Dongyuan Chen



  1. “Examining the reputation of Christopher Columbus” by By Jack Weatherford


  1. “Christopher Columbus” by Thomas C. Tirado, Ph.D.


  1. Christopher Columbus Biography


  1. Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean


Andrew Vonderhaar

1)    Columbus Controversy. (n.d.). Accessed 6 March 2017.

Summary This article contains the information as to why Columbus’ journey to the New World is a controversy due to his violence, forced conversion to Christianity, and the introduction of new deadly diseases. In this time, slave trade was starting to become more popular, so Columbus and his men enslaved many natives of the West Indies and subjected them to extreme violence and brutality. He also enacted policies of forced labor in which natives were to work for the sake of profits, or else they were sent to Spain to be sold. Within 60 years after Columbus arrived, only a few hundred of what may have been 250,000 Taino were left on their island.
Statement Despite the holiday that Americans now celebrate today for the exploration of the New World, there are many facts historians have found that have questioned the validity of Columbus as a hero.


2)    Wright, Mark A. “Christopher Columbus and the New World.” The National Review, October, 12. 2015. Accessed 6 March 2017.  
Summary– This article talks about the two common narratives told about Christopher Columbus: apprenticed sailor and discoverer of the New World, and slaver, capitalist, and a murderer of millions. Within this article is included quotes from Ronald Reagan that appraise Columbus for his determination and dream that led to the New World. Despite the pitiless treatment of the Indians, the author of the article continues to say that Americans cannot ignore the genuine good that has resulted from Columbus’ journey. Columbus day does not mark a one man’s birthday, but an event- landfall in the New World. This date is meant to commemorate a great man and his achievements, not his actions towards the Indians.
  • Ronald Reagan, “he was a dreamer, a man of vision and courage, a man filled with hope for the future and with the determination to cast off for the unknown and sail into uncharted seas for the joy of finding whatever was there.”
  • “We should not ignore the genuine good that has come down to us as a result of the course of human events- namely, the space for a unique idea to grow and flourish: the self-government of free people, with an ever-expanding idea of who can partake of that promise.”
Statement– Although some of Columbus’ actions may seem dastardly and heartless, one must not forget what his determination has led to: the discovery of the New World and the possibility for growth and flourish.

Hallie Atwell

  1. Bourne, E. G. (1906). The Northmen, Columbus and Cabot, 985-1503: The voyages of the Northmen, The voyages of Columbus and of John Cabot. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Accessed 6 March 2017.

Summary: The journal of Christopher Columbus includes his thoughts and ideas while exploring to these native lands. Christopher gave the indigenous people many items that they brought over with small value, but the people were very pleased and traded for them. Columbus thought they the people seemed very poor and young, unarmed, however, they have already experienced people from nearby islands who tried to take them but they defended themselves. He overall thought the natives would be good and intelligent servants, and would convert to Christianity easily.

Quotes: “In order that they would be friendly to us—because I recognized that they were people who could be better freed and converted to our Holy Faith by love than by force.”

“They should be good and intelligent servants…and I believe that they would become Christians very easily.”

Bartolome de Las Casas “defender of the Indians” says that “The Indian race is not that barbaric, nor are they dull witted or stupid, but they are easy to teach and very talented in learning all the liberal arts, and very ready to accept, honor, and observe the Christian religion and correct their sins.”

Juan Gines de Sepulveda believed “The Spanish have a perfect right to rule these barbarians of the New World, … who in prudence, skill, virtues, and humanity are inferior to the Spanish as children to adults, or women to men”


Statement: Christopher Columbus and Men like Sepulveda should not be honored as heroes for believing they are more superior to these Indians, for they were gentle and easily accepting of Christianity and new values. Yet, Columbus wanted to convert them with love, not force.

  1. Byne, M.S. Christopher Columbus. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1915. Accessed 6 March 2017.

Summary: In this biography of Columbus, Byne explains the journey of Columbus’ entire life, including his trip to the New World. Leading up to 1492, Byne explains the long, hard-working years Columbus put forth in order to get to the New World, never giving up. Byne takes notice of Columbus’ greediness and all the awards he would be promised had he succeeded in finding this new land. Upon finding the native people, Columbus decided he wanted to bring home some of the Indians as servants to the King, whether they wanted to or not, taking part in the “miserable business of kidnapping, buying, and selling human beings”

Quotes: “He would also be entitled to a tenth of all revenues from the new lands among several other items that were unheard of to be bargained for at the time” (7).


Statement: Columbus is deemed hard-working and restless, yet greedy and aggressive on his voyage to the New World, and uses inhumane practices on the natives.

Kaitlyn Evans


Churchill, Ward. “History Not Taught is History Forgot: Columbus’ Legacy of Genocide.” Indians are us. Common Courage Press, 1994. Web. 6 March 2017.

Summary and Excerpts: “He went, as his own diaries, reports, and letters make clear, fully expecting to encounter wealth belonging to others. It was his stated purpose to seize this wealth, by whatever means necessary and available, in order to enrich both his sponsors and himself. Plainly, he pre-figured, both in design and by intent, what came next. To this extent, he not only symbolizes the process of conquest and genocide which eventually consumed the indigenous peoples of America, but bears the personal responsibility of having participated in it.” It was inevitable that Columbus was not a good man. He was greedy and did not care about the people that encountered the land. He wanted to be rich and have power.

Abstract: This passage talks about Christopher Columbus and how he started the genocide of the indigenous people of America. Columbus wanted power and wealth over the land. More than “one hundred million” natives of the Caribbean were killed and used for slavery. That’s more than the holocaust.


Casas, Bartolomé de las, 1474-1566.  A short account of the destruction of the Indies. London: Penguin, 1992. Columbia University Libraries Virtual Reading Room, 2002. Based on edition of 1552.

Summary and Excerpts: “Las Casas’s understanding of the historical and eschatological significance of the discovery and conquest of America contrasted an early vision of peaceful settlement with the rapacious horrors of the conquests which followed.  Columbus, whose diary he preserved and edited, had, in Las Casas’s view, been chosen by God for his learning and virtue to bring the Gospel to the New World.” Las Casas was a from Spain and left for the new world. He witnessed the conquest of Cuba and the massacre of an Indian community.

Abstract: This online book shows Bartolome De Las Casas’ view on Christopher Columbus. Las Casas knew what was happening with Columbus’ power was wrong and villainous. Las Casas tried to create peaceful settlements in the new world.


Maris Corzine

“The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery.” Independence Hall Association, 04 July 1995. Web. 09 Mar. 2017. <>.

Note: “I forbade it, and gave a thousand good and pretty things that I had to win their love, and to induce them to become Christians, and to love and serve their Highnesses and the whole Castilian nation, and help to get for us things they have in abundance, which are necessary to us.”

Abstract: This article is very useful because it is a letter Columbus wrote to the Chancellor of the Exchequer. This quote shows how much Columbus intended to change these people’s lives. He took advantage of them by providing goods he found worthless to him, but worth a lot to them. With bribing them, he was able to teach them Christianity, thinking it was best for all of them.

McCormack, Owen. “Columbus Day and the Sanitization of History.” Truthout. 04 Oct. 2014. Web. 09 Mar. 2017. <>.

Note: “They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane. They would make fine servants. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.” 

Abstract: When Christopher Columbus arrived to the Bahamas, he first encountered the Arawaks. The quote above is the observations Columbus made when he found these people. He soon after kidnapped some of the Arawaks and forced them to show him the sources of gold on the land.

Haley Evans

  1. Flynn, Daniel J. “Christopher Colubus: Hero.” Human Events.p., 11 Oct. 20120. Web. 09 Mar. 2017. <>.

Note: “Unlike the adventurers of today, who climb tall mountains and balloon over oceans, Columbus did not trek across the Atlantic for the hell of it. If his dangerous journey had been a mission to resolve a mid-life crisis, perhaps his modern detractors would understand it better. As it was, Columbus sailed to enrich his adopted country (he naturally got a cut) and spread Catholicism.”

Abstract: Christopher Columbus’s intentions were for the good. He just wanted to improve his country and spread his beloved religion.

  1. Larner, John P. “North American Hero? Christopher Columbus 1702-2002.” JStore. American Philosophical Society, Mar. 1993. Web. 9 Mar. 2017. <>.

Note: “for centuries no learned man in Europe had believed anything else but that the world was round.”

 Abstract: Christopher Columbus was not only a hero for discovering America, but he made a big scientific discovery. This proves that he is a hero for more than one reason.

Dongyuan Chen

Dongyuan Chen (Carson)

English 1110.01 MWF 9:10-10:05

Instructor: Cathy Ryan

Assignment: Dalkey

February 19, 2017

Hubert Selby Jr.

Hubert Selby Jr. is a highly respected non-mainstream novelist of the United States after the second world war, known as the contemporary “Henry Miller”. His started gaining fame in 1964 with the publication of his novel ” Last Exit to Brooklyn”. Because it was regarded as an an obscene publication, the novel has been prosecuted and banned in the United States and Britain. However, the novel, as an classic work of the “Beat generation”, has been gradually catching on in private, and the poet Alan Ginsberg called it like “a bomb” that will spread for at least a hundred years. But Selby’s own style of life is far from the characters in his novels. He later created many novels and films, and he taught at the University of Southern California before his death. Purcell died on April 26 at the age of 75 years. His “dream of the Requiem” has also been adapted into a classic movie.


Hubert Selby Jr.’s most popular works include:

  • Last Exit to Brooklyn (novel, 1964)
  • The Room (novel, 1971)
  • The Demon (novel, 1976)
  • Requiem for a Dream (novel, 1978)
  • Song of the Silent Snow (short stories, 1986)[7]
  • The Willow Tree (novel, 1998)
  • Waiting Period (novel, 2002)


I know him before just because the movie “Requiem for a Dream”, which was released in 2000.

The movie tells a story about a pair of mother and son in a poor neighborhood in the United States. Son Harry is a loser, indulging in television and chocolate with loneliness. To “pursue a better life”, he was infected with drug addiction. He loves a lovely but addictive woman Marion, but he still can’t get a happy life in the normal way. Then he decided to take the risk, and his girlfriend and friends together, with the sale of heroin for making considerable amount of money. Unfortunately, this dream inevitably broke later, then he and his wife lived with much spiritual and physical suffering. His mother has been elder, more obese and sloppier. One day, she received a call from a television station, said she wanted to participate in the production of a program. She thought she can start her “TV star” dream, but she found she can no wear that red clothe which had brought her proud. She began to swallow the diet pants crazily. In this way, all the main characters in the film are drowning in the dependence of drugs. Their dream has been farther and farther away from them. This movie has greatly shocked me and inspired me to read the original novel written by Hubert Selby Jr. I can feel completely depressed and desperate when reading the novel. The psychological description in the book should really be one of its highlight, pointing out the so called “dreams” are just “virtual things” that do not really exist.  He is not famous just because he focuses too much on the dark side of things, while people prefer to read “hope” in books. For me, I really love his style of writing.




Maris Corzine

Marisa Corzine (Maris)

English 1110.01 MWF 9:10-10:05

Instructor: Cathy Ryan

Assignment: Dalkey

February 19, 2017

Samuel R. Delany

Samuel R. Delany is an American science-fiction novelist and critic who’s work reflects social, racial, and sexual issues, heroic quests, and the nature of language. In this interview with K. Leslie Steiner, they discuss his recent book, Silent Interviews (Dalkey Press). This book discourages personal interviews, and is restricted to written interviews. Delany claims the purpose of a written interview is to find out what the interviewee thinks about what matters, and therefore makes the interview more “concise and efficient” (Delany).  He also talks about the questions he likes to receive and the ones he does not like.

Delany was born on April 1, 1942 in New York, New York. Delany has identified himself as bisexual since adolescence. His first marriage was to another woman named Marylyn Hacker who knew his sexual preferences and later identified herself as a lesbian after their divorce. Delany became a science fiction author by the age of 20 and finished his first novel, The Jewels of Aptor, after he dropped out of the City College of New York at age 19. Later, he published nine science fiction novels between 1962 and 1968, and two prize-winning short stories. Delany has continued to write many different pieces up to 2012 such as short stories, comic book strips, and more novels. Listed below are many of his works.


  • The Jewels of Aptor (1962)
  • Captives of the Flame (1963)
  • The Towers of Toron (1964)
  • City of a Thousand Suns (1965)
  • The Ballad of Beta-2 (1965)
  • Empire Star (1966)
  • Babel-17 (1966)
  • The Einstein Intersection (1967)
  • Nova (1968)
  • The Tides of Lust (1973)
  • Dhalgren (1975)
  • Triton (1976)
  • Empire (1978)
  • Stars in My Pocket Like Grains of Sand (1984)
  • They Fly at Ciron (1993)
  • The Mad Man (1994)
  • Hogg (1995)
  • Phallos (novella) (2004)
  • Dark Reflections (2007)
  • Through the Valley of the Nest of Spiders (2012)
  • Return to Neveryon Series (1979-1987)

Short Stories

  • “The Star Pit” (1967)
  • “Dog in a Fisherman’s Net” (1971)
  • “Corona” (1967)
  • “Driftglass” (1967)
  • “We, in Some Strange Power’s Employ, Move on a Rigorous Line” (1968)
  • “Cage of Brass” (1968)
  • “High Bier” (1968)
  • “time Considered as a Helix of Semi-Precious Stones” (1968)
  • “Night and the Loves of Joe Dicostanzo” (1970)
  • “Prismatica” (1977)
  • “Empire Star” (1966)
  • “Omegahelm” (1981)
  • “Ruins” (1981)
  • “Among the Blobs” (1988)
  • “Citre et Trans” (1993)
  • “Erik, Gwen, and D.H. Lawrence’s Esthetic of Unrectified Feeling” (1993)
  • “Atlantis: Model 1924” (1995)
  • “Tapestry” (2003)
  • “The Desert of Time” (1992)
  • “In The Valley of the Nest of Spiders” (2007)

If I had the opportunity to interview the author Samuel R Delany, I would ask him “Do you plan to conduct the rest of your interviews through written interviews?” In the interview with K. Leslie Steiner, he tells her he values written interviews because he is a writer. Being able to write “slows the thought processes down to where one can follow them and elaborate them”. Therefore, I believe he would say yes to this question because it creates a more meaningful, deeper interview, and he will know the interviewer has strong interest in his work. If someone wants to truly find out the person he is, they should interview him through writing. Another question I would ask him is “Should media turn towards written interviews?”. Based off the interview, I believe Delany would say yes to this question, because he believes you can discover the best information through writing because it is consisted of elaborated thoughts. Interviews would become valuable through written interviews.

I chose this author because the interview conducted by K. Leslie Steiner really caught my eye. I thought it was interesting to see why he valued written interviews. Delany values written interviews because it allows the interviewer and the interviewee think seriously about the topic. Writing allows them to break down and elaborate on their thoughts, making it easier to understand the person being interviewed. Personal interviews have the purpose of proposing unsuspected and embarrassing questions. Interviews are meant to discover valuable information, people want to know, and the best way to do that is writing it. Delany’s purpose for written interviews makes perfect sense to me.

Researching Samuel R Delany, I have found many websites giving useful information on this author. Listed below are the sites I have found.

The sites listed below give further information on Delany’s life and the works he has created. On the first given link, there are a list of all of Delany’s work, with summaries for each writing. It also provides a list of awards Delany has received over his career. The second link provides more information on Delany’s biography.

Hallie Atwell

Hallie Atwell

English 1110.01, MWF 9:10—10:05

Professor: Cathy Ryan

Assignment: Dalkey Archive

February 20, 2017

John Hawkes

            John Hawkes was a postmodern American novelist who received his education from Harvard University. In his interview with Patrick O’Donnell, he talked about meeting the teacher from this college who soon became his “mentor-teacher” and “mentor-publisher,” Albert Guerard. With this teacher, Hawkes completed his first work of fiction The Cannibal.  Although this was his first published novel, it was The Lime Twig, published twelve years later, that turned peoples’ attention to the author. However, Hawkes first began his writing career as an inexperienced poet, with a couple his poems published in The Harvard Advocate; he mainly wrote his poems about romantic notions of World War II in response to his fear of dying in the war. Soon thereafter, he shifted from writing poetry to fiction upon finding his passion for prose literature and the ability to write fiction better than the authors whom his wife influenced him to read. After hearing much debate at the time, Hawkes believed that fiction had taken over much of the function of poetry.

John Hawkes most popular works include:

This website, John Hawkes, provides a brief overview of these popular works of the author listed above, along with a portrait of the author and a link to online websites where these works can be bought or rented. I chose to write about John Hawkes because his interview with Patrick O’Donnell depicted him as different from some of the other authors. It first stuck out to me that he was a writer of fiction, the most appealing and interesting genre that I enjoy to read. He also mentioned an exercise in his freshman year of English at Harvard that he continued to use for years; this exercise was the “character sketch” that our class was able to experience in the beginning of the semester. This connection to John Hawkes was the deciding factor of the subject of my Dalkey essay.

If I had the opportunity to interview John Hawkes, I would first ask him what made him become a writer if he was not a model student to begin with. In his interview, Hawkes states that “life is a constantly terrifying mystery as well as a beautiful, unpredictable, marvelous thing.” Therefore, I believe his response would have been that fiction allowed him to create life in his own point of view with his powerful imagination in ways that have never been seen before. Also in his interview Hawkes states that upon reading a book his wife suggested, he “didn’t like it, and suddenly thought [he] could write something better.” With this, I would have been curious as to why he thought so and asked him. I predict his response would have been similar to this: His strong creativity and constant fear of life, mentioned in the interview, led him to become quizzical and skeptic and therefore a strong factor in his composition. Combined with his fear of dying and the inability to accept the idea of being humans and alive, Hawkes completed his works with these vexatious thoughts in mind; this allowed his works to be compelling and intense, breaking away from the traditional limitations of fiction and portraying his answers to the questions that frequently crossed his mind.



Haley Evans

Angela Carter

I chose to write about Angela Carter. I recognized the name of this author but didn’t clearly know who it was. After reading the first couple of sentences of her conversation with Anna Katsavos I quickly learned she was a down-to-earth, friendly, humorous, writer and mother. This sparked my interest with her, and made me overall chose her.

Angela Carter was born on May 7, 1940 in Sussex, England. She attended the University of Bristol where she obtained a degree in English with a specially in medieval literature. Angela published her first novel at the age of 26, Shadow Dance. She would publish three more novels before she began to work as a reporter in Japan for three years. Angela started to publish short stories in 1974 when she published, Fireworks. She started writing for New Society, about a year after this. Angela wrote critical work and taught at Brown University starting in the late 1970s. Angela’s last novel was, Wise Children, published in 1991. Unfortunately, this was the same year she was diagnosed with cancer. She passed away in 1992, at 52 years old.

Angela Carter published many pieces of writing throughout her life. These pieces include,

  • Shadow Dance (1966)
  • The Magic Toyshop (1967)
  • Several Perceptions (1968)
  • Heroes and Villains (1969)
  • Love (1971)
  • The Infernal Desire Machines of Doctor Hoffman (1972)
  • The Sadeian Woman (1978)
  • The Bloody Chamber (1979)
  • Nothing Sacred (1982)
  • Nights at the Circus (1984)
  • Black Venus (1985)
  • Come unto These Yellow Sands: Four Radio Plays. (1985)
  • The Virago Book of Fairy Tales (1990)
  • Wise Children (1991)

For more information on Angela Carter: