Energy drinks: Side effects and Impact on other substances

By R. Ryan S Patel DO, FAPA, OSU-CCS Psychiatrist

Many young adults consume energy drinks for many perceived benefits.

A previous post discussed energy drinks worsening attention (1). This could negatively impact academic performance.

Energy drink users are at risk of:

  • Increased energy drink related emergency department visits (2)
  • 4 times more likely than non-energy drink users to binge drink at higher intensity vs those who do not mix energy drinks and alcohol (2)
  • More likely than drinkers who do not mix alcohol with energy drinks to report unwanted or unprotected sex, driving drunk or riding with a driver who was intoxicated, or sustaining alcohol-related injuries (2)

What’s in energy drinks?

Most energy drinks contain caffeine, and other supplements such as sugar, other stimulants such as taurine, vitamins, etc (3).

What are some side effects of energy drinks?

While energy drinks may benefit exercise and sport performance, various side effects are also possible, such as (3):

  • Cardiovascular side effects: Increased heart rate, blood pressure, arrythmia, and heart disease, including heart attacks (3).
  • Mental health side effects: anxiety, insomnia, hallucinations, violent behaviors; often with doses of 300mg or more (3)
  • Many people have side effects on much lower doses, especially when stressed.
  • Other side effects are also possible (3).

A recent study (4) of 3,071 youth aged 9 to 17 surveyed their energy drink use, alcohol, tobacco use at baseline and 12 months later.

What were the results?

After 1 year, among energy drink users, when compared to non-energy drink users (4):

  • 29% started using tobacco vs 5.6% of non-energy drink users (4).
  • 30% started using alcohol vs 10% of non-energy drink users. (4).
  • Energy drink users also reported more school stress than non-energy drink users (4).

What are some caveats?

  • This is an association study and does not tell us about cause and effect.
  • Many energy drinks contain both caffeine and sugar; and some contain other additives that may have other side effects.
  • Some people are more sensitive to the effects and side effects of caffeine, and energy drinks than others, even in lower amounts.
  • further studies are needed.

Disclaimer: This article is intended to be informative only. It is advised that you check with your own physician/mental health provider before implementing any changes. With this article, the author is not rendering medical advice, nor diagnosing, prescribing, or treating any condition, or injury; and therefore claims no responsibility to any person or entity for any liability, loss, or injury caused directly or indirectly as a result of the use, application, or interpretation of the material presented.
References:

  1. https://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2015/03/10/do-energy-drinks-help-or-hurt-your-attention/
  2. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/energy-drinks
  3. Alsunni A. A. (2015). Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects. International journal of health sciences9(4), 468–474.
  4. Galimov, A., Hanewinkel, R., Hansen, J., Unger, J. B., Sussman, S., & Morgenstern, M. (2020). Association of energy drink consumption with substance-use initiation among adolescents: A 12-month longitudinal study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 34(2), 221–228. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881119895545

Strategies for a successful spring semester

By R. Ryan S Patel DO, FAPA OSU-CCS Psychiatrist

A new semester brings a new set of opportunities and challenges.  The spring semester also aligns with the winter weather, has fewer breaks, and stresses of graduations/internships, plans for the summer etc.

With this in mind, it is important for students to be proactive and prioritize strategies that can help them succeed.

Some health related activities should students INCREASE to improve chances of success include the following:

  1. Get enough sleep. Poor sleep impacts academics and mental health.  For resources to improve sleep, go here: http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2017/12/31/poor-sleep-and-poor-grades-might-go-together/
  1. Eat fruits and vegetables. This improves mental/emotional well-being:

http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2015/03/25/fruits-and-vegetables-might-increase-your-odds-of-mental-well-being/

Food strategies to improve/prevent depression, go here:

https://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2018/06/28/food-choices-to-improve-depression/

  1. Get active. Regular exercise can help with mental and physical health.  Go to the RPAC, consider a rec league. Some students find it helpful to take an exercise or sports class  for course credit.
  2. Improve stress management: http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2017/09/01/dealing-with-too-much-stress/
  3. Have a plan. What if you are over scheduled? Are there classes or obligations you could adjust?  Try to plan breaks ahead of time both daily and if possible, weekend  mini-breaks/vacations ahead of time.  This will give you something positive to look forward to.
  4. Get social.  Spending time with others regularly can help with stress and mental health.  Consider  student organizations, regularly scheduled phone/video calls with your supports such as friends, family etc.
  5. Spend time on hobbies. Leisure activities help with stress and mental health.

Consider decreasing or eliminating the following activities:

  1. Too much caffeine worsens stress level and brain function:

http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2017/04/19/study-caffeine-stress-and-brain-function/

  1. Excessive digital media usage can worsen inattention symptoms:

http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2018/08/30/digital-media-and-inattention-symptoms/

  1. Reduce/avoid alcohol intake because it can impact your academic performance:

http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2018/02/26/alcohol-and-grades/

http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2017/06/21/study-alcohol-might-cause-brain-changes/

  1. Cannabis can negatively impact your brain:

http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2014/11/17/marijuana-4-hidden-costs-to-consider/

  1. Nicotine use can increase depression and anxiety:

http://u.osu.edu/emotionalfitness/2015/04/15/does-smoking-increase-anxiety-and-depression-if-i-quit-will-i-feel-better/

Additional resources if your functioning is limited by your mental health, or if you need additional help:

Check out our multiple options for mental health support page for additional resources.

Disclaimer: This article is intended to be informative only. It is advised that you check with your own physician/mental health provider before implementing any changes. With this article, the author is not rendering medical advice, nor diagnosing, prescribing, or treating any condition, or injury; and therefore claims no responsibility to any person or entity for any liability, loss, or injury caused directly or indirectly as a result of the use, application, or interpretation of the material presented.

Study skills to improve memory

By R. Ryan S Patel DO, FAPA OSU-CCS Psychiatrist

To do well in exams, students need to study material and retrieve this material at the time of exams.

This post discusses a strategy to quickly improve memory followed by other strategies to improve memory.

A small study of 36 healthy young adults conducted by Soya and colleagues, found immediate improvements in memory after just 10 minutes of low-intensity pedaling on a stationary bike (1,3).

How intense and what other type of exercise could be helpful?

A quick, light workout—which they liken in intensity to yoga or tai chi or 30% of each person’s maximum rate of oxygen consumption during exercise—was associated with heightened activity in the brain’s hippocampus, which helps us remember facts and events (1,3).

Earlier studies by Soya et.al. in rodents that found increased activity in the hippocampus and improved performance on tests of spatial memory after a light-intensity run on a controlled treadmill and more intense exercise didn’t offer the same memory boost (2,3).

How was memory assessed?

Memory was assessed using a memory test while researchers captured their brain activity by high resolution fMRI (1,3).

What were the results?

Participants made fewer errors on the image recognition test after they completed 10 minutes of very light exercise than when they only rested on the bike (1,3).

What did the brain scans show?

Brain scans of people during memory testing showed that improved memory performance was accompanied by increased activity and connectivity in the brain.

What are some caveats?

This is a small study and further research is needed.

The observed benefits of just 10 minutes of very light exercise were seen in healthy young adults (1,3).

It is not clear if longer exercise duration is more beneficial.

What else can you do to improve memory?

  • Get atleast 8 hours of sleep per night because sleep deprivation can impact many aspects of brain functioning.
  • Minimize distractions such as music or loud noises when studying, and study in an environment with minimal clutter even when you are not studying.
  • Eat healthy foods to fuel your brain.

Strategies to improve short term memory:

  1. Study frequently, in smaller chunks, and review material every few days to weeks.
  2. Entry and exit: review the hardest material first, and last.
  3. Create a meaning out of what you are learning, such as turning it into a story or a picture, linking the study material into something familiar, etc.
  4. Rearrange and combine material to make it easier to learn.
  5. Use mnemonics or memory tricks. Example, ROY G BIV stands for the colors of the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.
  6. Turn studying into a game such as flash cards, give yourself a test that you make, word matching, quiz, and exams.
  7. To watch a video on this, go to the Dennis Learning Center: https://dennislearningcenter.osu.edu/short-term-memory/

Strategies to improve long term memory:

  1. Structure information into a map or pattern (schematizing).
  2. Study frequently, in chunks, and review material every few days to weeks.
  3. Turn studying into a game such as flash cards, give yourself a test that you make, word matching, quiz, and exams.
  4. Picking out relevant information (main ideas such as chapter/paragraph headings, 1st sentence of paragraph/page, bold/italicized items) that helps you remember the bigger chunks of information (abstracting).
  5. Add something new to the information to make it stick, such as writing the information in your own words, write questions, and own examples (elaboration).
  6. Re-organizing information into diagrams, charts, or other structures that make sense to you (organizing).
  7. To watch a video on this, go to the Dennis Learning Center: https://dennislearningcenter.osu.edu/long-term-memory/

Most importantly, invest in study skills by reading books, exploring online resources on study skills.

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Disclaimer: This article is intended to be informative only. It is advised that you check with your own physician/mental health provider before implementing any changes. With this article, the author is not rendering medical advice, nor diagnosing, prescribing, or treating any condition, or injury; and therefore claims no responsibility to any person or entity for any liability, loss, or injury caused directly or indirectly as a result of the use, application, or interpretation of the material presented.

References

  1. Rapid stimulation of human dentate gyrus function with acute mild exercise. Suwabe K, Byun K, Hyodo K, Reagh ZM, Roberts JM, Matsushita A, Saotome K, Ochi G, Fukuie T, Suzuki K, Sankai Y, Yassa MA, Soya H. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Sep 24. [Epub ahead of print]
  2. Long-term mild exercise training enhances hippocampus-dependent memory in rats. Inoue K, Hanaoka Y, Nishijima T, Okamoto M, Chang H, Saito T, Soya H. Int J Sports Med. 2015 Apr;36(4):280-285.
  3. https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2018/10/02/study-suggests-light-exercise-helps-memory/