March 2015 Awards

Richard Bruno

Richard Bruno

Principal Investigator: RICHARD BRUNO, Department of Human Sciences

Co-Investigator: Jeff Volek, Department of Human Sciences

Project Dates: 03/01/2015 – 06/30/2018
Anticipated Total Award Amount: $117,000
Project Sponsor: Dairy Management Inc.

Regulation of postprandial nitric oxide bioavailability and vascular function by dairy milk

Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPH) independently predicts CVD. Epidemiological studies support that dairy lowers CVD risk, but they fail to provide causation for its health benefits. Experimental evidence also indicates that the blood pressure-lowering activities of dairy do not fully explain its role in reducing CVD risk. Thus, the objective of this application is to define mechanisms by which dairy milk, and its protein and lipid fractions, protect against postprandial vascular dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress responses that limit nitric oxide (NO°) bioavailability to the vascular endothelium. Our central hypothesis is that dairy milk ingestion by prediabetic adults will protect against PPH-induced vascular dysfunction through oxidative stress-dependent mechanisms that increase NO° bioavailability, independent of changes in blood pressure. To test this, we will complete the following objectives: 1) define NO°-mediated vasoprotection of non-fat milk on PPH-induced vascular dysfunction, 2) define the independent vasoprotective mechanisms of milk proteins on postprandial vascular function, and 3) define vasoprotection by dairy fat on PPH-induced vascular dysfunction.

Theodore Chao

Theodore Chao

Principal Investigator: THEODORE CHAO, Department of Teaching & Learning

Project Dates: 03/10/2015 – 12/31/2016
Anticipated Total Award Amount: $57,327
Project Sponsor: Virtual Learning Technologies; Small Business Innovation Research, Institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Education

SBIR – S3: A game-based 3rd grade math curriculum

S3 involves the development and evaluation of a digital classroom teacher “dashboard” and a 3rd-grade mathematics curriculum that utilize Sokikom’s adaptive and team-based mathematics learning games. Phase I is a one-week pilot study of 10 3rd-grade teachers. Phase II is a two-week randomized control study of 40 3rd-grade teachers , analyzing the student outcome measures as well as how teacher use of this “dashboard” facilitates classroom discussion and teacher feedback.

Additional information can be found on the IES website.

Karen Irving

Karen Irving

Principal Investigator: KAREN IRVING, Department of Teaching & Learning

Co-Investigators: Andrew Heckler, College of Arts & Sciences; Rachel Kajfez, College of Engineering; Kathy Malone, Department of Teaching & Learning

Project Dates: 01/20/2015 – 05/31/2016
Anticipated Total Award Amount: $104,887
Project Sponsor: Improving Teacher Quality, Ohio Board of Regents, US Department of Education

EiE Ohio: Building 21st century learners

The EiE-Ohio – Building 21st Century Learners project is a collaboration between the Columbus City Schools (LEA), the OSU Colleges of Education and Human Ecology (Irving & Malone), Arts and Sciences (Heckler), and Engineering (Kajfez) to bring STEM integrated engineering units to high-needs elementary schools. The main activities for the project include training for three elementary teachers from Columbus City Schools and one graduate student to implement the Engineering is Elementary (EiE) units designed with support from the National Science Foundation by the Science Museum of Boston. By introducing one teacher from each participating building to the EiE professional development, the teachers in participating schools will have a peer mentor to guide their implementation of the units with their students.

Expected outcomes for the project include for teachers: improved pedagogy in STEM instruction; improved content knowledge in STEM fields; increased teacher self-efficacy, and increased teacher dialogue within professional learning communities. Expected outcomes for students include: increased content knowledge in STEM content; improved attitudes toward science and engineering career; improved understanding of engineering and scientific practices.

William Kraemer

William Kraemer

Principal Investigator: WILLIAM KRAEMER, Department of Human Sciences

Co-Investigators: Carl Maresh and Jeff Volek, Department of Human Sciences

Project Dates: 03/10/2015 – 05/31/2016
Anticipated Total Award Amount: $265,847
Project Sponsor: Ilhwa Co Ltd

Effects of GinST-15 on performance, stress, and neurophysiology in humans

In order for Korean Ginseng to exert its health-promoting effects, it must undergo enzymatic fermentation by intestinal bacteria. However, nearly fifty percent of individuals lack the necessary array or quantity of such microflora, resulting in inadequate blood absorption of the bioactive metabolite, Compound K (CK). Industrial fermentation processes have enabled the production of safe and edible bioactive metabolites, dramatically improving blood concentrations and eliciting faster blood concentration peak times 6-10. Nevertheless, our understanding of the effects of this potentially therapeutic agent on its many purported targets in humans is in its infancy. To that end, we will investigate the effects of GinST-15 on three increasingly well-recognized areas of potential benefit in humans: metabolism, physical performance, adaptation, and recovery, and related brain functions. To examine the potential benefits of GinST-15 on these systems, we will employ an array of gold standard and state of the art technologies in a balanced within-group design (cross-over), with randomization, double blinding, and placebo/training controls. In this investigation, we will examine the effects of two weeks of supplement ingestion on various aspects of physical performance, recovery, biological activity, neurophysiological activity, and perceptual/cognitive performance.

Natasha Slesnick

Natasha Slesnick

Principal Investigator: NATASHA SLESNICK, Department of Human Sciences

Co-Investigators: Xin Feng, Department of Human Sciences; Darcy Granello, Department of Educational Studies

Project Dates: 03/15/2015 – 01/31/2018
Anticipated Total Award Amount: $261,343
Project Sponsor: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services

Suicide prevention among substance abusing homeless youth

While research on homeless youth is increasing, there is a dearth of information regarding effective interventions for these youth. This is of significant concern because studies indicate that 70-95% report problem alcohol or drug use and 66% to 89% of homeless youth have a mental health disorder (Cauce et al., 2004). Suicide is the leading cause of death with up to 68% of youth reporting a lifetime suicide attempt (Rotheram-Borus & Milburn, 2004; Yoder, Whitbeck, & Hoyt, 2010). Among those who have attempted, an average of 6.2 attempts is reported. In addition, lifetime suicide ideation rates have ranged from 14% to 66.5% (Kingree et al., 2001; Merscham et al., 2010; Yoder, Whitbeck, & Hoyt, 2010). Some predictors of suicide among homeless youth have been identified. These include substance use, childhood physical and sexual abuse, victimization experiences while living on the streets, and psychological functioning, including depression, hopelessness, distress tolerance, impulse control, social support, and problem solving. This study uses general cognitive theory (Beck, 1967), complemented with concepts from two suicide specific theoretical models, to guide our intervention and conceptual change model. Consonant with the pilot R34 announcement, this study’s goal is to pilot test an intervention that has previously demonstrated feasibility and promise with adolescent suicide attempters (Brent et al., 2009; Stanley et al., 2009) and efficacy with a low-income sample of adults, “The Cognitive Therapy Intervention for Suicide Attempters” (Brown et al., 2005). One-hundred fifty homeless youth with recent severe suicide ideation will be randomly assigned to the experimental cognitive therapy for suicide prevention (CTSP) + services as usual (SAU) (n=75) or to SAU alone (n=75). SAU includes those services normally offered through a local drop-in center. Follow-up assessments will be conducted at 3, 6, and 9-months post-baseline. It is hypothesized that youth receiving CTSP+SAU will show greater reductions in suicide ideation (primary outcome), substance use and depressive symptoms (secondary outcomes) over time compared to SAU alone. Furthermore, theoretically-derived mediators will be tested to shed light on mechanisms associated with change. The data from this study will be used to determine the initial efficacy of this promising intervention, and determine whether findings warrant a broader scale effectiveness trial. Ultimately, attention towards reducing suicide risk among these youth has the potential to reduce premature mortality, hospitalization and loss of human capital in a very high risk population of youth.

Additional information is available on the NIH website.

Rick Petosa

Rick Petosa

Principal Investigators: LAUREEN SMITH, College of Nursing; RICK PETOSA, Department of Human Sciences; 

Co-Investigators: Abigail Shoben, College of Public Health; Laura Szalacha, College of Nursing

Project Dates: 03/13/2015 – 02/28/2019
Anticipated Total Award Amount: $1,915,596
Project Sponsor: National Institute of Child Health & Human Development, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services

A skill-based RCT for physical activity using peer mentors

Appalachians are the most sedentary population in the U.S.; teens are particularly sedentary. Only 13.6% of teens reported 60 minutes of daily moderate activity, while 38% reported no moderate physical activity and 78.2% reported no vigorous physical activity in the past week. The long-term goal of this study is to positively impact the physical activity patterns to improve health outcomes including the high rates of obesity in Appalachian teens. Our approach will train peer mentors to deliver the culturally appropriate intervention and provide social support that is critical for facilitating and sustainin health behavior change. Our objective is to compare the efficacy of an innovative healthy lifestyle skills mentoring program (Mentored Planning to be Active [MBA]) to a teacher led program (PBA) for increasing physical activity in Appalachian high school teens. MBA emphasizes the social determinants of health by using a social networking approach that trains peer mentors to support targeted teens. We will test the hypothesis that, compared to delivery by teachers in a classroom setting, an innovative delivery format of PBA by local peer mentors will promote the adoption of healthier physical activity and regular exercise among teens by combining peer mentoring with a tailored self-regulation lifestyle program. This study will guide the development of effective interventions (currently lacking) specifically targeting residents of Appalachia, a region with disproportionately high prevalence rates of childhood obesity and significant challenges to achieving healthy lifestyles. We propose a group-randomized controlled trial (G-RCT) to evaluate mentored delivery in Appalachian Ohio. We will recruit high schools in 2 waves, with 10 in Wave 1 and 10 in Wave 2, for a total of 20 schools. For each wave of 10 schools, we will randomly assign 5 schools to each condition–intervention (MBA]) and comparison (PBA)–for a total of 10 schools in each of the two conditions by study’s end. We will collect data at baseline (T1), 3 months post intervention (T2), and 6 months post intervention (T3). Positive intra-class correlation is expected among observations from students in the same school. Ignoring positive ICC can inflate Type 1 error rate. We will avoid these problems by analytic methods appropriate to the structure of the design and data. Specifically, we will use Linear Mixed Models and Generalized Linear Mixed Models to account for various levels of correlation among subjects. Such an approach is also known as a “mixed-model ANCOVA.” Power for this study was based on power for the primary analysis comparing BMI outcomes at T2 between the two groups. We will implement these models using SAS PROC MIXED and GLIMMIX, Version 9.3.

Abstract obtained from the NIH RePORT. Additional information can be found on their website.