Philip R. Scott , BVM&S, MPhil, DVM&S, DSHP, DECBHM, FHEA, FRCVS, University of Edinburgh (Previously published online with the Merck Manual – Veterinary Manual) With the Read more…
by Braden Campbell on October 16, 2019
Karin Neff, Andy Hulting, Mylen Bohle and David Hannaway, Oregon State University Extension Service (Previously published on the Oregon State University Extension Service web page: Read more…
by Braden Campbell on October 15, 2019
Government of Western Australia (Previously published online: Agriculture and Food, Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development) Yes, you read the title correctly. Contrary to Read more…
by Braden Campbell on October 15, 2019
By Peggy Kirk Hall and Ellen Essman
OSU Agricultural & Resource Law Program
Ohio’s newly created hemp program is one step further toward getting off the ground. On October 9, the Ohio Department of Agriculture (ODA) released its anxiously awaited proposal of the rules that will regulate hemp production in Ohio. ODA seeks public comments on the proposed regulations until October 30, 2019.
There are two parts to the rules package: one rule for hemp cultivation and another for hemp processing. Here’s an overview of the components of each rule:
- Hemp cultivation
The first rule addresses the “cultivation” of hemp, which means “to plant, water, grow, fertilize, till or harvest a plant or crop.” Cultivating also includes “possessing or storing a plant or cop on a premises where the plant was cultivated until transported to the first point of sale.” The proposal lays out the following regulatory process for those who wish to cultivate hemp in Ohio.
Cultivation licenses. Anyone who wants to grow hemp must receive a hemp cultivation license from the ODA. Licenses are valid for three years. To obtain a license, the would-be hemp cultivator must submit an application during the application window, which will be between November 1 and March 31. The application requires the applicant to provide personal information about the applicant, and if the applicant is a business, information about who is authorized to sign on behalf of the business, who will be primarily responsible for hemp operations and the identity of those having a financial interest greater than ten percent in the entity. The cultivation license application will also seek information about each location where hemp will be grown, including the GPS coordinates, physical address, number of outdoor acres or indoor square footage, and maps of each field, greenhouse, building or storage facility where hemp will grow or be stored. Cultivators must pay a license application fee of $100, and once licensed, an additional license fee of $500 for each growing location, which is defined as a contiguous land area or single building in which hemp is grown or planned to be grown. All applicants and anyone with a controlling interest ithe hemp cultivation business must also submit to a criminal records check by the bureau of criminal identification and investigation.
Land use restrictions. The proposed rules state that a licensed hemp cultivator shall not:
- Plant or grow cannabis that is not hemp.
- Plant or grow hemp on any site not approved by the ODA.
- Plant, grow, handle or store hemp in or within 100 feet of a residential structure or 500 feet of a school or public park, unless for approved research.
- Comingle hemp with other crops without prior approval from ODA.
- Plant or grow hemp outdoors on less than one-quarter acre, indoors on less than 1,000 square feet, or in a quantity of less than 1,000 plants without prior approval from ODA.
- Plant or grow hemp within half a mile of a parcel licensed for medical marijuana cultivation.
- Plant or grow hemp on property that the license holder does not own or lease.
Hemp harvesting. Licensed growers would be required to submit a report to ODA at least 15 days before their intended harvest date and pay a pre-harvest sample fee of $150. ODA then has to sample the hemp for THC content, and only if approved can a cultivator harvest the crop, which in most cases must occur within 15 days after the sample is taken. Failing to harvest within the 15-day window might require a secondary sampling and sampling fee. A cultivator would be required to have a hemp release form from ODA before moving any harvested materials beyond the storage facility.
Random sampling. The proposed rules also allow for random sampling of hemp by ODA and provide details on how ODA will conduct the sampling and charge sampling fees. Any cultivator is subject to random sampling in each location where hemp has been cultivated. ODA will report testing results that exceed 0.3 THC to the cultivator, who may request a second sample. A cultivator must follow procedures for destroying any leaf, seed, or floral material from plants that exceed 0.3 THC and any material that was co-mingled with the 0.3 THC materials, but may harvest bare hemp stalks for fiber.
Destruction of hemp. Under the proposed regulations, a license holder must submit a destruction report before destroying hemp and ODA must be present to witness the destruction. The proposed rules also authorize ODA to destroy a crop that was ordered destroyed, abandoned, or otherwise not harvested and assess the costs against the licensee.
Reporting and recordkeeping are also important in the proposed rules. Licensed cultivators must submit a planting report on an ODA form for each growing location by July 1 or within 15 days of planting or replanting, which shall include the crop’s location, number of acres or square footage, variety name, and primary intended use. The rule would also require licensees to submit a completed production report by December 31 of each year. A licensee that fails to submit the required reports would be subject to penalties and fines. Cultivators must maintain planting, harvest, destruction and production reports for three years.
Control of volunteer plants. A licensee must scout and monitor unused fields for volunteer hemp plants and destroy the plants for a period of three years past the last date of reported planting. Failing to do so can result in enforcement action or destruction of the plants by ODA with costs assessed to the licensee.
Pesticide and fertilizer use. The laws and rules that apply to other crops will also apply to hemp, except that when using a pesticide on a site where hemp will be planted, the cultivator must comply with the longest of any planting restriction interval on the product label. ODA may perform pesticide testing randomly, and any hemp seeds, plants and materials that exceed federal pesticide residue tolerances will be subject to forfeiture or destruction without compensation.
Prohibited varieties. The proposed rule states that licensed cultivators cannot use any part of a hemp plant that ODA has listed as a prohibited variety of hemp on its website.
Clone and seed production. Special rules apply to hemp cultivators who plan to produce clones, cuttings, propagules, and seed for propagation purposes. The cultivator can only sell the seeds or plants to other licensed cultivators and must maintain records on the variety, strain and certificate of analysis for the “mother plants.” The licensee need not submit a harvest report, but must keep sales records for three years of the purchaser, date of sale, and variety and number of plants or seeds purchased.
Cultivation research. Universities may research hemp cultivation without a license but private and non-profit entities that want to conduct research must have a cultivation license. Cultivation research licensees would be exempt from many parts of the proposed rules, but must not sell or transfer any part of the plants and must destroy the plants when the research ends.
Enforcement. The proposed rule grants authority to the ODA to deny, suspend or revoke cultivation licenses for those who’ve provide false or misleading information, haven’t completed a background check, plead guilty to a felony relating to controlled substances within the past 10 years, or violated the hemp laws and rules three or more times in a five-year period.
- Hemp processing
The proposed rules package by ODA also addresses processing, which the rule defines as “converting hemp into a hemp product” but does not include on-farm drying or dehydrating of raw hemp materials by a licensed hemp cultivator for sale directly to a licensed hemp processor. Because of this definition, many farmers who want only to grow and dry hemp would need only a cultivation license. Growers who want to process their licensed hemp into CBD oil or other products, however, must also obtain a processing license. The processing rules follow a similar pattern to their cultivation counterpart, as follows.
Processing licenses. In addition to submitting the same personal, business and location information as a cultivation license requires, a hemp processing license application must list the types of hemp products that the processor plans to produce. An “extraction operational plan” including safety measures and guidelines is required for processors who want to extract CBD from hemp to produce their product, and an applicant must indicate compliance with all building, fire, safety and zoning requirements. The amount of the license fee depends on what part of the hemp plant the processor plans to process. Processing raw hemp fiber, for example, requires a $500 license fee for each processing site, whereas processing the raw floral component of hemp requires a $3000 fee for each site. Like the cultivation license, a processing license is valid for three years. Applicants and those with a controlling interest in the business must submit to a background check.
Land use restrictions. The proposed regulations would prevent a licensed processor from:
- Processing or storing any cannabis that is not hemp.
- Processing or storing hemp or hemp products on any site not approved by ODA.
- Processing, handling, or storing hemp or hemp products in or adjacent to a personal residence or in any structure used for residential use or on land zoned for residential use.
- Processing hemp within 500 feet of a school or public park, except for approved research.
Financial responsibility. A licensed processor must meet standards of financial responsibility, which require having current assets at least $10,000 or five percent of the total purchase of raw hemp materials in the previous calendar year, whichever is greater, and possessing a surety bond.
Inspection and sampling. As with cultivation licensees, hemp processing licensees would be subject to inspection and sampling by ODA under the proposed rule.
Food safety regulations. The proposed rule requires hemp processes to comply with federal and state food safety regulations.
Sources and extraction of cannabinoids (CBD). A processor who wants to extract or sell CBD products must obtain the materials from a licensed or approved cultivator or processor in Ohio or another state with hemp cultivation licenses. The regulation outlines components of the extraction operational plan that a processor must submit with the processing application, as well as acceptable extraction methods and required training.
Product testing. A hemp processor must test hemp products at an accredited testing laboratory before selling the products. The proposed rule describes the testing procedures, which address microbial contaminants, cannabinoid potency, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticide and fertilizer residue and residual solvents. There are testing exemptions, however, for hemp used exclusively for fiber, derived exclusively from hemp seed and hemp extracts. The testing laboratory must create a certificate of analysis for each batch or lot of the tested hemp product.
Processor waste disposal. Under the proposed rule, a licensed processor must follow procedures for proper disposal of hemp byproducts and waste and must maintain disposal records.
Product labeling requirements are also proposed in the rule. A processor must label all hemp products except for those made exclusively from hemp fiber as outlined in the rule and in compliance with federal law and other existing Ohio regulations for standards of identify and food coloring.
Recordkeeping. As we’d expect, the proposal states that hemp processors must maintain records for five years that relate to the purchase of raw, unprocessed plant materials, the purchase or use of extracted cannabinoids, and the extraction process.
Prohibited products. Finally, the proposed rules include a list of hemp products that cannot be offered for sale, which includes hemp products with over 0.3 percent THC by dry weight basis, hemp products which laboratory testing determines do not meet standards of identity or that exceed the amount of mytoxins, heavy metals, or pesticides allowed, and any hemp products produced illegally.
What’s next for the hemp rules?
Keep in mind that these rules are not yet set in stone; they are a simply a proposal for hemp licensing rules in Ohio. Those interested in cultivating or processing hemp in the future should read the draft rules carefully. The proposed rule for hemp cultivation is here and the proposal for hemp processing is here. Anyone can submit comments on the proposed rules here. Your comments could affect what the final hemp rules require for hemp cultivators and processors. After ODA reviews all comments, it will issue its final hemp licensing regulations.
Federal law requires that after Ohio finalizes its rules, ODA must submit them to the USDA for approval. That approval won’t occur, however, until USDA completes its own hemp regulations, which are due out in proposal form any day now. Ohio’s rules will become effective once USDA approves them, hopefully in time for the 2020 planting season. Stay tuned to the Ag Law Blog to see what happens next with hemp production in Ohio.
You can follow the Ohio Agricultural Law Blog here for the latest Ohio Ag Law updates.
Agricultural and Natural Resource Issues Webinar
Monday, December 16, 2019
9:00 a.m. – 3:00 p.m.
If you are a farmer or represent farmers or rural landowners, this five-hour webinar is for you. It will focus on key regulations of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act related specifically to those income tax returns.
You can choose to attend a host location or participate at home or in the office. Host locations will provide a facilitator, refreshments and lunch. You are encouraged to bring your computer as there will be real-time Q&A. If you choose not to attend a host location, a web address will be e-mailed to you prior to the webinar.
*Registration, which includes the workbook, is $150 if received or entered on-line by December 2. After December 2, registration is $200.
Continuing Education Credits are offered (pending approval):
Accountancy Board of Ohio, CPAs (6 hours)
Office of Professional Responsibility, IRS (6 hours)
Supreme Court of Ohio, Attorneys (5 hours)
For questions, email Julie Strawser (email@example.com) or call 614-292-2433.
OSU Extension Office in Clermont County
1000 Locust St., Owensville
OSU Extension Office in Auglaize
208 S Blackhoof St., Wapakoneta
OSU Extension Office in Putnam County
1206 East Second St., Ottawa
Wayne County – NOTE LOCATION CHANGE!
Wayne County Administration Building
428 West Liberty St., Wooster
320 E. Wyandot Ave. Upper Sandusky
OSU Extension offers two-day schools at convenient locations throughout Ohio designed for tax preparers with some experience preparing and filing federal tax returns for individuals and small businesses.
Instruction focuses on tax law changes and on the problems that you face in preparing tax returns. Highly qualified instructors will explain and interpret tax regulations and recent changes in tax laws. These two-day schools offer continuing education credit for attorneys, CPAs, EAs and CFPs, and other tax return preparers.
Locations include: Fremont, Cuyahoga Falls, Ashland University, Dayton, Lima, Plain City, Chillicothe, Zanesville and Columbus. Detailed information about each location and the event can be found by clicking here.
Keep up-to-date on our tax school events by subscribing to our OSU Tax School ListServ.
I used to tell my Ag Ed students that soil was like a human, a living breathing organism. Soil has air, water, nutrients and living organisms that compose its structure. Just like a human, it takes many years to grow and mature and soil cannot be replenished quickly. Keeping our soil in place is an important factor to soil health and improvement. Actively growing plants provide resources for microorganisms to live within our soils. Keep your soil in your field and actively thriving through the non-crop times of the year by keeping a blanket on it by using cover crops best suited for your fields. And yes, when I say fields that also mean garden areas too (raised or in ground). Oh, and with forage being at at premium due to our poor weather conditions for harvesting hay and pasture growth, some cover crops can be grazed by livestock! Read more about “Soil health at risk on fallow fields..”
MarketReady is a day long training covering sale of locally produced foods to: Restaurants, Grocers, Wholesalers, and Direct to Consumers.
Who Should Attend the Training?
Individuals interested in selling their locally produced food through various market channels. Those who want to explore ways to improve their sales skills and business relationships, and those who are considering or are just developing a new food business.
For more information click here for the program flyer and registration information. Classes will be held in October in Cincinnati, Chillicothe and Athens.
– Stan Smith, PA, Fairfield County OSU Extension
Typically, when feed prices go down, we see feeder calf prices begin to climb as a corresponding move. That is, unless fed cattle prices are unstable or declining. A fire in a Kansas cattle packing plant just before a report detailing that the U.S. might have planted more acres of corn than earlier anticipated caused the perfect storm that allowed pressure on feeder calf prices at the same time as declining feed prices. With the time of year when the vast majority of U.S. feeder calves are weaned and marketed quickly approaching, there’s little time to develop a plan that might preserve or even enhance some of the value and profit in feeder calves that simply may not be in as strong of demand now as they might have been just a few weeks ago.
However, less expensive feed combined with the thought that calf prices can rebound in the coming months once we are past the seasonal tendency for lower prices and the damaged Kansas packing house comes back on-line offer incentive for developing a strategy to hold on to this fall’s feeder calves while also adding value to them.
To recap the path that’s brought us to this point, on Continue reading
– Steve Boyles, OSU Beef Extension Specialist
Backgrounding is the growing of steers and heifers from weaning until they enter the feedlot for finishing. Backgrounding and Stocker cattle are similar although backgrounding is sometimes associated with a drylot, and stockering cattle is thought of as pasture-based system. However any system that takes advantage of economical feed sources can be investigated.
Why might someone consider backgrounding or growing cattle?
- The producer has time and economical feed resources
- The market at weaning is not as favorable and is investigating alternative marketing times
- Some feedyards prefer buying/feeding yearlings. They can expect fewer health problems and can feed two turns of cattle in a year.
- It could be a way of upgrading mismanaged cattle so as to add value.
- Since the cattle can be on feed for several months, they can fit the preference by some feeders for preconditioned cattle
There are many Continue reading
– Christine Gelley, Agriculture and Natural Resources Educator, Noble County OSU Extension
Years like 2019 can test farmers and ranchers to the brink of insanity. People in this profession have to be resilient to the unpredictability of the weather, the markets, and the general chaos of life. All year thus far, we have discussed many ways to adapt our animal feeding programs, pasture systems, and hay production to the far from ideal conditions we are facing.
By now, I hope you have read articles, listened to podcasts, watched videos, talked with your neighbors and your local ag educators about what to do next. Crop selection, site management, and soil health have been a huge topics addressed regarding cover crops for prevent plant acres, damaged pastures, weeds, poor quality hay, and feed shortages.
But, I’m going to take this article a different direction . . .
If you have Continue reading
– Jason Jones, Grassland & Grazing Coordinator, Quail Forever
The “Fescue Belt” is land dominated by non-native cool season grasses, primarily tall fescue. Cool season grasses, such as fescue and orchardgrass, thrive in April to early June and October to November. However, they have obvious drawbacks; and operations that rely exclusively on cool-season forages may find it increasingly difficult to stay above the bottom line.
When the summer is at its peak, cool season grasses can be very unproductive. In contrast, native warm season grasses peak during summer months (85 – 95 F). Warm season grasses are Continue reading
– Michelle Arnold, DVM-Ruminant Extension Veterinarian (UKVDL)
Water is the most essential nutrient in the diet of cattle and during hot and dry weather, it is especially important to monitor water quality if using farm ponds for livestock. What is a “harmful algae bloom” or “HAB”?
During periods of hot and dry weather, rapid growth of algae to extreme numbers may result in a “bloom”, which is a build-up of algae that creates a green, blue-green, white, or brown coloring on the surface of the water, like a floating layer of paint (see Figure 1). Blooms are designated “harmful” because some algal species produce toxins (poisons) when stressed or when they die. The majority of HABs are caused by blue-green algae, a type of bacteria called “cyanobacteria” that exist naturally in water and wet environments. These microorganisms prefer warm, stagnant, nutrient-rich water and are found most often in ponds, lakes, and slow moving creeks. Farm ponds contaminated with fertilizer run-off, septic tank overflow or direct manure and urine contamination are prime places for algae to thrive. Although blooms can occur at any time of year, they happen most often in the warmer months between June and September when temperatures reach 75 degrees or higher and ponds begin to stagnate. HABs can reduce water quality and intake, but more importantly, they can be deadly when ingested by livestock. Windy conditions can push algal blooms along water edges, increasing the risk for Continue reading
– Dr. Andrew Griffith, Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Tennessee
FED CATTLE: Fed cattle traded $3 to $4 higher compared to last week on a live basis. Live prices were mainly $106 to $109 while dressed prices were mainly $175 to $176.
The 5-area weighted average prices thru Thursday were $108.81 live, up $3.41 from last week and $175.02 dressed, up $4.56 from a week ago. A year ago prices were $109.08 live and $172.82 dressed.
The finished cattle market experienced a soft rebound this week following last week’s precipitous decline. A few dollars were gained back by cattle feeders, but they are still below where they were prior to the news of the Tyson fire. The story in all of this is what is happening in futures. The August live cattle contract has regained half of its losses but all the deferred con-tracts continue to be bottom feeders. The deferred contracts have failed to Continue reading
2019 Lamb Carcasses Final
For those directly involved in the livestock business, exhibiting your animals at the county, state, or national level is always an exciting venture. In Ohio, the Ohio State Fair is a great opportunity to allow our youth to showcase their summers hard work by exhibiting their market lamb projects. While winning a purple banners is the goal for most, we must not loose sight of what the ultimate end product will be from our livestock projects. This year, our team was able to capture the carcass results from the Breed Champion Lambs at the Ohio State Fair in real time using this unique video. Remember, regardless of the species, your livestock project goes beyond ring appeal. For those of you with questions regarding carcass quality and evaluation, feel free to contact us. Enjoy!
Michaela King, Hay and Forage Grower summer editorial intern
(Previously published in Hay & Forage Grower: August 20, 2019)
They say that repetition is the key to learning. Over the past several months, Extension educators and researchers have discussed and provided many options for producers to increase the amount of high quality forage that can use to feed their livestock with for the upcoming year. Be sure to take a quick look at this short piece as it quickly outlines some of the important basics of some common forages options and soil health considerations.
When Southern warm-season grasses go dormant and become unproductive, there are a wide variety of cool-season annual grasses that can be used to extend grazing periods into the winter and spring months. Continue reading
Sandy Smith, OSU Extension Educator ANR, Carroll County
(Previously published in Farm & Dairy, August 22, 2019)
We have all been really concerned with the effects that the unpredictable weather has had on forage production this year.
First, we had so much rain and even flooding that delayed forage growth and quality haymaking. Now we are experiencing areas of semi-drought conditions in some areas.
We all have had places in our counties that it rained 3 inches in one area and three miles down the road, or less as the crow flies, they may only have received a half an inch. Continue reading
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