CORN Newsletter

June 8, 2021 – June 14, 2021

 

Editor: Sarah Noggle

 

High Temperatures Mean Higher Risk of Spray Drift

Author: Erdal Ozkan

Mean high temperatures for the month of June in Central Ohio vary between 75°F at the beginning of the month and approaches around 80°F towards the end of the month.

Read more

 

June 10th Webinar focuses on In-season Nitrogen Application

Authors: Mary Griffith, Amanda Douridas, Mike Estadt, Will Hamman

As many producers are getting ready to side-dress corn, the agronomic crops team will host a free webinar on June 10th focused on important considerations and practices to achieve the efficient application of nitrogen.

Read more

 

Upcoming Events

 

June 9

 

2021 Overholt Drainage Workshop

 

June 10

 

June 10th Webinar Focuses on In-season Nitrogen Application

 

June 22

 

Small Grains Field Day

 

July 9

 

Science for Success

 

August 6

 

Science for Success

 

About C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

 

Contributors:

 

Glen Arnold, CCA
Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management

 

Mark Badertscher
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Rachel Cochran
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Trevor Corboy
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Wayne Dellinger, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nick Eckel
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mike Estadt
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Ken Ford
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mike Gastier, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mary Griffith
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Will Hamman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jamie Hampton
Extension Educator, ANR

 

Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Andrew Holden
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dean Kreager
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Laura Lindsey
State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains

 

Mark Loux
State Specialist, Weed Science

 

David Marrison
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Brigitte Moneymaker
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

James Morris
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Gigi Neal
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Sarah Noggle
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Les Ober, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Erdal Ozkan
State Specialist, Sprayer Technology

 

Pierce Paul
State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases

 

Richard Purdin
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Eric Richer, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dennis Riethman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Matthew Schmerge
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Aaron Wilson
Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center

 

Curtis Young, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Chris Zoller
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.

Homeowner Lawns Spring/Summer – 6/23

Check out this upcoming program in partnership with Greene Soil and Water Conservation District on Homeowner Lawn Care for Late Spring and Early Summer. The program will be held via zoom on June 23 at 6 p.m. Topics will range from soil sampling, soil nutrient needs, how to manage nutrients in your lawn and more. See the Flyer – Homeowner Lawns SpringSummer_6.23.21 and information below to register.

Do you have questions about lawn care? Are you interested in learning about lawn care from a science based approach? Do some of these questions keep you up at night: How much fertilizer does my lawn need? When should I be applying? Do I need lime? How much do I need to be watering? Should I have my soil tested? How do I test my soil? I’ve tested my soil, but how do I interpret the results? We can help.

Location: Zoom – Pre-register at go.osu.edu/greenelawn

Cost: FREE; Pre- Registration Required

Contact information: Trevor Corboy 937-372-9971 or Amanda McKay 937-416-6906

Home Owner Lawn Care Program – 6/23/21

OSU EXTENSION GREENE COUNTY & GREENE SWCD PRESENTS:

Homeowner Lawn Care: Late Spring & Early Summer
WEDNESDAY, June 23, 2021, 6:00 P.M.

Do you have questions about lawn care? Are you interested in learning about lawn care from a science based approach? Do some of these questions keep you up at night: How much fertilizer does my lawn need? When should I be applying? Do I need lime? How much do I need to be watering? Should I have my soil tested? How do I test my soil? I’ve tested my soil, but how do I interpret the results? We can help.

Location: Zoom –Pre-register at go.osu.edu/greenelawn

Cost: FREE; Pre-Registration Required

Contact information: Trevor Corboy 937-372-9971 or Amanda McKay 937-416-6906

CORN Newsletter

June 1, 2021 – June 7, 2021

 

Editor: Sarah Noggle

 

Recommendations for Soybeans Planted in June

Author: Laura Lindsey

According to the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service, 66% of soybean acreage in Ohio was planted by May 23. As soybean planting continues into June, consider row spacing, seeding rate, and relative maturity adjustments.

Read more

 

Potato Leafhoppers Have Arrived in an Alfalfa Field Near You

Authors: Mark Sulc, Curtis Young, CCA, Andy Michel, Kelley Tilmon

Potato leafhopper adults have been observed in alfalfa fields in Ohio. These adults have likely begun laying eggs, and it only takes about 3 weeks for these eggs to hatch into nymphs and develop into adults. Populations of PLH will begin increasing.

Read more

 

Common-sense practices for effective spraying of pesticides

Author: Erdal Ozkan

June is a busy time with spraying pesticides, especially herbicides. Paying attention to some key principles of spraying is likely to result in achieving your goal: maximum net return on expensive pesticides sprayed.

Read more

 

Fertilizing Hay and Pastures

Authors: Mark Sulc, Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA

Many hay producers across the state have completed or are in the process of completing their first cutting of the year. One of the two best times to topdress maintenance fertilizer on hay is right after the first cutting. The other top choice is in the early fall.

Read more

 

In-Person Small Grains Field Day: June 22 at the Northwest Agricultural Research Station in Wood County

Authors: Laura Lindsey, Eric Richer, CCA, Nick Eckel, Ed Lentz, CCA

Join OSU Extension for an in-person small grains field day on June 22 at the Northwest Agricultural Research Station in Wood County.

Read more

 

Upcoming Events

 

June 4

 

Science for Success

 

June 9

 

2021 Overholt Drainage Workshop

 

June 22

 

Small Grains Field Day

 

July 9

 

Science for Success

 

August 6

 

Science for Success

 

About C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

 

Contributors:

 

Mark Badertscher
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jordan Beck
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Bruce Clevenger, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Wayne Dellinger, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nick Eckel
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Boden Fisher
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Mary Griffith
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Will Hamman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Stephanie Karhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dean Kreager
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Ed Lentz, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

David Marrison
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Clifton Martin, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

James Morris
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Gigi Neal
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Sarah Noggle
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Erdal Ozkan
State Specialist, Sprayer Technology

 

Pierce Paul
State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases

 

Eric Richer, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dennis Riethman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Garth Ruff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Beth Scheckelhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Clint Schroeder
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mark Sulc
State Specialist, Forage Production

 

Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Hallie Williams
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Aaron Wilson
Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center

 

Ted Wiseman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Curtis Young, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Chris Zoller
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.

Ohio Beef Cattle Letter

Dear Ohio BEEF Cattle letter subscribers,

Seven new articles have been posted in this week’s issue number 1245 of the Ohio BEEF Cattle letter: http://u.osu.edu/beef

Articles this week include:

  • Managing the Breeding Season and Reproductive Performance of the Beef Herd
  • Keep an Eye on that Bull
  • Meeting Cow Nutrient Requirements in the Winter Starts in the Spring
  • It’s all about maximizing a grazing season!
  • Poisonous Pasture Weeds and Livestock
  • JBS Cyber Attack
  • Weekly Livestock Comments for May 28, 2021

Poison Hemlock and Wild Parsnip are Bolting and Blooming

Poison Hemlock and Wild Parsnip are Bolting and Blooming

Author Joe Boggs

Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) is one of the deadliest plants in North America.  Wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) sap can produce severe, painful skin blistering.  Both are commonly found growing together in Ohio and both are beginning to “bolt” and bloom meaning the clock is quickly winding down for controlling these non-native nasties.

These non-native weeds are members of the carrot family, Apiaceae.  The old name for the family was Umbelliferae which refers to the umbel flowers.  The flowers are a key family feature with short flower stalks rising from a common point like the ribs on an umbrella.  Queen Anne’s lace (a.k.a. wild carrot) (Daucus carota) is often used as the poster child for carrot family flowers.  This non-native blooms much later in the season.

Poison hemlock produces white flowers on stalks that create a more rounded look.  Wild parsnip has intense yellow flowers with the stalks producing a more flat-topped appearance.

Poison hemlock has a biennial life cycle. The first year is spent in the “vegetative stage” as a low-growing basal rosette.  Plants “bolt” during the second year “reproductive stage” to produce erect multi-branched stems topped with umbrella-like flowers.  Plants are bolting with some already producing flowers in southern Ohio.

Wild parsnip is also reported to have a biennial life cycle.  However, it may occasionally behave as a monocarpic perennial spending more than a year in the vegetative stage before flowering once and then dying.  Like poison hemlock, wild parsnip plants are also bolting and beginning to flower in southern Ohio.

Mature poison hemlock plants can tower as much as 6 – 10 ft. tall.  Mature wild parsnip plants are shorter in stature but still impressive at up to 4 – 5 ft. tall.  Both are prolific seed producers with seeds remaining viable for 4 – 6 years for poison hemlock and around 4 years for wild parsnip.

Why Worry?

Poison hemlock plants contain highly toxic piperidine alkaloid compounds, including coniine and gamma-coniceine, which cause respiratory failure and death in mammals. The roots are more toxic than the leaves and stems; however, all parts of the plant including the seeds should be considered dangerous.

The toxins must be ingested or enter through the eyes or nasal passages to induce poisoning; they do not cause skin rashes or blistering.  Regardless, this plant should not be handled because sap on the skin can be rubbed into the eyes or accidentally ingested while handling food.

Wild parsnip sap contains psoralen which presents a completely different mode of action compared to the piperidine alkaloids in poison hemlock sap.  Psoralen is a naturally occurring phytochemical grouped in a family of organic compounds known as linear furanocoumarins.  Psoralen acts as a photosensitizing compound by inhibiting DNA synthesis in epidermal cells, killing these light-shielding cells responsible for protecting us from long-wave ultraviolet radiation (LWUVR) bombarding us in sunlight.

Severe blistering occurs when the affected skin is exposed to LWUVR. The synergistic effect is called phytophotodermatitis (a.k.a. Berloque dermatitis) and the burn-like symptoms, as well as skin discoloration, may last for several months.

However, connecting skin blistering to exposure to wild parsnip sap can be a challenge.  It takes around 24 hours for symptoms to first appear after exposure to LWURV and severe blistering typically doesn’t peak until 48 -72 hours.  The time required for symptoms to appear after exposure to the sap means the effect may be disconnected from the cause.

Another challenge with connecting the dots is that wild parsnip commonly grows in and around other weeds, particularly poison hemlock (Conium maculatum).  Gardeners who are exposed to wild parsnip sap while weeding a mixed patch may mistakenly blame the poison hemlock for their ultimate misery.

Psoralens are also found in several other members of the Apiaceae family including the notorious giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) which has captured national attention in the past.  However, giant hogweed has only been confirmed in Ohio growing in the extreme northeast part of the state primarily in and around Ashtabula County.  Wild parsnip is found throughout the state and is equally damaging.  Of course, giant hogweed has a more threatening sounding common name; wild parsnip just sounds like a vegetable gone wild; which it is!

To Mow, or Not to Mow

The potential for poisonings from poison hemlock sap and the extreme skin reaction to the wild parsnip sap means these non-native invasive weeds should not be allowed to grow where they can be easily contacted by people.  However, mechanical control through mowing, weed trimming, or hand-pulling is problematic.  Certainly, wild parsnip presents a much higher risk with reports of sap spattered by mowers and string trimmers producing phytophotodermatitis on exposed arms and legs of equipment operators.

Still, mowing provides one option for managing poison hemlock and to a lesser degree wild parsnip as long as proper precautions are followed including wearing personal protective gear and equipment cleanup with soap and water.  However, timing is everything:  plants should be mowed once plants have bolted but before heavy flowering.  In other words, RIGHT NOW in southern Ohio!

I’ve watched a gas line right-of-way near my home being slowly converted to a poison hemlock (and teasel) right-of-way over the years because of poorly timed mowing.  Each season for the past several years, the right-of-way has been mowed in late August or September.

Of course, this is long after poison hemlock seed had been shed.  Mowing at that time of the year failed to cut the low-growing first-season poison hemlock rosettes.  What it did accomplish was to expose the rosettes to full sun for the winter and it eliminated plant competition with the poison hemlock flourishing when spring rolled around.  It’s also providing me with great poison hemlock photo ops!

Chemical Control Case Studies

Given the problematic nature of controlling poison hemlock and wild parsnip by physical removal, herbicides may be the best option particularly in areas where the weeds present a clear and present danger to the public.  I’ve observed both poison hemlock and wild parsnip being effectively managed in two parks in southern Ohio with properly timed herbicide applications.

Glenwood Gardens which is part of the Great parks of Hamilton County system, began targeting these non-native weeds last year with selective post-emergent herbicides and have had excellent results.  Voice of America (VOA) MetroPark which is part of the Butler County MetroParks system has declared war on poison hemlock and wild parsnip this season with dramatic results.

Poison hemlock and wild parsnip are susceptible to several selective and non-selective postemergent herbicides.  However, keep in mind that non-selective herbicides such as glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) can also illuminate plants that compete with these weeds.  Herbicidal openings produced by non-selective herbicides provide perfect opportunities for more wild parsnip and poison hemlock to spring forth from previously deposited seed.  Thus, it’s important to have a plan for establishing competitive plants such as over-seeding with grasses.

Selective post-emergent herbicides will preserve competitive plants.  Herbicides effective against wild parsnip and poison hemlock include clopyralid (e.g. Transline), metsulfuron (e.g. Escort XP), triclopyr (e.g. Triclopyr 4), and combination products such as those that contain 2,4-D, mecoprop, and dichlorprop (e.g. Triamine).  Applications made now can significantly reduce infestations of both wild parsnip and poison hemlock.  However, with plants beginning to flower, the control clock is winding down.

 

The Bee Short Course for Community Scientists

 

The Bee Short Course for Community Scientists

 

Join fellow bee fans for this free monthly webinar series. We’ll explore the world of bees and learn together from bee experts to build skills as community scientists. Whether you’re a seasoned wild bee volunteer or just beginning your bee journey, the skills learned in this series will prepare you to help our threatened pollinators.

 

All sessions are from 10 – 11:00AM Eastern

on the third Friday of the month, May – November 2021

 

May 21: Randy Mitchell, The University of Akron

Bee Botany 101

 

June 18: Jamie Strange, The Ohio State University

Melittology 101: An Intro to Bee Science

 

July 16: Olivia Carril, author and biologist

Methods of Collecting and Documenting Bees

 

August 20: Heather Holm, author and biologist

Insect Photography and Using iNaturalist to

Observe and Document Wild Bees

 

September 17: Sam Droege, USGS Native Bee Lab

Tips and Tricks from The Handy Bee Manual

 

October 15: Mary Gardiner, The Ohio State University

Contributions of Community Science to Entomology:

Benefits for People and Nature

 

November 19: Molly Martin, Bee City USA/Xerces Society

From Community Science to Advocacy in Action:

Case Studies in Conservation

 

This is a collaborative effort from: OSU Department of Entomology, The Chadwick Arboretum and Learning Gardens, and The US National Native Bee Monitoring Research Coordination Network (RCN).

 

Register once to attend any/all sessions.

 

Register Here

 

 

I hope you can join us for this new webinar series! Please pass the word to others who might also be interested.

 

Denise

Denise Ellsworth

Program Director, Pollinator Education

OSU Entomology

CORN Newsletter

 

May 11 – May 17

 

Editor: Beth Scheckelhoff

 

CFAES Ag Weather System 2021 Near-Surface Air and Soil Temperatures/Moisture

Authors: Aaron Wilson, Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA

A cold, wet pattern put a damper on warming soils this week. In fact, all stations are reporting daily average soil temperatures cooler than one week ago (Fig. 1). Northern sites (e.g., Ashtabula and Northwest) have fallen into the 40s, with 50s being reported elsewhere.

Read more

 

Growing Degree Days vs. Calendar Days – How Long Will Emergence Take?

Authors: Alexander Lindsey, Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA

When we examine crop emergence post-planting, two factors can impact speed of emergence – soil moisture content and soil temperatures. If soil temperatures are lower, it can take more calendar days for emergence to occur meaning rowing corn may take a little more time.

Read more

 

Numbers of Black Cutworm and True Armyworm Moths Increasing but Remain Relatively Low

Authors: Andy Michel, Kelley Tilmon, Curtis Young, CCA, Clifton Martin, CCA, Lee Beers, CCA, Beth Scheckelhoff, Eric Richer, CCA, Cindy Wallace

Over the past few weeks, we have caught an increasing number of both black cutworm and true armyworm moths in our traps (see https://docs

Read more

 

Adapting Burndown Programs to Late-Planted Situations

Author: Mark Loux

It’s déjà vu all over again.  We have run this article every few years, and it seems like maybe the frequency is increasing as we deal with wet and cold weather that delays planting.  The questions about this have not changed much, and neither have the suggestions we provide here.  One of the mos

Read more

 

Estimating Fiber Content of Alfalfa in Fields Across Ohio

Authors: Mark Sulc, Les Ober, CCA, Angela Arnold

Alfalfa stands in Ohio had some early growth due to the warmer temperature in early April. Although it’s been cooler over the past couple of weeks, alfalfa growth has slowly been progressing.

Read more

 

Additional Application of Late-Season Nitrogen to Winter Wheat

Authors: Laura Lindsey, Ed Lentz, CCA

We’ve had several days of extremely wet weather, and there are some questions regarding the need for additional nitrogen fertilizer. Last week, wheat was between Feekes 8 and 10.2, depending on the area within the state.

Read more

 

Fertilizer Training for New Applicators

Authors: Chris Zoller, David Marrison

Do you apply fertilizer to more than 50 acres of land?  If so, the Ohio Department of Agriculture requires applicators to obtain a Fertilizer Certificate.  The Tuscarawas and Coshocton County offices of Ohio State University Extension will sponsor a training at 7pm on Wednesday, May 19.  The trai

Read more

 

About C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

 

Contributors:

 

Glen Arnold, CCA
Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management

 

Mark Badertscher
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jordan Beck
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Lee Beers, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Amanda Bennett
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Ann Chanon
Extension Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Bruce Clevenger, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Trevor Corboy
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Steve Culman
State Specialist, Soil Fertility

 

Wayne Dellinger, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Taylor Dill
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Amanda Douridas
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nick Eckel
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mike Estadt
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Ken Ford
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Allen Gahler
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mike Gastier, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jamie Hampton
Extension Educator, ANR

 

Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Stephanie Karhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dean Kreager
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Alan Leininger
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Ed Lentz, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Laura Lindsey
State Specialist, Soybean and Small Grains

 

Mark Loux
State Specialist, Weed Science

 

David Marrison
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Andy Michel
State Specialist, Entomology

 

James Morris
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Gigi Neal
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Tony Nye
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Les Ober, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Erdal Ozkan
State Specialist, Sprayer Technology

 

Richard Purdin
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Eric Richer, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dennis Riethman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Matthew Schmerge
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Clint Schroeder
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mark Sulc
State Specialist, Forage Production

 

Barry Ward
Program Leader

 

Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Hallie Williams
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Aaron Wilson
Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center

 

Curtis Young, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Chris Zoller
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.

BYGL Weekly News for April 26, 2021

The following articles were compiled during the last 7 days by members of the Buckeye Environmental Horticulture Team to benefit those who are managing a commercial nursery, garden center, or landscape business or someone who just wants to keep their yard looking good all summer.  Access the BYGL website for additional information on other seasonal topics at: http://bygl.osu.edu

For more pictures and information, click on the article titles.  To contact the authors, click on their names

Hairy Bittercress Busting!

Authors Erik Draper

Published on April 23, 2021

How many of us have gone outside to smugly look at our gardens that looked pristine and in excellent shape heading into the winter?  Then in the Spring, as we emerge from our winter hibernation to survey our domain… We are shocked!  What the heck happened out there because there are tufts of green weeds everywhere!  A gardening friend asked me what this green thing was, because he had already pulled or dug up two wheelbarrow loads of them!  The prolific green demon belongs to the mustard family (Brassicaceae) and is known as Hairy Bittercress (HB) or Cardamine hirsuta.

 

HB is typically a winter annual, but it can also be a summer annual and or even act as a biennial—another plant that doesn’t follow the rules!  As a winter annual, HB germinates and leafs out as a basal rosette to sneakily and vegetatively pass through winter, soaking up any available sunshine.  In early Spring, the tidy green mound sends up flower stalks with tiny, white flowers to begin to create the real mess… seeds.  Each plant has the potential to produce 600 to 1,000 little green bombs called seeds!

 

The flowers form thin, purple, seed pods, which are actually called siliques.  This is where HB disguises itself as innocuous and cute with the upright, purplish-green siliques scattered around the flowers, looking so Spring-fresh and nice.  As the seeds mature inside of the siliques, these prolific pods begin to coil tightly to create the greatest gardening crime ever—they explode, flinging seeds in all directions!

 

Well okay, they don’t really explode, but the tension in the ripe silique causes it to suddenly split apart (dehisce), catapulting seeds in every direction.  Anything barely touching the nasty pods, like tools, your hands or even the gentle wind stirring through the pods, causes a reaction.  The appalling purple silique will violently detonate, whipping the seeds up and out into the blast zone, to sail as far away as sixteen feet!  When you weed, they get in your eyes, up your nose, and in your ears and hair—they are everywhere!!

 

This obnoxious weed can be controlled with various preemergence and postemergence herbicides, but it is all about application timing.  Usually late in the year, you are satisfied with the garden season and have put most garden chores and tasks to bed, ready for winter.  That is the prime time to become a bound and determined bittercress buster!

 

To achieve successful control of hairy bittercress, preemergence herbicides applications should be applied in late summer or early fall.  Postemergence herbicides applications, using a contact, non-selective herbicide to target tender seedlings, should begin in mid-fall or early Spring.  To get ahead of this seed flinging machine, don’t let it flower or mature to develop those blasted purple launch pods!  Keep after those tender, germinating seedlings, which shamelessly seem to emerge year-round, with no hesitation whatsoever.  Therefore, anytime you get a chance to go outside when the weather warms up… Get outside and begin BUSTING HAIRY BITTERCRESS!

 

 

 

Wilted Buckeye Leaves May Not Be Freeze Damage

Authors Joe Boggs

Published on April 22, 2021

 

 

Temperatures have dropped into the dumpster for a second time this spring throughout Ohio.  Of course, it’s spring and it’s Ohio.

 

Round one turned beautiful magnolia blooms into brown mush in southwest Ohio.  Impacts from this second round are yet to be determined but it’s likely some trees and shrubs suffered frost/freeze damage that will eventually be revealed with symptoms ranging from blasted flowers to wilted, blackened leaves, to twig dieback.

 

However, feeding damage by the buckeye petiole borer (Zeiraphera claypoleana, family Tortricidae) produces symptoms that are a dead ringer for frost/freeze damage.  Wilted leaves on buckeyes (Aesculus spp.) deserve a close look.

 

Dave Shetlar (OSU Entomology, Professor Emeritus) shared images of the caterpillars in buckeye petioles in central Ohio during our BYGL Zoom Inservice on Tuesday morning.  Curtis Young (OSU Extension, Van Wert County) showed images of the symptoms on buckeyes in northwest Ohio and I’m finding damage on wild understory buckeyes in the southwest part of the state.

 

We’ve noted in past BYGL Alerts that the moth appears to prefer small understory trees growing in wooded areas along streams.  I’ve rarely seen damage on mature trees or trees in landscapes.  Although the literature notes this native moth is specific to Ohio buckeye (A. glabra), I’ve also observed petiole borer activity on yellow buckeye (A. flava).

 

Petiole Borer Detection

As their common name indicates, the caterpillars tunnel within leaf petioles to feed on vascular tissues.  The damage causes leaves to rapidly droop, wilt, and turn dark green to black.  Damaged leaves eventually detach producing mild defoliation.

 

I’ve never found more than one caterpillar per petiole even where populations are high.  Look closely for a slight swelling of the petiole on wilted leaves.  There may be a small hole exuding granular-like frass (insect excrement).  This indicates there is a caterpillar actively feeding within the petiole.

 

A clean hole in the petiole indicates the caterpillar has completed its development and exited to pupate in the soil.  Slicing open the petiole will reveal a short, empty chamber.

 

Trees usually only suffer a few damaged leaves.  The hit-or-miss nature of the wilted leaves provides good evidence that it’s not frost/freeze injury.  Damage by this borer may appear conspicuous; however, the caterpillars seldom cause enough leaf loss to affect the overall health of infested trees.

 

On the other hand, earlier this week, I found and photographed a caterpillar boring into the tender new terminal growth on a small understory tree in southwest Ohio.  I’ve never seen or heard of this type of damage.  However, damage to main stems represents a potentially more serious impact compared to the loss of a nominal number of leaves.

 

There are two generations in Ohio with the first generation coming to an end in the southern part of the state.  The vast majority of the petioles I inspected earlier this week were empty with only a few petioles and the aforementioned main stem containing mature caterpillars.

 

Management

There are no chemical control recommendations given that the damage is usually confined to wild buckeyes growing in wood lots and leaf loss from the petiole borer is seldom significant.  However, I’ve seen localized populations gradually increase over successive years to eventually produce very noticeable symptoms with the damage caused by the second generation becoming more severe.

 

Hand-removal of infested leaves can reduce localized petiole borer populations.  The first step is to make certain the petioles actually contain caterpillars; a clean hole means the caterpillar has vacated the premises!  Removing first-generation caterpillars will decrease damaged caused by the second generation later this spring and the removal of second-generation caterpillars will help to deplete the overall population.

 

The second step is to destroy the caterpillar within the infested leaves and stomping is highly effective.  Thus far, no populations have become resistant to this control method.

 

 

 

Proper Pruning Pays Off!

Authors Thomas deHaas

Published on April 22, 2021

 

 

During the recent snowstorm that hit Northeastern Ohio, some trees and property owners suffered serious damage.

 

But not all.

 

Young tree training is the key to providing your trees the best chance at surviving a storm or heaving snowfall. When trees are young, the homeowner can do some of this training themselves. The focus should be on developing a strong central leader and getting rid of weak crotch angles.

 

As trees age, they typically require the attention of an arborist. The International Society of Arboriculture certify these individuals. It is recommended that you seek the help of an ISA certified arborist. You can search for one in your area by using the following link: https://www.isa-arbor.com/

If you don’t hire a professional, you might end up with something like this:

 

I am reminded of the Fram Oil commercial “You can Pay me now or pay me later.” I’m dating myself! If trees are left to their own devices, they can form very bad habits (and growth).

 

In a forest, trees tend to shade each other out and develop a strong canopy. Also, trees growing in a group tend to resist wind damage.

 

In the landscape, a tree typically gets all the sun, water and food it wants, and therefor overgrows itself. The result is competing leaders, weak crotch angles, and eventual loss of branches.

 

During the past weather event, the Norway Maples were almost entirely in leaf and suffered much of the damage. But not all Norway Maples. Click here for pictures of a Norway Maple that was trained to have a central leader and one that was trained to have strong crotch angles with room to grow.

 

Also damaged were evergreens and flowering trees that were in full flower.

 

The lessons to be learned are as follows:

  • Train trees when they are young.
  • Hire a certified arborist to prune larger trees as they age.
  • Remove trees that are a danger to property or people.

It could save your life and/or your home!

 

CORN Newsletter

 

April 20 – 26, 2021

 

Editor: Amanda Bennett

 

Alfalfa Weevil – It’s Closer Than You Think

Authors: Kelley Tilmon, Aaron Wilson, Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA, Mark Sulc, Andy Michel

Though the current cold snap has caught our attention, we are actually ahead on heat units compared to this time last year, and we’ve accumulated enough degree days to see potential outbreaks of alfalfa weevil in some locations.  Weevils have already been spotted in northwest Ohio.  Overwintered

Read more

 

Black Cutworms and True Armyworms are Arriving

Authors: Andy Michel, Kelley Tilmon, Curtis Young, CCA, Clifton Martin, CCA, Lee Beers, CCA, Beth Scheckelhoff, Eric Richer, CCA, Mark Badertscher, Cindy Wallace
Read more

 

New FactSheet is published on Nutrient Removal for Field Crops in Ohio

Author: Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA

An update for nutrient recommendations for Ohio’s major field crops (corn, soybean, wheat, and alfalfa) was published in November 2020 as the Tri-State Fert

Read more

 

Will Forage Stands Be Damaged by Predicted Freezes?

Author: Mark Sulc

The weather forecast this week is indeed concerning for forage stands in general and especially for alfalfa and red clover. The low night temperatures in the forecast may potentially cause severe frost injury to both annual forage crops (e.g.

Read more

 

Check-Out Virtual Crop Scouting School

Author: Laura Lindsey
Read more

 

CFAES Ag Weather System 2021 Near-Surface Air and Soil Temperatures/Moisture

Authors: Aaron Wilson, Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA
Read more

 

About C.O.R.N. Newsletter

C.O.R.N. Newsletter is a summary of crop observations, related information, and appropriate recommendations for Ohio crop producers and industry. C.O.R.N. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). C.O.R.N. Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State.

 

Contributors:

 

Glen Arnold, CCA
Field Specialist, Manure Nutrient Management

 

John Barker
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Rachel Cochran
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Trevor Corboy
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Wayne Dellinger, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Taylor Dill
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Amanda Douridas
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Nick Eckel
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mike Estadt
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Boden Fisher
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Ken Ford
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Allen Gahler
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mike Gastier, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mary Griffith
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Will Hamman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Jamie Hampton
Extension Educator, ANR

 

Jason Hartschuh, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Elizabeth Hawkins
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Andrew Holden
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Stephanie Karhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dean Kreager
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Greg LaBarge, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Ed Lentz, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mark Loux
State Specialist, Weed Science

 

David Marrison
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Andy Michel
State Specialist, Entomology

 

Brigitte Moneymaker
Water Quality Extension Associate

 

Gigi Neal
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Sarah Noggle
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Les Ober, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Erdal Ozkan
State Specialist, Sprayer Technology

 

Pierce Paul
State Specialist, Corn and Wheat Diseases

 

Richard Purdin
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Eric Richer, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Dennis Riethman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Beth Scheckelhoff
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Matthew Schmerge
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Clint Schroeder
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Mark Sulc
State Specialist, Forage Production

 

Kelley Tilmon
State Specialist, Field Crop Entomology

 

Barry Ward
Program Leader

 

Harold Watters, CPAg/CCA
Field Specialist, Agronomic Systems

 

Aaron Wilson
Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center

 

Ted Wiseman
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

Curtis Young, CCA
Educator, Agriculture and Natural Resources

 

The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions.

CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility.