americans see climate change in 5 charts. Retrieved from

This source gave numerical info about Americans’ opinions about climate change. It was written for the public by data analysts. This source was found on Google, through Boolean modifiers.



Bolsen, T., & Druckman, J. N. (2018). Do partisanship and politicization undermine the impact of a scientific consensus message about climate change? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 21(3), 389–402.


This source gave info about American politics and party lines interfering with climate legislation.. It was written for scholars by a scholar. This source was found on Google Scholar, through advanced search (by date).


Films for the Humanities & Sciences (Firm), & Films Media Group (Directors). (2011). The climate change denial industry: James Hoggan [Video file]. Retrieved November 13, 2019, from WORLDCAT@OSU

This source gave popular info about climate change denial. It was written for the public by an environmentalist. This source was found online, through OSU Library Database.


Nelson, G. C., Valin, H., Sands, R. D., Havlík, P., Ahammad, H., Deryng, D., … Willenbockel, D. (2014, March 4). Climate change effects on agriculture: Economic responses to biophysical shocks. Retrieved from

This source gave scientific info about the effects of climate change on agriculture. It was written for scientists by scientists. This source was found on Google Scholar, through Boolean identifiers.



ESEPSY 1359 Topic/Thesis



Topic: Climate Change


Thesis: Public denial regarding the severity of climate change is detrimental to environmental protection efforts.

ESEPSY 1359 Class 2

Beth’s presentation gave me a better knowledge of the resources available to me as an Ohio State student, and will help me waste less time finding academic sources. I was not aware of the databases available on the Library website, and how Ohio State has paid for commonly used databases that Google would not have let me access.